Special Issue "Polymer Biointerfaces"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Marián Lehocký
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1 Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic
2 Centre of Polymer Systems, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic
Interests: polymer surfaces; surface modification; polymer–cell interaction; polymer surface characterization; polymer biomaterials
Assoc. Prof. Petr Humpolíček
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1 Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic
2 Centre of Polymer Systems, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic
Interests: polymer biomaterials; cell biology and genetics; polymer biocompatibility; biomimetic materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer biointerfaces are considered a suitable alternative to the improvement and development of numerous applications. The optimization of polymer surface properties can control several biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, viability, and enhanced extracellular matrix secretion functions at biointerfaces.

This Special Issue on Polymer Biointerfaces is focused on fundamental and applied research on polymers and systems with biological origin. Submissions should contain both polymer material background and descriptions of interacting biological phenomena or relevance to prospective applications in biomedical, biochemical, biophysical, biotechnological, food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic fields.

Special attention will be given to polymer bio-surface modification, bio-coatings, cell–polymer surface interactions, self-assembling monolayers on polymers, in-vivo and in-vitro systems, protein–polymer surface interaction, polysaccharide–polymer interactions, biotribology, bio chip, biosensors, nano-bio interfaces, coatings, biofilms, adhesion phenomena, and molecular recognition, among others.

Assoc. Prof. Marián Lehocký
Assoc. Prof. Petr Humpolíček
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polymer surface
  • biointerface
  • polymer–cell interaction
  • polymer modification
  • polymer biomaterials
  • biofilms
  • biotribology
  • bio chip
  • nano-bio interfaces
  • polymer surface interaction

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evolution of the Surface Wettability of PET Polymer upon Treatment with an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010087 - 03 Jan 2020
Abstract
A useful technique for pre-treatment of polymers for improved biocompatibility is surface activation. A method for achieving optimal wettability at a minimal thermal load and unwanted modifications of the polymer properties is elaborated in this paper. Samples of polyethylene terephthalate polymer were exposed [...] Read more.
A useful technique for pre-treatment of polymers for improved biocompatibility is surface activation. A method for achieving optimal wettability at a minimal thermal load and unwanted modifications of the polymer properties is elaborated in this paper. Samples of polyethylene terephthalate polymer were exposed to an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet created by a high-impedance low-frequency discharge in wet argon. Different treatment times and distances from the end of the glowing discharge enabled detailed investigation of the evolution of surface activation. A rather fast saturation of the surface wettability over the area of the order of cm2 was observed upon direct treatment with the glowing discharge. At a distance of few mm from the glowing discharge, the activation was already two orders of magnitude lower. Further increase of the distance resulted in negligible surface effects. In the cases of a rapid activation, very sharp interphase between the activated and unaffected surface was observed and explained by peculiarities of high-impedance discharges sustained in argon with the presence of impurities of water vapor. Results obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the activation was a consequence of functionalization with oxygen functional groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual Crosslinked Collagen/Chitosan Film for Potential Biomedical Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122094 - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
The application of polymeric biomaterial scaffolds utilizing crosslinking strategy has become an effective approach in these days. In the present study, the development and characterization of collagen–chitosan hydrogel film has been reported on using dual crosslinking agent’s, i.e., tannic acid and genipin simultaneously. [...] Read more.
The application of polymeric biomaterial scaffolds utilizing crosslinking strategy has become an effective approach in these days. In the present study, the development and characterization of collagen–chitosan hydrogel film has been reported on using dual crosslinking agent’s, i.e., tannic acid and genipin simultaneously. Incorporation of genipin imparts a greenish-blue color to the polymeric film. The effect of dual crosslinking and their successful interaction within the matrix was evaluated by infrared analysis spectroscopy. The porosity of the film was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of TGA determine the intermediate thermal degradation. Further, the crosslinking phenomenon has found primary impact on the strength of the films. Enzymatic degradation for the films was performed with lysozyme and lipase. The cell adhesion and proliferation was also accomplished using mouse embryonic cell lines wherein the cells cultured on the dual crosslinked film. The thriving utilization of such dual crosslinked polymeric film finds their applications in ophthalmology especially as an implant for temporary injured cornea and skin tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerized Oxazoline-Based Thin Films—Antibacterial Properties and Cytocompatibility Performance
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122069 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Polyoxazolines are a new promising class of polymers for biomedical applications. Antibiofouling polyoxazoline coatings can suppress bacterial colonization of medical devices, which can cause infections to patients. However, the creation of oxazoline-based films using conventional methods is difficult. This study presents a new [...] Read more.
