Special Issue "Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. María-Teresa García Conesa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Food Science and Technology Department, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 360, Campus de Espinardo, Espinardo, 30100 MURCIA, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds; cardiometabolic diseases; interindividual variability; mechanisms of action; nutritional genomics; Mediterranean diet
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mar Larrosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food, Microbiota and Health Group, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, c/Tajo s/n Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670 Madrid, Spain
Interests: effect of single foods, food ingredients, and diets on gut microbiota and its relationship with health (sport performance) and illness (obesity, dementia, and cancer survivors); markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in cell culture (bacterial and human), animal models, and human trials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

 Dear Colleagues,

 The effects of plant-derived polyphenols have long been investigated using a variety of pre-clinical models that have attributed a range of, generally beneficial, biological effects to these compounds. These compounds have the potential to contribute to the maintenance of health status as well as to prevent, delay, and reduce a number of chronic diseases in humans. Despite the increasing number of published clinical studies looking at the effects of these bioactive compounds, there are still many questions to resolve. There is limited evidence of the benefits of the intake of polyphenols or of food products rich in these compounds in humans and thus more clinical studies with a focus on specific polyphenols are needed. It is essential that we demonstrate the effects of the intake of these compounds on specific human subpopulations and the factors influencing these effects, that we confirm the regulation of specific disease-related biomarkers by these compounds and their derived metabolites, and that we begin to establish the link between these effects and the mechanisms of action occurring in the human body in response to the intake of polyphenols.

This Special Issue of Nutrients encourages the submission of original research or reviews of scientific literature, dealing principally with human randomized controlled studies looking at all these aspects. We will also consider novel pre-clinical experimental designs, both in vitro and animal models, looking at the mechanisms of action of polyphenols with a focus on reducing the gap between in vitro and in vivo approaches and trying to link it with what may happen in humans. We hope that this issue will collect important articles that pose answers to pertinent questions in the field, such as the following: Can we relate the metabolism of polyphenols to the beneficial effects? Can we show the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action that occur in the human body following the intake of these compounds? Can begin to understand the different responses in individuals to these plant products? Can we find the specific groups that will most benefit from the intake of plant polyphenols? We sincerely hope that this issue will greatly contribute to and enhance the evidence of the benefits of polyphenols for human health and disease.

Dr. Maria-Teresa García-Conesa 
Dr. Mar Larrosa
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • human clinical trials
  • health effects
  • disease biomarkers modulation
  • interindividual variability
  • mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020400 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Polyphenols are a class of well-known bioactive compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom and abundant in plant foods and derived food products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)

Research

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Article
Grape Seed Extract Eliminates Visceral Allodynia and Colonic Hyperpermeability Induced by Repeated Water Avoidance Stress in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112646 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Grape seed extract (GSE) is rich in polyphenols composed mainly of proanthocyanidins, which are known to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine production. Repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proinflammatory cytokine pathways, which is a [...] Read more.
Grape seed extract (GSE) is rich in polyphenols composed mainly of proanthocyanidins, which are known to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine production. Repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proinflammatory cytokine pathways, which is a rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model. Thus, we explored the effects of GSE on repeated WAS (1 h for 3 days)-induced visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability in Sprague-Dawley rats. Paracellular permeability, as evaluated by transepithelial electrical resistance and flux of carboxyfluorescein, was analyzed in Caco-2 cell monolayers treated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β. WAS caused visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability, and intragastric administration of GSE (100 mg/kg, once daily for 11 days) inhibited these changes. Furthermore, GSE also suppressed the elevated colonic levels of IL-6, TLR4, and claudin-2 caused by WAS. Paracellular permeability was increased in Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of IL-6 and IL-1β, which was inhibited by GSE. Additionally, GSE suppressed the claudin-2 expression elevated by cytokine stimulation. The effects of GSE on visceral changes appear to be evoked by suppressing colonic TLR4-cytokine signaling and maintaining tight junction integrity. GSE may be useful for treating IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Berry-Enriched Diet in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats: Metabolic Fate of (Poly)Phenols and the Role of Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112634 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
