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The Role of Succinate in the Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation

Division of Gastroenterology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 25;
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Succinate is a metabolic intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within host cells. Succinate is also produced in large amounts during bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Elevated succinate levels within the gut lumen have been reported in association with microbiome disturbances (dysbiosis), as well as in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of intestinal inflammation. Recent studies indicate that succinate can activate immune cells via its specific surface receptor, succinate receptor 1(SUCNR1), and enhance inflammation. However, the role of succinate in inflammatory processes within the gut mucosal immune system is unclear. This review includes current literature on the association of succinate with intestinal inflammation and the potential role of succinate–SUCNR1 signaling in gut immune functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; microbiome; dysbiosis; metabolite; metabolic receptor inflammatory bowel disease; microbiome; dysbiosis; metabolite; metabolic receptor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Connors, J.; Dawe, N.; Van Limbergen, J. The Role of Succinate in the Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 25.

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