Polyoxazolines are a new promising class of polymers for biomedical applications. Antibiofouling polyoxazoline coatings can suppress bacterial colonization of medical devices, which can cause infections to patients. However, the creation of oxazoline-based films using conventional methods is difficult. This study presents a new way to produce plasma polymerized oxazoline-based films with antibiofouling properties and good biocompatibility. The films were created via plasma deposition from 2-methyl-2-oxazoline vapors in nitrogen atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. Diverse film properties were achieved by increasing the substrate temperature at the deposition. The physical and chemical properties of plasma polymerized polyoxazoline films were studied by SEM, EDX, FTIR, AFM, depth-sensing indentation technique, and surface energy measurement. After tuning of the deposition parameters, films with a capacity to resist bacterial biofilm formation were achieved. Deposited films also promote cell viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Caseinate-Stabilized Emulsions of Black Cumin and Tamanu Oils: Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121951 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
Caseinate-stabilized emulsions of black cumin (Nigella sativa) and tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) oils were studied in terms of preparation, characterization, and antibacterial properties. The oils were described while using their basic characteristics, including fatty acid composition and scavenging activity. The [...] Read more.
Caseinate-stabilized emulsions of black cumin (Nigella sativa) and tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) oils were studied in terms of preparation, characterization, and antibacterial properties. The oils were described while using their basic characteristics, including fatty acid composition and scavenging activity. The oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing the studied oils were formulated, and the influence of protein stabilizer (sodium caseinate (CAS), 1–12 wt%), oil contents (5–30 wt%), and emulsification methods (high-shear homogenization vs sonication) on the emulsion properties were investigated. It was observed that, under both preparation methods, emulsions of small, initial droplet sizes were predominantly formed with CAS content that was higher than 7.5 wt%. Sonication was a more efficient emulsification procedure and was afforded emulsions with smaller droplet size throughout the entire used concentration ranges of oils and CAS when compared to high-shear homogenization. At native pH of ~ 6.5, all of the emulsions exhibited negative zeta potential that originated from the presence of caseinate. The antibacterial activities of both oils and their emulsions were investigated with respect to the growth suppression of common spoilage bacteria while using the disk diffusion method. The oils and selected emulsions were proven to act against gram positive strains, mainly against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus); regrettably, the gram negative species were fully resistant against their action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessCommunication
In-Vitro Hemocompatibility of Polyaniline Functionalized by Bioactive Molecules
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111861 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Hemocompatibility is an essential prerequisite for the application of materials in the field of biomedicine and biosensing. In addition, mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of conducting polymers is an advantageous property for these applications. Heparin-like materials containing sulfate, sulfamic, and carboxylic groups may [...] Read more.
Hemocompatibility is an essential prerequisite for the application of materials in the field of biomedicine and biosensing. In addition, mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of conducting polymers is an advantageous property for these applications. Heparin-like materials containing sulfate, sulfamic, and carboxylic groups may have an anticoagulation effect. Therefore, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, 2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid and N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid were used for modification of the representative of conducting polymers, polyaniline, and the resulting products were studied in the context of interactions with human blood. The anticoagulation activity was then correlated to surface energy and conductivity of the materials. Results show that anticoagulation activity is highly affected by the presence of suitable functional groups originating from the used heparin-like substances, and by the properties of polyaniline polymer itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Progressive Antibacterial LDPE Surface via Active Biomolecule Deposition Approach
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101704 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
The use of polymers in all aspects of daily life is increasing considerably, so there is high demand for polymers with specific properties. Polymers with antibacterial properties are highly needed in the food and medical industries. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is widely used in [...] Read more.
