Special Issue "Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 11184

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yanhua Hong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineer, Bangor University, Bangor, UK
Interests: nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers and their applications
Physics Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Rambla St. Nebridi 22, 08222 Terrassa, Spain
Interests: complex systems; nonlinear dynamics; photonics; semiconductor lasers; time series analysis
Dr. Min W. Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, University Sorbonne Paris Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse, France
Interests: nonlinear dynamincs; nonlinear optics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first semiconductor laser was demonstrated in the 1960s, semiconductor lasers have seen tremendous development because of their many advantages, such as compact size, high efficiency, long lifespan, and low power consumption. Semiconductor lasers have been used in many different fields, including communications, healthcare, sensors, defense, display, optical storage devices, printing, industrial system manufacturing, and more. A great deal of exciting research and development is continuing to improve performance and meet the growing demand for semiconductor lasers. The development of new materials extends the laser wavelength from UV to mid-infrared range and improves reliability. Miniaturizing light sources and integrating III/V semiconductor devices onto silicon photonics enhances the functional capabilities of integrated photonic technology.

The objectives of this Special Issue are to report the advances in semiconductor lasers. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Growth and fabrication quantum well/wire/dot/dash materials and devices.
  • Mid-infrared to THz emitting sources.
  • Miniaturized light sources.
  • Integration of III/V semiconductor devices.
  • Theory and numerical simulation of semiconductor lasers.
  • Laser dynamics and stability of semiconductor lasers.

Dr. Yanhua Hong
Prof. Dr. Cristina Masoller
Dr. Min W. Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • growth and fabrication of quantum dot materials and devices
  • surface-emitting semiconductor lasers
  • semiconductor lasers
  • quantum cascade lasers
  • intraband cascade lasers
  • broad-area lasers
  • laser arrays
  • organic diode lasers
  • nanolaser
  • mid-infrared lasers
  • quantum well/wire/dot/dash lasers
  • external-cavity laser
  • integration of III/V semiconductor devices
  • semiconductor lasers dynamics
  • theory and numerical simulation of semiconductor lasers
  • optoelectronics
  • microwave photonics
  • photon statistics
  • linewidth enhancement factor
  • frequency combs
  • optical feedback
  • optical injection
  • optical rogue waves
  • saturable absorber
  • injection locking
  • mode locking
  • synchronization
  • excitability
  • intensity noise

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Communication
High–Power 792 nm Fiber–Coupled Semiconductor Laser
Photonics 2023, 10(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10060619 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The pumping of Tm-doped crystal or fiber by a 792 nm semiconductor laser is an important way to generate a mid-infrared laser, which is widely used in various fields. In this paper, a high–power 792 nm fiber–coupled semiconductor laser module was successfully fabricated [...] Read more.
The pumping of Tm-doped crystal or fiber by a 792 nm semiconductor laser is an important way to generate a mid-infrared laser, which is widely used in various fields. In this paper, a high–power 792 nm fiber–coupled semiconductor laser module was successfully fabricated with the output power of 232 W at a 10 A continuous current and the electro-optic conversion efficiency of 48.6%. The laser module is coupled with 24 chips into a fiber by spatial multiplexing and polarization combination technology. For a single emitting laser chip, the continuous wave (CW) output power and threshold current are 10.45 W at 10 A and 1.55 A, respectively. A polarization as high as 94% can also be realized, which is more suitable for laser spatial beam combining. The laser module was aged for more than 4000 h at 12 A and 25 °C without obvious power degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of Polarization Switching in Gain-Switched VCSELs for Quantum Random Number Generation
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040474 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
We report an experimental study of the effect of the temperature of the VCSEL on the probability of excitation of a linearly polarized mode when gain-switching the device. We consider different modulation frequencies and amplitudes. We show that the probability of excitation of [...] Read more.
We report an experimental study of the effect of the temperature of the VCSEL on the probability of excitation of a linearly polarized mode when gain-switching the device. We consider different modulation frequencies and amplitudes. We show that the probability of excitation of a linearly polarized mode significantly changes with the value of the temperature of the device. We also show that for low values of the temperature the probability of excitation saturates to a constant value as the amplitude of the modulation increases. This extends our previous results obtained at larger temperatures for which that saturation was not observed. We identify situations in which the distributions of the linearly polarized signals at a sampling time are approximately uniform. For these cases we evaluate the quality of the random numbers by using statistical test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
Interband Electron Transitions Energy in Multiple HgCdTe Quantum Wells at Room Temperature
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040430 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The studies of the interband electron transition energy in multiple Hg1-xCdxTe/Hg1-yCdyTe quantum wells (MQWs) at room temperature were carried out. The MQWs were grown on the (013) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, with the [...] Read more.
