Special Issue "Self-Assembled Bio-Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gang Wei

Hybrid Materials Interfaces Group, Faculty of Production Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable technology (UFT), University of Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: graphene; nanomaterials; biomolecular self-assembly; biomaterials; sensors; biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Supramolecular self-assembly is a simple but effective bottom-up technique for creating functional nanomaterials with novel structures and properties. Biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, peptides, virus, enzymes, biopolymers, and others, have unique abilities to form hierarchical and ordered 1D, 2D, and 3D nanostructures and nanomaterials by molecular self-assembly in liquid, solid surface, and air–water interfaces. The self-assembled bio-nanomaterials have shown wide applications in the fields of biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, biosensors, nanotechnology, energy materials, and others. For example, the self-assembled peptide and protein bio-nanomaterials have been used to deliver drugs into the body system with specific targeting, and the biomineralized self-assembled nanomaterials have shown excellent potentials to repair old tissues and substitute natural structures and functions. By combining self-assembled bio-nanomaterials with other functional nanomaterials like nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and grapheme together, it is possible to create hybrid bio-nanomaterials with multi functions. Compared to inorganic nanomaterials, the formed hybrid bio-nanomaterials have high biocompatibility, self-assembly ability, physicochemical stability, and molecular recognition ability, therefore providing various potential applications in cell labelling, bioimaging, biosensors, and functional materials.

Great achievements have been made in this interesting field, it is still necessary and significant to investigate: (i) the synthesis of novel bio-nanomaterials by molecular self-assembly of various biomacromolecules and small molecules, (ii) the multi-characterizations of created biomaterials, and (iii) the potential applications of both pure self-assembled and hybrid bio-nanomaterials in drug delivery, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, cell culture, bioimaging, sensors, functional materials, and others. Therefore, in this Special Issue of the journal Nanomaterials, we would like to gather contributions from you on these topics (not limited to them). Both original research and review papers are welcome.

We are looking forward to your great contributions to this Special Issue. Thanks and best regards,

Dr. Gang Wei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • DNA
  • Proteins
  • Peptides
  • Biopolymers
  • Self-assembly Nanomaterials
  • Hybrid materials
  • Functional tailoring
  • Nanotechnology
  • Electrocatalysis
  • Sensors
  • Biosensors
  • Tissue engineering
  • Cell culture
  • Drug delivery