The use of polymers in all aspects of daily life is increasing considerably, so there is high demand for polymers with specific properties. Polymers with antibacterial properties are highly needed in the food and medical industries. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is widely used in various industries, especially in food packaging, because it has suitable mechanical and safety properties. Nevertheless, the hydrophobicity of its surface makes it vulnerable to microbial attack and culturing. To enhance antimicrobial activity, a progressive surface modification of LDPE using the antimicrobial agent grafting process was applied. LDPE was first exposed to nonthermal radio-frequency (RF) plasma treatment to activate its surface. This led to the creation of reactive species on the LDPE surface, resulting in the ability to graft antibacterial agents, such as ascorbic acid (ASA), commonly known as vitamin C. ASA is a well-known antioxidant that is used as a food preservative, is essential to biological systems, and is found to be reactive against a number of microorganisms and bacteria. The antimicrobial effect of grafted LDPE with ASA was tested against two strong kinds of bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), with positive results. Surface analyses were performed thoroughly using contact angle measurements and peel tests to measure the wettability or surface free energy and adhesion properties after each modification step. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the surface morphology or topography changes of LDPE caused by plasma treatment and ASA grafting. Surface chemistry was studied by measuring the functional groups and elements introduced to the surface after plasma treatment and ASA grafting, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These results showed wettability, adhesion, and roughness changes in the LDPE surface after plasma treatment, as well as after ASA grafting. This is a positive indicator of the ability of ASA to be grafted onto polymeric materials using plasma pretreatment, resulting in enhanced antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Surface Hydrophilization via Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Biological and Technical Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101613 - 04 Oct 2019
Abstract
Polymeric surfaces can benefit from functional modifications prior to using them for biological and/or technical applications. Surfaces considered for biocompatibility studies can be modified to gain beneficiary hydrophilic properties. For such modifications, the preparation of highly hydrophilic surfaces by means of plasma polymerization [...] Read more.
Polymeric surfaces can benefit from functional modifications prior to using them for biological and/or technical applications. Surfaces considered for biocompatibility studies can be modified to gain beneficiary hydrophilic properties. For such modifications, the preparation of highly hydrophilic surfaces by means of plasma polymerization can be a good alternative to classical wet chemistry or plasma activation in simple atomic or molecular gasses. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization makes possible rapid, simple, and time-stable hydrophilic surface preparation, regardless of the type and properties of the material whose surface is to be modified. In this work, the surface of polypropylene was coated with a thin nanolayer of plasma-polymer which was prepared from a low-concentration mixture of propane-butane in nitrogen using atmospheric pressure plasma. A deposition time of only 1 second was necessary to achieve satisfactory hydrophilic properties. Highly hydrophilic, stable surfaces were obtained when the deposition time was 10 seconds. The thin layers of the prepared plasma-polymer exhibit highly stable wetting properties, they are smooth, homogeneous, flexible, and have good adhesion to the surface of polypropylene substrates. Moreover, they are constituted from essential elements only (C, H, N, O). This makes the presented modified plasma-polymer surfaces interesting for further studies in biological and/or technical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrospinning of Hyaluronan Using Polymer Coelectrospinning and Intermediate Solvent
Polymers 2019, 11(9), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091517 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the current study, we present methods of sodium hyaluronate, also denoted as hyaluronan (HA), nanofiber fabrication using a direct-current (DC) electric field. HA was spun in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and as a pure polymer. Nonaggressive solvents [...] Read more.
In the current study, we present methods of sodium hyaluronate, also denoted as hyaluronan (HA), nanofiber fabrication using a direct-current (DC) electric field. HA was spun in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and as a pure polymer. Nonaggressive solvents were used due to the possible use of the fibers in life sciences. The influences of polymer concentration, average molecular weight (Mw), viscosity, and solution surface tension were analyzed. HA and PVA were fluorescent-labeled in order to examine the electrospun structures using fluorescence confocal microscopy. In this study, two intermediate solvent mixtures that facilitate HA electrospinning were found. In the case of polymer co-electrospinning, the effect of the surfactant content on the HA/PVA electrospinning process, and the effect of HA Mw on HA/PEO nanofiber morphology, were examined, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
(PVA/Chitosan/Fucoidan)-Ampicillin: A Bioartificial Polymeric Material with Combined Properties in Cell Regeneration and Potential Antibacterial Features
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081325 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
Chitosan, fucoidan, and polyvinyl alcohol are categorized as polymers with biomedical applications. Ampicillin, on the other hand, is considered as an important antibiotic that has shown effectivity in both gram-positive and gram-negative micro-organisms. The aforementioned polymers possess unique properties that are considered desirable [...] Read more.
