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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040850

Chokeberry Juice Containing Polyphenols Does Not Affect Cholesterol or Blood Pressure but Modifies the Composition of Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acids in Individuals at Cardiovascular Risk

1
Center of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Campus de Espinardo, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CEBAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Chokeberry polyphenols have been suggested to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and thus protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the evidence in humans is limited and inconsistent. This randomized double-blinded three-parallel groups trial investigated the changes in various anthropometric and clinical biomarkers, and in plasma phospholipids fatty acids (PPFA) in volunteers at cardiovascular risk after a four-week intervention with 100 mL/day of (1) chokeberry juice with a high-dose of polyphenols (1177.11 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE); (2) chokeberry juice with a low-dose of polyphenols (294.28 mg GAE) and; (3) a nutritionally matched polyphenol-free placebo drink. Our results indicate that the intake of chokeberry juice containing either the low or the high dose of polyphenols cannot be linked with a reduction in total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol or in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in comparison with the consumption of the placebo drink. However, we found evidence of moderate changes in the PPFA, i.e., increased saturated fatty acids (SFA), mostly palmitic acid, and reduced n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), principally linoleic acid (LA) with the intake of chokeberry against the placebo. These effects may be associated with the polyphenols but we could not differentiate a clear dose-response effect. Further research is still needed to elucidate the contribution of the polyphenolic fraction to the potential cardiovascular effects of the chokeberry and to build up the evidence of its potential benefit via the modulation of PPFA composition.
Keywords: Aronia; anthocyanins; polyphenols; obesity; hyperlipidemia; blood pressure; SFA; n-6 PUFA; palmitic acid; cardiovascular risk factors Aronia; anthocyanins; polyphenols; obesity; hyperlipidemia; blood pressure; SFA; n-6 PUFA; palmitic acid; cardiovascular risk factors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pokimica, B.; García-Conesa, M.-T.; Zec, M.; Debeljak-Martačić, J.; Ranković, S.; Vidović, N.; Petrović-Oggiano, G.; Konić-Ristić, A.; Glibetić, M. Chokeberry Juice Containing Polyphenols Does Not Affect Cholesterol or Blood Pressure but Modifies the Composition of Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acids in Individuals at Cardiovascular Risk. Nutrients 2019, 11, 850.

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