Special Issue "The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dong-Wook Han
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Pusan National University (PNU), Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil 2, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea
Interests: carbon-based nanomaterials; nanotoxicity; nanobioelectronics; nanomedicine; biocompatibility evaluation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Timur Sh. Atabaev
E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University
Tel. +7-771-377-3350
Interests: Experimental nanochemistry, physics and applied nanotechnology (Multifunctional nanomaterials for biomedical applications, Solar cells, Solar water splitting systems, Nanomaterials engineering, Optical materials, Nanophotonics, Nanosensor, Nanoporous materials, Photosynthesis, Green chemistry, Thin films, etc.)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the past two decades, a growing number of nanomaterials (NMs) have drawn keen attention due to the quantum leap in nanomedicine, which involves the use of various nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, NMs have different properties than larger materials, and these properties can be utilized in a wide spectrum of biomedical areas, such as in theragnosis, drug delivery, imaging, sensing, and tissue engineering. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to evaluate the safety (or toxicity) profile of NMs and their impact on health in order to achieve their biocompatibility and desired activity for their development. In other word, NMs have double-sidedness, like the two faces of the medal.

In this Special Issue, we are especially interested in manuscripts that allow a better understanding the correlation of the biological effects of NMs to their intrinsic physicochemical and thermomechanical characteristics, as well as their opto-electrical properties. This Special Issue invites manuscripts that provide novel scientific findings on the bioactivity of NMs and some perspective on the possible risks to their future development in biomedical science and engineering.

 

Prof. Dr. Dong-Wook Han

Dr. Timur Sh. Atabaev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • nanomedicine
  • toxicity
  • bioactivity
  • biomedical application