Chitosan, fucoidan, and polyvinyl alcohol are categorized as polymers with biomedical applications. Ampicillin, on the other hand, is considered as an important antibiotic that has shown effectivity in both gram-positive and gram-negative micro-organisms. The aforementioned polymers possess unique properties that are considered desirable for cell regeneration although they exhibit drawbacks that can affect their final application. Therefore, films of these biomaterials were prepared and they were characterized using FTIR, SEM, XRD, degree of swelling and solubility, and MTT assay. The statistical significance of the experiments was determined using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with p < 0.05. The characterization techniques demonstrated that the obtained material exhibits properties suitable for cell regeneration, and that a higher concentration of natural polymers promotes cells proliferation to a greater extent. The presence of PVA, on the other hand, is responsible for matrix stability and dictates the degree of swelling and solubility. The SEM images demonstrated that neither aggregations nor clusters were formed, which is favorable for the biological properties without detrimental to the morphological and physical features. Cell viability was comparatively similar in samples with and without antibiotic, and the physical and biological properties were not negatively affected. Indeed, the inherent bactericidal effect of chitosan was reinforced by the presence of ampicillin. The new material is an outstanding candidate for cell regeneration as a consequence of the synergic effect that each component provides to the blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
UV Light Assisted Coating Method of Polyphenol Caffeic Acid and Mediated Immobilization of Metallic Silver Particles for Antibacterial Implant Surface Modification
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071200 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Titanium implants are extensively used in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and superb mechanical stability. In this work, we present the use of polycaffeic acid (PCA) to immobilize metallic silver on the surface of titanium materials to prevent implant [...] Read more.
Titanium implants are extensively used in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and superb mechanical stability. In this work, we present the use of polycaffeic acid (PCA) to immobilize metallic silver on the surface of titanium materials to prevent implant bacterial infection. Caffeic acid is a plant-derived phenolic compound, rich in catechol moieties and it can form functional coatings using alkaline buffers and with UV irradiation. This combination can trigger oxidative polymerization and deposition on the surface of metallic substrates. Using PCA can also give advantages in bone implants in decreasing inflammation by decelerating macrophage and osteoclast activity. Here, chemical and physical properties were investigated using FE-SEM, EDS, XPS, AFM, and contact angle. The in vitro biocompatibility and antibacterial studies show that PCA with metallic silver can inhibit bacterial growth, and proliferation of MC-3T3 cells was observed. Therefore, our results suggest that the introduced approach can be considered as a potential method for functional implant coating application in the orthopedic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Immobilized Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate on Polylactic Acid Films
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071186 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most produced polymeric materials, due to its exceptional chemical and mechanical properties. Some of them, such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, make them attractive for biomedical applications. Conversely, the major drawback of PLA in the biomedical field [...] Read more.
Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most produced polymeric materials, due to its exceptional chemical and mechanical properties. Some of them, such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, make them attractive for biomedical applications. Conversely, the major drawback of PLA in the biomedical field is their vulnerability to bacterial contamination. This study focuses on the immobilization of saccharides onto the PLA surface by a multistep approach, with the aim of providing antibacterial features and evaluting the synergistic effect of these saccharides. In this approach, after poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes attached non-covalently to the PLA surface via plasma post-irradiation grafting technique, immobilization of glucosamine (GlcN) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) to the PAA brushes was carried out. To understand the changes in surface properties, such as chemical composition, surface topography and hydrophilicity, the untreated and treated PLA films were analyzed using various characterization techniques (contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). In vitro cytotoxicity assays were investigated by the methyl tetrazolium test. The antibacterial activity of the PLA samples was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria strains. Plasma-treated films immobilized with ChS and GlcN, separately and in combination, demonstrated bactericidal effect against the both bacteria strains and also the results revealed that the combination has no synergistic effect on antibacterial action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth on Metallo-Supramolecular Coordination Polyelectrolyte (MEPE) Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteosarcoma Cells (MG63) and Human Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071090 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Culturing of cells is typically performed on standard tissue culture plates generating growth conditions, which in general do not reflect the native three-dimensional cellular environment. Recent investigations provide insights in parameters, which strongly affect the general cellular behavior triggering essential processes such [...] Read more.