Diets rich in (poly)phenols are associated with a reduced reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. While the absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols has been described, it is not clear how their metabolic fate is affected under pathological conditions. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Diets rich in (poly)phenols are associated with a reduced reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. While the absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols has been described, it is not clear how their metabolic fate is affected under pathological conditions. This study evaluated the metabolic fate of berry (poly)phenols in an in vivo model of hypertension as well as the associated microbiota response. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed either a low-salt diet (0.26% NaCl) or a high-salt diet (8% NaCl), with or without a berry mixture (blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, Portuguese crowberry and strawberry tree fruit) for 9 weeks. The salt-enriched diet promoted an increase in the urinary excretion of berry (poly)phenol metabolites, while the abundance of these metabolites decreased in faeces, as revealed by UPLC–MS/MS. Moreover, salt and berries modulated gut microbiota composition as demonstrated by 16S rRNA analysis. Some changes in the microbiota composition were associated with the high-salt diet and revealed an expansion of the families Proteobacteria and Erysipelotrichaceae. However, this effect was mitigated by the dietary supplementation with berries. Alterations in the metabolic fate of (poly)phenols occur in parallel with the modulation of gut microbiota in hypertensive rats. Thus, beneficial effects of (poly)phenols could be related with these interlinked modifications, between metabolites and microbiota environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Impregnation of Curcumin into a Biodegradable (Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) Support, to Transfer Its Well Known In Vitro Effect to an In Vivo Prostate Cancer Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102312 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in older men and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in screening for early detection of PCa, a large proportion of patients continue to be diagnosed with metastatic disease, with ~20% of [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in older men and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in screening for early detection of PCa, a large proportion of patients continue to be diagnosed with metastatic disease, with ~20% of men showing a high tumor grade and stage. Medicinal plant extracts have a great potential to prevent/treat PCa, as well as to reduce its incidence/prevalence and improve survival rates. One of the most promising extracts is curcumin, which is a major, nontoxic, bioactive compound of Curcuma longa. Curcumin has strong antitumor activity in vitro. However, its potential beneficial in vivo affects are limited by its low intestinal absorption and rapid metabolism. In this study, curcumin was impregnated into a biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) support and characterized by FTIR and DSC, and its release by UV spectrophotometry. PLGA-curcumin was tested in different subcutaneous PCa xenograft models (PC3, 22rv1, and DU145 PCa cell-lines), and its effects evaluated by tumor progression an immuno-histochemical analysis (Trichromic, Ki67 and TUNEL stainings), were compared with those of a commercial curcumin preparation. Our results indicate that curcumin-impregnated PLGA is significantly more active (~2-fold increase) with respect to oral curcumin, which supports its use for subcutaneous administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
The Effect of Silymarin Flavonolignans and Their Sulfated Conjugates on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Vessels Ex Vivo
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102286 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Silymarin is a traditional drug and food supplement employed for numerous liver disorders. The available studies indicate that its activities may be broader, in particular due to claimed benefits in some cardiovascular diseases, but the contributions of individual silymarin components are unclear. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Silymarin is a traditional drug and food supplement employed for numerous liver disorders. The available studies indicate that its activities may be broader, in particular due to claimed benefits in some cardiovascular diseases, but the contributions of individual silymarin components are unclear. Therefore, we tested silymarin flavonolignans as pure diastereomers as well as their sulfated metabolites for potential vasorelaxant and antiplatelet effects in isolated rat aorta and in human blood, respectively. Eleven compounds from a panel of 17 tested exhibited a vasorelaxant effect, with half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) ranging from 20 to 100 µM, and some substances retained certain activity even in the range of hundreds of nM. Stereomers A were generally more potent as vasorelaxants than stereomers B. Interestingly, the most active compound was a metabolite—silychristin-19-O-sulfate. Although initial experiments showed that silybin, 2,3-dehydrosilybin, and 2,3-dehydrosilychristin were able to substantially block platelet aggregation, their effects were rapidly abolished with decreasing concentration, and were negligible at concentrations ≤100 µM. In conclusion, metabolites of silymarin flavonolignans seem to have biologically relevant vasodilatory properties, but the effect of silymarin components on platelets is low or negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Black Tea Does Not Prevent Atrophy by Unloading, But Promotes Soleus Muscle Mass Recovery from Atrophy in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092131 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Previously, we reported that polyphenol-rich fraction (named E80) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload in mice. This study indicates that E80 has potential for affecting skeletal muscle mass. Then, we evaluate the effect of E80 on atrophic and recovery conditions of [...] Read more.