The studies of the interband electron transition energy in multiple Hg1-xCdxTe/Hg1-yCdyTe quantum wells (MQWs) at room temperature were carried out. The MQWs were grown on the (013) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, with the layer composition and thickness being measured by the in-situ ellipsometric parameters measurement at the nanometer level. The Hg1-xCdxTe barrier composition and width were x = 0.69 and 30 nm, respectively. The Hg1-yCdyTe well composition was y = 0.06–0.10, and the width varied in the range of 2.7–13 nm. The experimental data of the interband electron transition energy were determined by the absorption spectral analysis. The calculation of the interband electron transition energy was carried out on the basis of the four-band Kane model. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated data was obtained. It was shown that MQWs may be used as a photosensitive material for creating infrared optoelectronic devices operating in different modes in the range of 3–10 μm at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
Broad Tunable and High-Purity Photonic Microwave Generation Based on an Optically Pumped QD Spin-VCSEL with Optical Feedback
Photonics 2023, 10(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10030326 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) with birefringence-induced polarization oscillations have been proposed to generate desired photonic microwave signals. Here, we numerically investigate the generation of photonic microwave signals in an optically pumped quantum dot (QD) spin-VCSEL. First, the influence of intrinsic key parameters [...] Read more.
Spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) with birefringence-induced polarization oscillations have been proposed to generate desired photonic microwave signals. Here, we numerically investigate the generation of photonic microwave signals in an optically pumped quantum dot (QD) spin-VCSEL. First, the influence of intrinsic key parameters on period-one (P1) oscillations and microwave properties is discussed. Second, the difference between microwave generation based on the quantum well (QW) and QD spin-VCSELs is analyzed by controlling the carrier capture rate that is described in the spin-flip model. The QD spin-VCSEL shows superior microwave quality in the low-frequency range (e.g., 10 GHz~20 GHz) compared with the QW spin-VCSEL. Finally, to boost the performance of the generated photonic microwave signal, optical feedback is introduced. The results show that dual-loop feedback can simultaneously narrow the microwave linewidth and suppress the side modes that are derived from the external cavity mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Mode-Modulation Structure Based on 650 nm Ridge Waveguide Edge-Emitting Laser
Photonics 2023, 10(3), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10030302 - 12 Mar 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Traditional laser diodes operating at 650 nm are more prone to high-order mode excitation, resulting in poorer beam quality. In this paper, we designed GaInP–AlGaInP laser diodes (LD) with a 650 nm range and a trench mode-modulation structure based on the structure of [...] Read more.
Traditional laser diodes operating at 650 nm are more prone to high-order mode excitation, resulting in poorer beam quality. In this paper, we designed GaInP–AlGaInP laser diodes (LD) with a 650 nm range and a trench mode-modulation structure based on the structure of edge-emitting laser (EEL) diodes. The effect of the three-trench structure was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The right trench structure laser chips demonstrated good beam quality while maintaining a high power output. An electro-optical conversion efficiency of 56% was demonstrated with a slope efficiency of 1.32 W/A at a 40 mA current. The maximum optical output power reached 40.8 mW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Sub-40 GHz Broadband Polarization Chaos Generation Using Mutually Coupled Free-Running VCSELs
Photonics 2023, 10(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10020219 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
We propose a simple method to generate broadband polarization chaos using two mutually coupled free-running vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Specifically, we quantitatively investigate the effect of critical external parameters (bias current, frequency detuning and coupling coefficient) on the polarization chaos bandwidth in the [...] Read more.
We propose a simple method to generate broadband polarization chaos using two mutually coupled free-running vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Specifically, we quantitatively investigate the effect of critical external parameters (bias current, frequency detuning and coupling coefficient) on the polarization chaos bandwidth in the scenarios of parallel injection and orthogonal injection, and reveal the physical mechanism of bandwidth enhancement in two scenarios. Final simulation results show that the bandwidth of chaotic signals obtained from parallel and orthogonal injection can reach 35.15 GHz and 32.96 GHz, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Key Space Enhancement in Chaotic Secure Communication Utilizing Monolithically Integrated Multi-Section Semiconductor Lasers
Photonics 2023, 10(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10020213 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Chaotic secure communication schemes encounter a conflict of key space enhancement between the consistency and complexity of chaotic transceivers. In this paper, we propose a monolithically integrated multi-section semiconductor laser (MIMSL), used as a compact chaotic transceiver with an enhanced key space. The [...] Read more.