Background: Culturing of cells is typically performed on standard tissue culture plates generating growth conditions, which in general do not reflect the native three-dimensional cellular environment. Recent investigations provide insights in parameters, which strongly affect the general cellular behavior triggering essential processes such as cell differentiation. The physical properties of the used material, such as stiffness, roughness, or topology, as well as the chemical composition of the cell-surface interface are shown to play a key role in the initiation of particular cellular responses. Methods: We extended our previous research, which identified thin films of metallo-supramolecular coordination polyelectrolytes (MEPEs) as substrate to trigger the differentiation of muscular precursor cells. Results: Here, we show that the same MEPEs similarly stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Remarkably, MEPE modified surfaces also trigger the differentiation of primary bone derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) towards the osteogenic lineage. Conclusion: This result leads to the conclusion that these surfaces individually support the specification of cell differentiation toward lineages that correspond to the natural commitment of the particular cell types. We, therefore, propose that Fe-MEPEs may be used as scaffold for the treatment of defects at least in muscular or bone tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Biotechnological Preparation of Gelatines from Chicken Feet
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061060 - 18 Jun 2019
Abstract
In the European Union (EU), about five tons of poultry by-product tissues are produced every year. Due to their high collagen content, they represent a significant raw material source for gelatine production. The aim of the paper was the biotechnological preparation of gelatine [...] Read more.
In the European Union (EU), about five tons of poultry by-product tissues are produced every year. Due to their high collagen content, they represent a significant raw material source for gelatine production. The aim of the paper was the biotechnological preparation of gelatine from chicken feet. The influence of selected process factors on the gelatine yield, gel strength, viscosity, and ash of gelatine was observed; a two-level factor design of experiments with three variable process factors (enzyme addition, enzyme treatment time, and gelatine extraction time) was applied. After grinding and separating soluble proteins and fat, the purified raw material was treated in water at pH 7.5 with the addition of endoprotease at 23 °C and after thorough washing with water at 80 °C, gelatine was extracted. By the suitable choice of process conditions, gelatine with high gel strength (220–320 bloom), low ash content (<2.0%) and viscosity of 3.5–7.3 mPa·s can be prepared. The extraction efficiency was 18–38%. The presented technology is innovative mainly by the enzymatic processing of the source raw material, which is economically, technologically, and environmentally beneficial for manufacturers. Chicken gelatines are a suitable alternative to gelatines made from mammals or fish, and can be used in many food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional and Temperature Effects on the Rheological Properties of Polyelectrolyte–Surfactant Hydrogels
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050927 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The rheological properties of hydrogels prepared by physical interactions between oppositely charged polyelectrolyte and surfactant in micellar form were studied. Specifically, hyaluronan was employed as a negatively charged polyelectrolyte and Septonex (carbethopendecinium bromide) as a cationic surfactant. Amino-modified dextran was used as a [...] Read more.
The rheological properties of hydrogels prepared by physical interactions between oppositely charged polyelectrolyte and surfactant in micellar form were studied. Specifically, hyaluronan was employed as a negatively charged polyelectrolyte and Septonex (carbethopendecinium bromide) as a cationic surfactant. Amino-modified dextran was used as a positively charged polyelectrolyte interacting with sodium dodecylsulphate as an anionic surfactant. The effects of the preparation method, surfactant concentration, ionic strength (the concentration of NaCl background electrolyte), pH (buffers), multivalent cations, and elevated temperature on the properties were investigated. The formation of gels required an optimum ionic strength (set by the NaCl solution), ranging from 0.15–0.3 M regardless of the type of hydrogel system and surfactant concentration. The other compositional effects and the effect of temperature were dependent on the polyelectrolyte type or its molecular weight. General differences between the behaviour of hyaluronan-based and cationized dextran-based materials were attributed to differences in the chain conformations of the two biopolymers and in the accessibility of their charged groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Anticoagulant Polyethylene Terephthalate Surface by Plasma-Mediated Fucoidan Immobilization
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050750 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Biomaterial-based blood clot formation is one of the biggest drawbacks of blood-contacting devices. To avoid blood clot formation, their surface must be tailored to increase hemocompatibility. Most synthetic polymeric biomaterials are inert and lack bonding sites for chemical agents to bond or tailor [...] Read more.
Biomaterial-based blood clot formation is one of the biggest drawbacks of blood-contacting devices. To avoid blood clot formation, their surface must be tailored to increase hemocompatibility. Most synthetic polymeric biomaterials are inert and lack bonding sites for chemical agents to bond or tailor to the surface. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate was subjected to direct current air plasma treatment to enhance its surface energy and to bring oxidative functional binding sites. Marine-sourced anticoagulant sulphated polysaccharide fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus was then immobilized onto the treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface at different pH values to optimize chemical bonding behavior and therefore anticoagulant performance. Surface properties of samples were monitored using the water contact angle; chemical analyses were performed by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their anticoagulant activity was tested by means of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. On each of the fucoidan-immobilized surfaces, anticoagulation activity was performed by extending the thrombin time threshold and their pH 5 counterpart performed the best result compared to others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
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