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Wild Enterobacter cloacae Biofilm Formation by Nanostructured Graphene- and Hexagonal Boron Nitride-Coated Surfaces
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010049 - 02 Jan 2019
Abstract
Although biofilm formation is a very effective mechanism to sustain bacterial life, it is detrimental in medical and industrial sectors. Current strategies to control biofilm proliferation are typically based on biocides, which exhibit a negative environmental impact. In the search for environmentally friendly [...] Read more.
Although biofilm formation is a very effective mechanism to sustain bacterial life, it is detrimental in medical and industrial sectors. Current strategies to control biofilm proliferation are typically based on biocides, which exhibit a negative environmental impact. In the search for environmentally friendly solutions, nanotechnology opens the possibility to control the interaction between biological systems and colonized surfaces by introducing nanostructured coatings that have the potential to affect bacterial adhesion by modifying surface properties at the same scale. In this work, we present a study on the performance of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride coatings (h-BN) to reduce biofilm formation. In contraposition to planktonic state, we focused on evaluating the efficiency of graphene and h-BN at the irreversible stage of biofilm formation, where most of the biocide solutions have a poor performance. A wild Enterobacter cloacae strain was isolated, from fouling found in a natural environment, and used in these experiments. According to our results, graphene and h-BN coatings modify surface energy and electrostatic interactions with biological systems. This nanoscale modification determines a significant reduction in biofilm formation at its irreversible stage. No bactericidal effects were found, suggesting both coatings offer a biocompatible solution for biofilm and fouling control in a wide range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Surface Coating of Gold Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Cell Cycle Progression
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121063 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are usually wrapped with biocompatible polymers in biomedical field, however, the effect of biocompatible polymers of gold nanoparticles on cellular responses are still not fully understood. In this study, GNPs with/without polymer wrapping were used as model probes for the [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are usually wrapped with biocompatible polymers in biomedical field, however, the effect of biocompatible polymers of gold nanoparticles on cellular responses are still not fully understood. In this study, GNPs with/without polymer wrapping were used as model probes for the investigation of cytotoxicity and cell cycle progression. Our results show that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated GNPs (BSA-GNPs) had been transported into lysosomes after endocytosis. The lysosomal accumulation had then led to increased binding between kinesin 5 and microtubules, enhanced microtubule stabilization, and eventually induced G2/M arrest through the regulation of cadherin 1. In contrast, the bare GNPs experienced lysosomal escape, resulting in microtubule damage and G0/G1 arrest through the regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Overall, our findings showed that both naked and BSA wrapped gold nanoparticles had cytotoxicity, however, they affected cell proliferation via different pathways. This will greatly help us to regulate cell responses for different biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles (Fe3O4) Conjugated with Chlorin e6 and Folic Acid in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090722 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative to conventional cancer treatment methods. Nonetheless, improvement of in vivo light penetration and cancer cell-targeting efficiency remain major challenges in clinical photodynamic therapy. This study aimed to develop multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS) [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative to conventional cancer treatment methods. Nonetheless, improvement of in vivo light penetration and cancer cell-targeting efficiency remain major challenges in clinical photodynamic therapy. This study aimed to develop multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS) and cancer-targeting molecules via a simple surface modification process for PDT. To selectively target cancer cells and PDT functionality, core magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were covalently bound with chlorin e6 (Ce6) as a PS and folic acid (FA). When irradiated with a 660-nm long-wavelength light source, the Fe3O4-Ce6-FA nanoparticles with good biocompatibility exerted marked anticancer effects via apoptosis, as confirmed by analyzing the translocation of the plasma membrane, nuclear fragmentation, activities of caspase-3/7 in prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Ce6, used herein as a PS, is thus more useful for PDT because of its ability to produce a high singlet oxygen quantum yield, which is owed to deep penetration by virtue of its long-wavelength absorption band; however, further in vivo studies are required to verify its biological effects for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle
Dose- and Time-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Layered Black Phosphorus in Fibroblastic Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060408 - 06 Jun 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Black phosphorus (BP) is a monolayer/multilayer two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, which has recently emerged as one of the most attractive 2D nanomaterials due to its fascinating physicochemical and optoelectronical properties. Layered BP may have promising applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, photodynamic/photothermal [...] Read more.
Black phosphorus (BP) is a monolayer/multilayer two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, which has recently emerged as one of the most attractive 2D nanomaterials due to its fascinating physicochemical and optoelectronical properties. Layered BP may have promising applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, photodynamic/photothermal therapy and bioimaging, although its intrinsic toxicity has not been fully elucidated yet. In the present study, the cytotoxicological effects of layered BP on both cell metabolic activity and membrane integrity were investigated. Layered BPs were prepared using a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity of layered BP was assessed against L-929 fibroblasts. Our findings indicate that the cytotoxicity of BPs is proportionally dependent on their concentration and exposure time, which is affected by the oxidative stress-mediated enzyme activity reduction and membrane disruption. On the other hand, layered BPs did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, it is suggested that layered BPs can be effectively utilized as therapeutic delivery carriers and imaging agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
ZnO Nanostructures and Electrospun ZnO–Polymeric Hybrid Nanomaterials in Biomedical, Health, and Sustainability Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101449 - 12 Oct 2019
Abstract
ZnO-based nanomaterials are a subject of increasing interest within current research, because of their multifunctional properties, such as piezoelectricity, semi-conductivity, ultraviolet absorption, optical transparency, and photoluminescence, as well as their low toxicity, biodegradability, low cost, and versatility in achieving diverse shapes. Among the [...] Read more.
ZnO-based nanomaterials are a subject of increasing interest within current research, because of their multifunctional properties, such as piezoelectricity, semi-conductivity, ultraviolet absorption, optical transparency, and photoluminescence, as well as their low toxicity, biodegradability, low cost, and versatility in achieving diverse shapes. Among the numerous fields of application, the use of nanostructured ZnO is increasingly widespread also in the biomedical and healthcare sectors, thanks to its antiseptic and antibacterial properties, role as a promoter in tissue regeneration, selectivity for specific cell lines, and drug delivery function, as well as its electrochemical and optical properties, which make it a good candidate for biomedical applications. Because of its growing use, understanding the toxicity of ZnO nanomaterials and their interaction with biological systems is crucial for manufacturing relevant engineering materials. In the last few years, ZnO nanostructures were also used to functionalize polymer matrices to produce hybrid composite materials with new properties. Among the numerous manufacturing methods, electrospinning is becoming a mainstream technique for the production of scaffolds and mats made of polymeric and metal-oxide nanofibers. In this review, we focus on toxicological aspects and recent developments in the use of ZnO-based nanomaterials for biomedical, healthcare, and sustainability applications, either alone or loaded inside polymeric matrices to make electrospun composite nanomaterials. Bibliographic data were compared and analyzed with the aim of giving homogeneity to the results and highlighting reference trends useful for obtaining a fresh perspective about the toxicity of ZnO nanostructures and their underlying mechanisms for the materials and engineering community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessReview
Toxicity of Zero- and One-Dimensional Carbon Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091214 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The zero (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanomaterials have gained attention among researchers because they exhibit a larger surface area to volume ratio, and a smaller size. Furthermore, carbon is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. However, toxicity is a major concern while [...] Read more.
The zero (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanomaterials have gained attention among researchers because they exhibit a larger surface area to volume ratio, and a smaller size. Furthermore, carbon is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. However, toxicity is a major concern while utilizing carbon nanomaterials for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biosensing, and tissue regeneration. In the present review, we have summarized some of the recent findings of cellular and animal level toxicity studies of 0-D (carbon quantum dot, graphene quantum dot, nanodiamond, and carbon black) and 1-D (single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) carbon nanomaterials. The in vitro toxicity of carbon nanomaterials was exemplified in normal and cancer cell lines including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, macrophages, epithelial and endothelial cells of different sources. Similarly, the in vivo studies were illustrated in several animal species such as rats, mice, zebrafish, planktons and, guinea pigs, at various concentrations, route of administrations and exposure of nanoparticles. In addition, we have described the unique properties and commercial usage, as well as the similarities and differences among the nanoparticles. The aim of the current review is not only to signify the importance of studying the toxicity of 0-D and 1-D carbon nanomaterials, but also to emphasize the perspectives, future challenges and possible directions in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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