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Chrononutrition and Polyphenols: Roles and Diseases
Open AccessArticle

Berry-Enriched Diet in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats: Metabolic Fate of (Poly)Phenols and the Role of Gut Microbiota

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Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Apartado 12, 2780-901 Oeiras, Portugal
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Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
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INSERM UMR-S 1180- University Paris-Sud, University Paris Saclay, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 92296 Châtenay Malabry, France
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Food Technology Department, Agrotecnio Center, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agraria, University of Lleida, 25198-Lleida, Spain
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Environmental and Biochemical Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland DD2 5DA, UK
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CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, NOVA Medical School|Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
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Institute of Mechanical Process and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS, UK
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Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Division of Microbial Ecology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Research Network Chemistry Meets Microbiology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
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Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino-ICVV, CSIC-Universidad de La Rioja-Gobierno de La Rioja, Finca “La Grajera”, Carretera de Burgos km 6, 26007 Logroño, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112634
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health and Disease)
Diets rich in (poly)phenols are associated with a reduced reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. While the absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols has been described, it is not clear how their metabolic fate is affected under pathological conditions. This study evaluated the metabolic fate of berry (poly)phenols in an in vivo model of hypertension as well as the associated microbiota response. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed either a low-salt diet (0.26% NaCl) or a high-salt diet (8% NaCl), with or without a berry mixture (blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, Portuguese crowberry and strawberry tree fruit) for 9 weeks. The salt-enriched diet promoted an increase in the urinary excretion of berry (poly)phenol metabolites, while the abundance of these metabolites decreased in faeces, as revealed by UPLC–MS/MS. Moreover, salt and berries modulated gut microbiota composition as demonstrated by 16S rRNA analysis. Some changes in the microbiota composition were associated with the high-salt diet and revealed an expansion of the families Proteobacteria and Erysipelotrichaceae. However, this effect was mitigated by the dietary supplementation with berries. Alterations in the metabolic fate of (poly)phenols occur in parallel with the modulation of gut microbiota in hypertensive rats. Thus, beneficial effects of (poly)phenols could be related with these interlinked modifications, between metabolites and microbiota environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; cardiovascular; dysbiosis; gut metabolism; high salt intake polyphenols; cardiovascular; dysbiosis; gut metabolism; high salt intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gomes, A.; Oudot, C.; Macià, A.; Foito, A.; Carregosa, D.; Stewart, D.; Van de Wiele, T.; Berry, D.; Motilva, M.-J.; Brenner, C.; Nunes dos Santos, C. Berry-Enriched Diet in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats: Metabolic Fate of (Poly)Phenols and the Role of Gut Microbiota. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2634.

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