Chaotic secure communication schemes encounter a conflict of key space enhancement between the consistency and complexity of chaotic transceivers. In this paper, we propose a monolithically integrated multi-section semiconductor laser (MIMSL), used as a compact chaotic transceiver with an enhanced key space. The MIMSL consists of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser section, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) section, two phase (P) sections and a passive optical waveguide. We simulate the dynamics of the MIMSL by applying the time-dependent coupled-wave equations for traveling-wave optical fields. Further, we numerically demonstrate a security enhancement of the unidirectional chaotic communication scheme using the MIMSL transceivers with independent high-speed modulation in the phase sections of the MIMSL. The security of our scheme depends not only on the difficulty of identifying the MIMSL structural parameters and the bias current of each section, but also on the phase shifts in two phase sections providing the additional dimension of security key space. Final simulation results show that a total of 248 key spaces can be achieved with a data rate of 2.5 Gb/s and an injection strength of 0.36. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Liquid-Crystal Spin-VCSEL with Electro-Optically Controllable Birefringence
Photonics 2023, 10(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10020179 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 642
Abstract
We suggest a new construction of spin-VCSEL with an embedded nematic liquid crystal (LC) in a second cavity. We design such a coupled-cavity LC-VCSEL and develop a procedure for calculating its LC-voltage dependent polarization resolved resonant longitudinal modes and their quantum-well confinement factors. [...] Read more.
We suggest a new construction of spin-VCSEL with an embedded nematic liquid crystal (LC) in a second cavity. We design such a coupled-cavity LC-VCSEL and develop a procedure for calculating its LC-voltage dependent polarization resolved resonant longitudinal modes and their quantum-well confinement factors. Using these characteristics, we are able to slightly modify the spin-flip VCSEL model to include the voltage dependent birefringence and anisotropy. Then, we show that such an LC-VCSEL can reach small signal modulation response with a 3dB cut off frequency of several hundreds of GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Experimental Investigation on the Mode Characteristics of an Excited-State Quantum Dot Laser under Concave Mirror Optical Feedback
Photonics 2023, 10(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10020166 - 04 Feb 2023
Viewed by 526
Abstract
In this paper, we experimentally investigated the mode configuration of an excited-state quantum dot laser (ESQDL) under concave mirror optical feedback, and the influences of the feedback strength on the mode characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that after introducing concave mirror optical [...] Read more.
In this paper, we experimentally investigated the mode configuration of an excited-state quantum dot laser (ESQDL) under concave mirror optical feedback, and the influences of the feedback strength on the mode characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that after introducing concave mirror optical feedback, some longitudinal modes of the excited-state (ES) existing in a free-running ESQDL could be suppressed. When the feedback strength increased to a certain extent, the ground-state (GS) emission occurred and co-existed with the ES emission. By further increasing the feedback strength, all the longitudinal modes of the ES emission were suppressed, and only the longitudinal modes of the GS emission could be observed. As a result, the emission-state switching from the ES to GS emission was realized. When the ESQDL was biased at a larger current, the feedback strength required to achieve emission-state switching was stronger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
TARDYS Quantifiers: Extracting Temporal and Reversible DYnamical Symmetries
Photonics 2022, 9(12), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9120938 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 999
Abstract
One of the great challenges in complex and chaotic dynamics is to reveal the details of its underlying determinism. This can be manifest in the form of temporal correlations or structured patterns in the dynamics of a measurable variable. These temporal dynamical structures [...] Read more.
