Oxylipins are metabolized from dietary ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in an inflammatory response. Adipose tissue inflammatory background is a key factor of metabolic disorders and it is accepted that dietary fatty acids, in terms of quality and quantity, modulate oxylipin synthesis in this tissue. Moreover, it has been reported that diet supplementation in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids resolves some inflammatory situations. Thus, it is crucial to assess the influence of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxylipin synthesis and their impact on adipose tissue inflammation. To this end, mice fed an ω6- or ω3-enriched standard diet (ω6/ω3
ratio of 30 and 3.75, respectively) were analyzed for inflammatory phenotype and adipose tissue oxylipin content. Diet enrichment with an ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid induced an increase in the oxylipins derived from ω6 linoleic acid, ω3 eicosapentaenoic, and ω3 docosahexaenoic acids in brown and white adipose tissues. Among these, the level of pro-resolving mediator intermediates, as well as anti-inflammatory metabolites, were augmented. Concomitantly, expressions of M2 macrophage markers were increased without affecting inflammatory cytokine contents. In vitro, these metabolites did not activate macrophages but participated in macrophage polarization by inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, we demonstrated that an ω3-enriched diet, in non-obesogenic non-inflammatory conditions, induced synthesis of oxylipins which were involved in an anti-inflammatory response as well as enhancement of the M2 macrophage molecular signature, without affecting inflammatory cytokine secretion.
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