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Anomalous Elastic Properties of Attraction-Dominated DNA Self-Assembled 2D Films and the Resultant Dynamic Biodetection Signals of Microbeam Sensors
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040543
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
The condensation of DNA helices has been regularly found in cell nucleus, bacterial nucleoids, and viral capsids, and during its relevant biodetections the attractive interactions between DNA helices could not be neglected. In this letter, we theoretically characterize the elastic properties of double-stranded [...] Read more.
The condensation of DNA helices has been regularly found in cell nucleus, bacterial nucleoids, and viral capsids, and during its relevant biodetections the attractive interactions between DNA helices could not be neglected. In this letter, we theoretically characterize the elastic properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) self-assembled 2D films and their multiscale correlations with the dynamic detection signals of DNA-microbeams. The comparison of attraction- and repulsion-dominated DNA films shows that the competition between attractive and repulsive micro-interactions endows dsDNA films in multivalent salt solutions with anomalous elastic properties such as tensile surface stresses and negative moduli; the occurrence of the tensile surface stress for the attraction-dominated DNA self-assembled film reveals the possible physical mechanism of the condensation found in organism. Furthermore, dynamic analyses of a hinged–hinged DNA-microbeam reveal non-monotonous frequency shifts due to attraction- or repulsion-dominated dsDNA adsorptions and dynamic instability occurrence during the detections of repulsion-dominated DNA films. This dynamic instability implies the existence of a sensitive interval of material parameters in which DNA adsorptions will induce a drastic natural frequency shift or a jump of vibration mode even with a tiny variation of the detection conditions. These new insights might provide us some potential guidance to achieve an ultra-highly sensitive biodetection method in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Removing Metal Ions from Water with Graphene–Bovine Serum Albumin Hybrid Membrane
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020276
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Here we report the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes covalently combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for metal ions detection. In this system, BSA acts as a transporter protein in the membrane and endows the membrane with selective recognition of Co2+ [...] Read more.
Here we report the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes covalently combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for metal ions detection. In this system, BSA acts as a transporter protein in the membrane and endows the membrane with selective recognition of Co2+, Cu2+, AuCl4, and Fe2+. Combining the metal-binding ability of BSA and the large surface area of GO, the hybrid membrane can be used as a water purification strategy to selectively absorb a large amount of AuCl4 from HAuCl4 solution. Moreover, BSA could reduce the membrane-immobilized AuCl4 by adding sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Interestingly, adsorption experiments on three kinds of metal ions showed that the GO–BSA membrane had good selective adsorption of Co2+ compared with Cu2+ and Fe2+. The morphology and composition changes of the membrane were observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. It is expected that this facile strategy for fabricating large-scale graphene-biomolecule membranes will spark inspirations in the development of functional nanomaterials and wastewater purification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Self-Assembled Triphenylphosphonium-Conjugated Dicyanostilbene Nanoparticles and Their Fluorescence Probes for Reactive Oxygen Species
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121034
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
We report self-assembled novel triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene-based as selective fluorescence turn-on probes for 1O2 and ClO. Mono- or di-triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene derivatives 1 and 2 formed spherical structures with diameters of ca. 27 and 56.5 nm, respectively, through π-π interaction between [...] Read more.
We report self-assembled novel triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene-based as selective fluorescence turn-on probes for 1O2 and ClO. Mono- or di-triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene derivatives 1 and 2 formed spherical structures with diameters of ca. 27 and 56.5 nm, respectively, through π-π interaction between dicyanostilbene groups. Self-assembled 1 showed strong fluorescent emission upon the addition of 1O2 and ClO compared to other ROS (O2, OH, NO, TBHP, H2O2, GSH), metal ions (K+, Na+), and amino acids (cysteine and histidine). Upon addition of 1O2 and ClO, the spherical structure of 1 changed to a fiber structure (8-nm wide; 300-nm long). Upon addition of 1O2 and ClO, the chemical structural conversion of 1 was determined by FAB-Mass, NMR, IR and Zeta potential analysis, and the strong emission of the self-assembled 1 was due to an aggregation-induced emission enhancement. This self-assembled material was the first for selective ROS as a fluorescence turn-on probe. Thus, a nanostructure change-derived turn-on sensing strategy for 1O2 or ClO may offer a new approach to developing methods for specific guest molecules in biological and environmental subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spherical and Spindle-Like Abamectin-Loaded Nanoparticles by Flash Nanoprecipitation for Southern Root-Knot Nematode Control: Preparation and Characterization
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060449
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a biotrophic parasite, causing enormous loss in global crop production annually. Abamectin (Abm) is a biological and high-efficiency pesticide against Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, a powerful method, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), was adopted to [...] Read more.
Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a biotrophic parasite, causing enormous loss in global crop production annually. Abamectin (Abm) is a biological and high-efficiency pesticide against Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, a powerful method, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), was adopted to successfully produce Abm-loaded nanoparticle suspensions with high drug loading capacity (>40%) and encapsulation efficiency (>95%), where amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG), poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG), or poly(caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG) were used as the stabilizer to prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation. The effect of the drug-to-stabilizer feed ratio on the particle stability were investigated. Moreover, the effect of the BCP composition on the morphology of Abm-loaded nanoparticles for controlling Meloidogyne incognita were discussed. Notably, spindle-like nanoparticles were obtained with PCL-b-PEG as the stabilizer and found significantly more efficient (98.4% mortality at 1 ppm particle concentration) than spherical nanoparticles using PLGA-b-PEG or PLA-b-PEG as the stabilizer. This work provides a more rapid and powerful method to prepare stable Abm-loaded nanoparticles with tunable morphologies and improved effectiveness for controlling Meloidogyne incognita. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Drug-Release Properties of New Amphipathic Liquid Crystal Polycarbonates
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040195