Previously, we reported that polyphenol-rich fraction (named E80) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload in mice. This study indicates that E80 has potential for affecting skeletal muscle mass. Then, we evaluate the effect of E80 on atrophic and recovery conditions of skeletal muscle in mice. Hindlimb suspension (unloading) and relanding (reloading) are used extensively to observe disuse muscle atrophy and subsequent muscle mass recovery from atrophy. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for two weeks under conditions of hindlimb suspension and a subsequent 5 or 10 days of reloading. We found that E80 administration did not prevent atrophy during hindlimb suspension, but promoted recovery of slow-twitch (soleus) muscle mass from atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension. After five days of reloading, we discovered that phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt and P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), was activated in the muscle. Therefore, E80 administration accelerated mTOR signal and increased protein synthesis in the reloaded soleus muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Communication
Extra Virgin Olive Oil Contains a Phenolic Inhibitor of the Histone Demethylase LSD1/KDM1A
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071656 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
The lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A (LSD1) also known as lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A) is a central epigenetic regulator of metabolic reprogramming in obesity-associated diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here, we evaluated the ability of oleacein, a biophenol secoiridoid naturally present in extra [...] Read more.
The lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A (LSD1) also known as lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A) is a central epigenetic regulator of metabolic reprogramming in obesity-associated diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here, we evaluated the ability of oleacein, a biophenol secoiridoid naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), to target LSD1. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches revealed that oleacein could target the binding site of the LSD1 cofactor flavin adenosine dinucleotide with high affinity and at low concentrations. At higher concentrations, oleacein was predicted to target the interaction of LSD1 with histone H3 and the LSD1 co-repressor (RCOR1/CoREST), likely disturbing the anchorage of LSD1 to chromatin. AlphaScreen-based in vitro assays confirmed the ability of oleacein to act as a direct inhibitor of recombinant LSD1, with an IC50 as low as 2.5 μmol/L. Further, oleacein fully suppressed the expression of the transcription factor SOX2 (SEX determining Region Y-box 2) in cancer stem-like and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which specifically occurs under the control of an LSD1-targeted distal enhancer. Conversely, oleacein failed to modify ectopic SOX2 overexpression driven by a constitutive promoter. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that EVOO contains a naturally occurring phenolic inhibitor of LSD1, and support the use of oleacein as a template to design new secoiridoid-based LSD1 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Polyphenols and IUGR Pregnancies: Effects of Maternal Hydroxytyrosol Supplementation on Hepatic Fat Accretion and Energy and Fatty Acids Profile of Fetal Tissues
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071534 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenol present in olive leaves and fruits, is a highly promising strategy to improve the oxidative and metabolic status of fetuses at risk of intrauterine growth restriction, which may diminish the appearance of low-birth-weight neonates. The present study [...] Read more.
Maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenol present in olive leaves and fruits, is a highly promising strategy to improve the oxidative and metabolic status of fetuses at risk of intrauterine growth restriction, which may diminish the appearance of low-birth-weight neonates. The present study aimed to determine whether hydroxytyrosol, by preventing lipid peroxidation, may influence the fat accretion and energy homeostasis in the liver, as well as the fatty acid composition in the liver and muscle. The results indicate that hydroxytyrosol treatment significantly decreased the energy content of the fetal liver, without affecting fat accretion, and caused significant changes in the availability of fatty acids. There were significant increases in the amount of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6, which are highly important for adequate fetal tissue development. However, there were increases in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and the desaturation index, which make further studies necessary to determine possible effects on the pro/anti-inflammatory status of the fetuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
Article
Lack of a Synergistic Effect on Cardiometabolic and Redox Markers in a Dietary Supplementation with Anthocyanins and Xanthophylls in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071533 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are pivotal for a healthy diet due partly to their content in bioactive compounds. It is for this reason that we conducted a parallel study to unravel the possible effect on cardiometabolic parameters of the ingestion of anthocyanins, xanthophylls, or [...] Read more.
