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Open AccessReview

Beneficial Effects of Dietary Polyphenols on Gut Microbiota and Strategies to Improve Delivery Efficiency

1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India
2
Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine; & CIBB Consortium, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
4
Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
5
Institute of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine; University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092216
Received: 3 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
The human intestine contains an intricate ecological community of dwelling bacteria, referred as gut microbiota (GM), which plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis. Multiple factors could interfere with this delicate balance, including genetics, age, antibiotics, as well as environmental factors, particularly diet, thus causing a disruption of microbiota equilibrium (dysbiosis). Growing evidences support the involvement of GM dysbiosis in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-intestinal cardiometabolic diseases, namely obesity and diabetes. This review firstly overviews the role of GM in health and disease, then critically reviews the evidences regarding the influence of dietary polyphenols in GM based on preclinical and clinical data, ending with strategies under development to improve efficiency of delivery. Although the precise mechanisms deserve further clarification, preclinical and clinical data suggest that dietary polyphenols present prebiotic properties and exert antimicrobial activities against pathogenic GM, having benefits in distinct disorders. Specifically, dietary polyphenols have been shown ability to modulate GM composition and function, interfering with bacterial quorum sensing, membrane permeability, as well as sensitizing bacteria to xenobiotics. In addition, can impact on gut metabolism and immunity and exert anti-inflammatory properties. In order to overcome the low bioavailability, several different approaches have been developed, aiming to improve solubility and transport of dietary polyphenols throughout the GI tract and deliver in the targeted intestinal regions. Although more research is still needed, particularly translational and clinical studies, the biotechnological progresses achieved during the last years open up good perspectives to, in a near future, be able to improve the use of dietary polyphenols modulating GM in a broad range of disorders characterized by a dysbiotic phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary polyphenols; gut microbiota; dysbiosis; gastrointestinal diseases; metabolic disorders; delivery systems dietary polyphenols; gut microbiota; dysbiosis; gastrointestinal diseases; metabolic disorders; delivery systems
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Kumar Singh, A.; Cabral, C.; Kumar, R.; Ganguly, R.; Kumar Rana, H.; Gupta, A.; Rosaria Lauro, M.; Carbone, C.; Reis, F.; Pandey, A.K. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Polyphenols on Gut Microbiota and Strategies to Improve Delivery Efficiency. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2216.

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