One of the great challenges in complex and chaotic dynamics is to reveal the details of its underlying determinism. This can be manifest in the form of temporal correlations or structured patterns in the dynamics of a measurable variable. These temporal dynamical structures are sometimes a consequence of hidden global symmetries. Here, we identify the temporal (approximate) symmetries of a semiconductor laser with external optical feedback, based on which we define the Temporal And Reversible DYnamical Symmetry (TARDYS) quantifiers to evaluate the relevance of specific temporal correlations in a time series. We show that these symmetries are also present in other complex dynamical systems, letting us extrapolate one system’s symmetries to characterize and distinguish chaotic regimes in other dynamical systems. These symmetries, natural of the dynamics of the laser with feedback, can also be used as indicators in forecasting regular-to-chaos transitions in mathematical iterative maps. We envision that this can be a useful tool in experimental data, as it can extract key features of the deterministic laws that govern the dynamics of a system despite the lack of knowledge of those specific quantitative descriptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
Dynamics of the Frequency Shifts in Semiconductor Lasers under the Injection of a Frequency Comb
Photonics 2022, 9(12), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9120886 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 742
Abstract
We have numerically investigated the dynamics of frequency shifts in semiconductor lasers under the injection of a frequency comb. We have studied the effect of comb spacing on the locking bandwidth. Frequency comb spacing was found to play an important role in the [...] Read more.
We have numerically investigated the dynamics of frequency shifts in semiconductor lasers under the injection of a frequency comb. We have studied the effect of comb spacing on the locking bandwidth. Frequency comb spacing was found to play an important role in the boundaries of the locking bandwidth as well as in the frequency shift of the SL peak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
First-Passage-Time Analysis of the Pulse-Timing Statistics in a Two-Section Semiconductor Laser under Excitable and Noisy Conditions
Photonics 2022, 9(11), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9110860 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 824
Abstract
A two-section semiconductor laser can exhibit excitability for certain parameter settings. When used as a photonic spiking neuron, it is relevant to investigate its sensitivity to noise due to, e.g., spontaneous emission. Under excitable conditions, the system emits irregularly timed noise-triggered pulses. Their [...] Read more.
A two-section semiconductor laser can exhibit excitability for certain parameter settings. When used as a photonic spiking neuron, it is relevant to investigate its sensitivity to noise due to, e.g., spontaneous emission. Under excitable conditions, the system emits irregularly timed noise-triggered pulses. Their statistics is analyzed in terms of a first-passage time distribution for the fluctuating intensity to reach the threshold for excitable response. Two analytic approximations valid for short and long times, respectively, are derived which very well explain measured and simulated pulse-repetition time distributions. This provides physical insight into the noise-triggered spiking mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Article
High-Sensitivity Fiber Fault Detection Method Using Feedback-Delay Signature of a Modulated Semiconductor Laser
Photonics 2022, 9(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9070454 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 809
Abstract
We propose a high-sensitivity fiber fault detection method using the feedback-delay signature of a modulated semiconductor laser. The modulated laser is directed to a fiber fault and then receives the fault echo, which, in principle, forms an external cavity feedback laser. The fault [...] Read more.
We propose a high-sensitivity fiber fault detection method using the feedback-delay signature of a modulated semiconductor laser. The modulated laser is directed to a fiber fault and then receives the fault echo, which, in principle, forms an external cavity feedback laser. The fault location, i.e., the external cavity length, is measured by the feedback-delay signature appearing on the laser modulation response curve. The resonance effect between the modulation frequency and external cavity frequency significantly enhanced the laser sensitivity to feedback light and then led to highly sensitive fault detection. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations predicted that −118.1 dB sensitivity to fault echo light can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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Communication
Nonlinear Dynamics of Mid-Infrared Interband Cascade Lasers Subject to Variable-Aperture Optical Feedback
Photonics 2022, 9(6), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9060410 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
In this work, we experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of an interband cascade laser (ICL) under variable-aperture optical feedback implemented by a gold mirror combining with a ring-actuated iris diaphragm (RAID). By continuously varying the diameter of RAID (DR), the [...] Read more.
In this work, we experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of an interband cascade laser (ICL) under variable-aperture optical feedback implemented by a gold mirror combining with a ring-actuated iris diaphragm (RAID). By continuously varying the diameter of RAID (DR), the evolution of the dynamical state of ICL with the aperture of the optical feedback can be inspected. The characteristics of each dynamical state are characterized by time series, power spectra, phase portraits, and Lyapunov exponents. The results show that, with the decrease of DR, the dynamical state of the ICL under variable-aperture optical feedback presents an evolution from complex, simple to stable. Diverse dynamical states including period one state (P1), period two state (P2), multi-period state (MP), quasi-period state (QP), low-frequency fluctuation (LFF), chaotic state (C), and hyperchaos have been observed. Through mapping the evolution of dynamical states with DR for the ICL biased at different currents, different evolved routes of the dynamical states are revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Semiconductor Lasers)
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