Fruits and vegetables are pivotal for a healthy diet due partly to their content in bioactive compounds. It is for this reason that we conducted a parallel study to unravel the possible effect on cardiometabolic parameters of the ingestion of anthocyanins, xanthophylls, or both groups of bioactives together in postmenopausal women. Seventy-two postmenopausal women were randomized into an 8-month parallel study: a group consuming 60 mg/day anthocyanins (Group A), a group consuming 6 mg lutein and 2 mg zeaxanthin per day (Group X), and a third group consuming a combination of anthocyanins and xanthophylls in the same amounts (Group A+X). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis was done in plasma samples at baseline and after the 8-month intervention by HPLC-QTOF-MS. Inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured at the beginning of the study and after 4 and 8-months intervention. Compared with baseline values, none of the 8-month treatments significantly (p < 0.05) changed systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP), plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Only plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased by treatment A+X after 8 months, and the plasma metabolomic profile was clearly affected by all three dietary supplementations after 8 months. In parallel, there was an increase, also for the three groups, in the plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power value that did not show any synergistic effect between the two groups of bioactives. Postmenopausal women could benefit from an increase in anthocyanins and xanthophylls intake, through the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in these two types of compounds. Accordingly, plasma glucose and, above all, the reducing power in plasma, could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Chokeberry Juice Containing Polyphenols Does Not Affect Cholesterol or Blood Pressure but Modifies the Composition of Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acids in Individuals at Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040850 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Chokeberry polyphenols have been suggested to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and thus protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the evidence in humans is limited and inconsistent. This randomized double-blinded three-parallel groups trial investigated the changes in various anthropometric and clinical biomarkers, and [...] Read more.
Chokeberry polyphenols have been suggested to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and thus protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the evidence in humans is limited and inconsistent. This randomized double-blinded three-parallel groups trial investigated the changes in various anthropometric and clinical biomarkers, and in plasma phospholipids fatty acids (PPFA) in volunteers at cardiovascular risk after a four-week intervention with 100 mL/day of (1) chokeberry juice with a high-dose of polyphenols (1177.11 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE); (2) chokeberry juice with a low-dose of polyphenols (294.28 mg GAE) and; (3) a nutritionally matched polyphenol-free placebo drink. Our results indicate that the intake of chokeberry juice containing either the low or the high dose of polyphenols cannot be linked with a reduction in total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol or in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in comparison with the consumption of the placebo drink. However, we found evidence of moderate changes in the PPFA, i.e., increased saturated fatty acids (SFA), mostly palmitic acid, and reduced n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), principally linoleic acid (LA) with the intake of chokeberry against the placebo. These effects may be associated with the polyphenols but we could not differentiate a clear dose-response effect. Further research is still needed to elucidate the contribution of the polyphenolic fraction to the potential cardiovascular effects of the chokeberry and to build up the evidence of its potential benefit via the modulation of PPFA composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Dietary Polyphenols Protect Against Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in an in Vitro Model of NAFLD by Modulating Lipid Metabolism and Improving Mitochondrial Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030541 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of common dietary polyphenols or the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine in protecting against molecular mechanisms underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involving changes to cellular lipid metabolism and bioenergetics. In a model of steatosis [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of common dietary polyphenols or the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine in protecting against molecular mechanisms underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involving changes to cellular lipid metabolism and bioenergetics. In a model of steatosis using HepG2 hepatocytes, exposure of the cells to 1.5 mM oleic acid (OA) for 24 h caused steatosis and distorted cell morphology, induced the expression of mRNA for enzymes that are involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAS and CPT1A), and impaired indices of aerobic energy metabolism (PPARγ mRNA expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and galactose-supported ATP production). Co-treatment with 10 µM of selected polyphenols all strongly protected against the steatosis and changes in cell morphology. All polyphenols, except cyanidin, inhibited the effects on FAS and PPARγ and further increased CPT1A1 expression, suggesting a shift toward increased β-oxidation. Resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, and cyanidin, however not kuromanin or berberine, ameliorated the decreases in MMP and galactose-derived ATP. Berberine was unique in worsening the decrease in galactose-derived ATP. In further investigations of the mechanisms involved, resveratrol, catechin, and berberine increased SIRT1 enzyme activity and p-AMPKαThr172 protein, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, selected polyphenols all protected against steatosis with similar effectiveness, however through different mechanisms that increased aerobic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Review

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Review
Chrononutrition and Polyphenols: Roles and Diseases
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112602 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4213
Abstract
Biological rhythms can influence the activity of bioactive compounds, and at the same time, the intake of these compounds can modulate biological rhythms. In this context, chrononutrition has appeared as a research field centered on the study of the interactions among biological rhythms, [...] Read more.