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (19404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New amphiphilic liquid crystal (LC) polycarbonate block copolymers containing side-chain cholesteryl units were synthesized. Their structure, thermal stability, and LC phase behavior were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatographic (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry [...] Read more.
New amphiphilic liquid crystal (LC) polycarbonate block copolymers containing side-chain cholesteryl units were synthesized. Their structure, thermal stability, and LC phase behavior were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatographic (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscope (POM), and XRD methods. The results demonstrated that the LC copolymers showed a double molecular arrangement of a smectic A phase at room temperature. With the elevating of LC unit content in such LC copolymers, the corresponding properties including decomposition temperature (Td), glass temperature (Tg), and isotropic temperature (Ti) increased. The LC copolymers showed pH-responsive self-assembly behavior under the weakly acidic condition, and with more side-chain LC units, the self-assembly process was faster, and the formed particle size was smaller. It indicated that the self-assembly driving force was derived from the orientational ability of LC. The particle size and morphologies of self-assembled microspheres loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), together with drug release tracking, were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), SEM, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The results showed that DOX could be quickly released in a weakly acidic environment due to the pH response of the self-assembled microspheres. This would offer a new strategy for drug delivery in clinic applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Modular Coassembly Approach to All-In-One Multifunctional Nanoplatform for Synergistic Codelivery of Doxorubicin and Curcumin
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030167
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (19004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synergistic combination therapy by integrating chemotherapeutics and chemosensitizers into nanoparticles has demonstrated great potential to reduce side effects, overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), and thus improve therapeutic efficacy. However, with regard to the nanocarriers for multidrug codelivery, it remains a strong challenge to maintain [...] Read more.
Synergistic combination therapy by integrating chemotherapeutics and chemosensitizers into nanoparticles has demonstrated great potential to reduce side effects, overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), and thus improve therapeutic efficacy. However, with regard to the nanocarriers for multidrug codelivery, it remains a strong challenge to maintain design simplicity, while incorporating the desirable multifunctionalities, such as coloaded high payloads, targeted delivery, hemodynamic stability, and also to ensure low drug leakage before reaching the tumor site, but simultaneously the corelease of drugs in the same cancer cell. Herein, we developed a facile modular coassembly approach to construct an all-in-one multifunctional multidrug delivery system for the synergistic codelivery of doxorubicin (DOX, chemotherapeutic agent) and curcumin (CUR, MDR modulator). The acid-cleavable PEGylated polymeric prodrug (DOX-h-PCEC), tumor cell-specific targeting peptide (CRGDK-PEG-PCL), and natural chemosensitizer (CUR) were ratiometrically assembled into in one single nanocarrier (CUR/DOX-h[email protected] NPs). The resulting CUR/DOX-h[email protected] NPs exhibited several desirable characteristics, such as efficient and ratiometric drug loading, high hemodynamic stability and low drug leakage, tumor intracellular acid-triggered cleavage, and subsequent intracellular simultaneous drug corelease, which are expected to maximize a synergistic effect of chemotherapy and chemosensitization. Collectively, the multifunctional nanocarrier is feasible for the creation of a robust nanoplatform for targeted multidrug codelivery and efficient MDR modulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nanopatterning via Self-Assembly of a Lamellar-Forming Polystyrene-block-Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Diblock Copolymer on Topographical Substrates Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010032
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer (DBCP) was studied herein for surface nanopatterning. The DBCP was synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization of styrene and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3). The number average molecular weight (M [...] Read more.
The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer (DBCP) was studied herein for surface nanopatterning. The DBCP was synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization of styrene and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3). The number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and PS volume fraction (φps) of the DBCP were MnPS = 23.0 kg mol−1, MnPDMS = 15.0 kg mol−1, Mw/Mn = 1.06 and φps = 0.6. Thin films of the DBCP were cast and solvent annealed on topographically patterned polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) substrates. The lamellae repeat distance or pitch (λL) and the width of the PDMS features (dL) are ~35 nm and ~17 nm, respectively, as determined by SEM. The chemistry of the POSS substrates was tuned, and the effects on the self-assembly of the DBCP noted. The PDMS nanopatterns were used as etching mask in order to transfer the DBCP pattern to underlying silicon substrate by a complex plasma etch process yielding sub-15 nm silicon features. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Controlling the Self-Assembly of Biomolecules into Functional Nanomaterials through Internal Interactions and External Stimulations: A Review
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020285
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomolecular self-assembly provides a facile way to synthesize functional nanomaterials. Due to the unique structure and functions of biomolecules, the created biological nanomaterials via biomolecular self-assembly have a wide range of applications, from materials science to biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, nanotechnology, and analytical [...] Read more.
Biomolecular self-assembly provides a facile way to synthesize functional nanomaterials. Due to the unique structure and functions of biomolecules, the created biological nanomaterials via biomolecular self-assembly have a wide range of applications, from materials science to biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, nanotechnology, and analytical science. In this review, we present recent advances in the synthesis of biological nanomaterials by controlling the biomolecular self-assembly from adjusting internal interactions and external stimulations. The self-assembly mechanisms of biomolecules (DNA, protein, peptide, virus, enzyme, metabolites, lipid, cholesterol, and others) related to various internal interactions, including hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, π–π stacking, DNA base pairing, and ligand–receptor binding, are discussed by analyzing some recent studies. In addition, some strategies for promoting biomolecular self-assembly via external stimulations, such as adjusting the solution conditions (pH, temperature, ionic strength), adding organics, nanoparticles, or enzymes, and applying external light stimulation to the self-assembly systems, are demonstrated. We hope that this overview will be helpful for readers to understand the self-assembly mechanisms and strategies of biomolecules and to design and develop new biological nanostructures or nanomaterials for desired applications. Full article
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