Special Issue "Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation: An Emerging Class of Greener Processing Technologies"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesco Meneguzzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, 10 Via Madonna del Piano, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
Interests: Bioactive compounds; Energy efficiency; Food; Green extraction; Hydrodynamic cavitation; Nanoemulsions; Process yield

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Processes including controlled hydrodynamic cavitation steps are spreading and receiving growing interest, both in the laboratory and, more slowly, in the industry. Hydrodynamic cavitation-based single-unit operation systems, and components, are proposed, designed and experimented on a weekly basis, aimed at intensifying several different processes. Technical fields benefitted by an increase in process yields include wastewater treatment, water disinfection, crude oil refining, metal ore recovery, synthesis of nanomaterials, biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas production, food processing including physical and microbiological stability, as well as extraction of nutrients and bioactive compounds, and many others.

Controlled hydrodynamic cavitation has a tremendous potential, based on its power to focus the bulk energy of the processed single or multi-phase liquid, or liquid-solid and liquid-gas mixture, into myriads of hot spots, in turn sites of unique physical and chemical phenomena on the micro and nanoscale. All of this, while preserving a relative simplicity in construction and operation.

However, the well-deserved spread at the industrial level is lagging behind, mainly due to a persistent lack of standardization, affecting the process-specific choice of the suitable devices, the structural and working parameters, the dependence of process yields on concentration and doses, just to name a few.

This Special Issue is aimed at providing an up-to-date picture of recent advances and breakthroughs in controlled hydrodynamic cavitation technologies and processes, both fundamental, including modeling and experiments, and applicative in any relevant technical field, with special focus on comparative process yields, compliance with green chemistry and green extraction principles, process-specific standardization, and scalability up to the industrial level. 

Dr. Francesco Meneguzzo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrodynamic Cavitation
  • Modeling
  • Simulation
  • Experiments
  • Scalability
  • Standardization
  • Process Systems Engineering
  • Process yields
  • Biomass
  • Bioenergy
  • Food
  • Materials
  • Water

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Sludge Treatment Using a Rotor-Stator Type Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor and an Ultrasonic Bath
Processes 2019, 7(11), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110790 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the present work, the sludge treatment performance of a sludge treatment using a rotor-stator type hydrodynamic cavitation reactor (HCR) was investigated. To verify the performance, a comparison with an ultrasonic bath was conducted in four experimental cases using three assessment factors. The [...] Read more.
In the present work, the sludge treatment performance of a sludge treatment using a rotor-stator type hydrodynamic cavitation reactor (HCR) was investigated. To verify the performance, a comparison with an ultrasonic bath was conducted in four experimental cases using three assessment factors. The HCR consisted of a rotor and three covers with inserted dimples resulting in variation of the cross-sectional area in a flow. The experimental cases were established using the same energy consumption for each device. Disintegration performance was analyzed with assessment factors using particle size distribution and sludge volume index (SVI), oxidation performance using total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction rate, as well as solubilization rate using soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). As a result, the particle disintegration and oxidation performance of the HCR were generally superior to those of the ultrasonic bath. However, due to the contradictory interactions of these factors, the solubilization rate of the two devices was measured similarly as 42.3% and 41.4% for each device. Results of the current study proved that the HCR can be an effective, promising and clean sludge treatment technique for use in wastewater treatment plants. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Real-Scale Integral Valorization of Waste Orange Peel via Hydrodynamic Cavitation
Processes 2019, 7(9), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090581 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Waste orange peel represents a heavy burden for the orange juice industry, estimated in several million tons per year worldwide; nevertheless, this by-product is endowed with valuable bioactive compounds, such as pectin, polyphenols, and terpenes. The potential value of the waste orange peel [...] Read more.
Waste orange peel represents a heavy burden for the orange juice industry, estimated in several million tons per year worldwide; nevertheless, this by-product is endowed with valuable bioactive compounds, such as pectin, polyphenols, and terpenes. The potential value of the waste orange peel has stimulated the search for extraction processes, alternative or complementary to landfilling or to the integral energy conversion. This study introduces controlled hydrodynamic cavitation as a new route to the integral valorization of this by-product, based on simple equipment, speed, effectiveness and efficiency, scalability, and compliance with green extraction principles. Waste orange peel, in batches of several kg, was processed in more than 100 L of water, without any other raw materials, in a device comprising a Venturi-shaped cavitation reactor. The extractions of pectin (with a remarkably low degree of esterification), polyphenols (flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), and terpenes (mainly d-limonene) were effective and efficient (high yields within a few min of process time). The biomethane generation potential of the process residues was determined. The achieved results proved the viability of the proposed route to the integral valorization of waste orange peel, though wide margins exist for further improvements. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation: A Review of Recent Advances and Perspectives for Greener Processing
Processes 2020, 8(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020220 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
The 20th century has witnessed a remarkable enhancement in the demand for varieties of consumer products, ranging from food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, to other industries. To enhance the quality of the product and to reduce the production cost, industries are gradually inclined towards greener [...] Read more.
The 20th century has witnessed a remarkable enhancement in the demand for varieties of consumer products, ranging from food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, to other industries. To enhance the quality of the product and to reduce the production cost, industries are gradually inclined towards greener processing technologies. Cavitation-based technologies are gaining interest among processing technologies due to their cost effectiveness in operation, minimization of toxic solvent usage, and ability to obtain superior processed products compared to conventional methods. Also, following the recent advancements, cavitation technology with large-scale processing applicability is only denoted to the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC)-based method. This review includes a general overview of hydrodynamic cavitation-based processing technologies and a detailed discussion regarding the process effectiveness. HC has demonstrated its usefulness in food processing, extraction of valuable products, biofuel synthesis, emulsification, and waste remediation, including broad-spectrum contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, bacteria, dyes, and organic pollutants of concern. Following the requirement of a specific process, HC has been implemented either alone or in combination with other process-intensifying steps, for example, catalyst, surfactant, ultraviolet (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ozone (O3), for better performance. The reactor set-up of HC includes orifice, slit venturi, rotor-stator, and sonolator type constrictions that initiate and control the formation of bubbles. Moreover, the future directions have also been pointed out with careful consideration of specific drawbacks. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Plant and Biomass Extraction and Valorisation under Hydrodynamic Cavitation
Processes 2019, 7(12), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120965 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a green technology that has been successfully used to intensify a number of process. The cavitation phenomenon is responsible for many effects, including improvements in mass transfer rates and effective cell-wall rupture, leading to matrix disintegration. HC is a [...] Read more.
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a green technology that has been successfully used to intensify a number of process. The cavitation phenomenon is responsible for many effects, including improvements in mass transfer rates and effective cell-wall rupture, leading to matrix disintegration. HC is a promising strategy for extraction processes and provides the fast and efficient recovery of valuable compounds from plants and biomass with high quality. It is a simple method with high energy efficiency that shows great potential for large-scale operations. This review presents a general discussion of the mechanisms of HC, its advantages, different reactor configurations, its applications in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, lipids from algal biomass and delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, and a case study in which the HC extraction of basil leftovers is compared with that of other extraction methods. Full article
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