Biological rhythms can influence the activity of bioactive compounds, and at the same time, the intake of these compounds can modulate biological rhythms. In this context, chrononutrition has appeared as a research field centered on the study of the interactions among biological rhythms, nutrition, and metabolism. This review summarizes the role of phenolic compounds in the modulation of biological rhythms, focusing on their effects in the treatment or prevention of chronic diseases. Heterotrophs are able to sense chemical cues mediated by phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, promoting their adaptation to environmental conditions. This is called xenohormesis. Hence, the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in phenolic compounds exerts several health benefits, mainly attributed to the product of their metabolism. However, the profile of phenolic compounds present in plants differs among species and is highly variable depending on agricultural and technological factors. In this sense, the seasonal consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits could induce important changes in the regulation of physiology and metabolism due to the particular phenolic profile that the fruits contain. This fact highlights the need for studies that evaluate the impact of these specific phenolic profiles on health to establish more accurate dietary recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Review
Beneficial Effects of Dietary Polyphenols on Gut Microbiota and Strategies to Improve Delivery Efficiency
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092216 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 114 | Viewed by 6546
Abstract
The human intestine contains an intricate ecological community of dwelling bacteria, referred as gut microbiota (GM), which plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis. Multiple factors could interfere with this delicate balance, including genetics, age, antibiotics, as well as environmental factors, particularly diet, [...] Read more.
The human intestine contains an intricate ecological community of dwelling bacteria, referred as gut microbiota (GM), which plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis. Multiple factors could interfere with this delicate balance, including genetics, age, antibiotics, as well as environmental factors, particularly diet, thus causing a disruption of microbiota equilibrium (dysbiosis). Growing evidences support the involvement of GM dysbiosis in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-intestinal cardiometabolic diseases, namely obesity and diabetes. This review firstly overviews the role of GM in health and disease, then critically reviews the evidences regarding the influence of dietary polyphenols in GM based on preclinical and clinical data, ending with strategies under development to improve efficiency of delivery. Although the precise mechanisms deserve further clarification, preclinical and clinical data suggest that dietary polyphenols present prebiotic properties and exert antimicrobial activities against pathogenic GM, having benefits in distinct disorders. Specifically, dietary polyphenols have been shown ability to modulate GM composition and function, interfering with bacterial quorum sensing, membrane permeability, as well as sensitizing bacteria to xenobiotics. In addition, can impact on gut metabolism and immunity and exert anti-inflammatory properties. In order to overcome the low bioavailability, several different approaches have been developed, aiming to improve solubility and transport of dietary polyphenols throughout the GI tract and deliver in the targeted intestinal regions. Although more research is still needed, particularly translational and clinical studies, the biotechnological progresses achieved during the last years open up good perspectives to, in a near future, be able to improve the use of dietary polyphenols modulating GM in a broad range of disorders characterized by a dysbiotic phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Review
Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Depressive Effects of Regular Tea Consumption
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061361 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4279
Abstract
This article is a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the antidepressant effects and mechanisms of regular tea consumption. Meta-data supplemented with recent observational studies were first analyzed to assess the association between tea consumption and depression risk. The literature reported risk [...] Read more.
This article is a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the antidepressant effects and mechanisms of regular tea consumption. Meta-data supplemented with recent observational studies were first analyzed to assess the association between tea consumption and depression risk. The literature reported risk ratios (RR) were 0.69 with 95% confidence intervals of 0.62–0.77. Next, we thoroughly reviewed human trials, mouse models, and in vitro experiments to determine the predominant mechanisms underlying the observed linear relationship between tea consumption and reduced risk of depression. Current theories on the neurobiology of depression were utilized to map tea-mediated mechanisms of antidepressant activity onto an integrated framework of depression pathology. The major nodes within the network framework of depression included hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, inflammation, weakened monoaminergic systems, reduced neurogenesis/neuroplasticity, and poor microbiome diversity affecting the gut–brain axis. We detailed how each node has subsystems within them, including signaling pathways, specific target proteins, or transporters that interface with compounds in tea, mediating their antidepressant effects. A major pathway was found to be the ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway, up-regulated by a number of compounds in tea including teasaponin, L-theanine, EGCG and combinations of tea catechins and their metabolites. Black tea theaflavins and EGCG are potent anti-inflammatory agents via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling. Multiple compounds in tea are effective modulators of dopaminergic activity and the gut–brain axis. Taken together, our findings show that constituents found in all major tea types, predominantly L-theanine, polyphenols and polyphenol metabolites, are capable of functioning through multiple pathways simultaneously to collectively reduce the risk of depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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