Special Issue "Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vassiliki Papadimitriou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48, Vassileos Constantinou Ave., 11635. Athens, Greece
Interests: nanoemulsions; microemulsions; nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds; EPR; drug delivery
Dr. Aris Xenakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 11635 Athens, Greece
Interests: colloids; nanoformulations; nanoencapsulation; biocatalysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of biocompatible nanodispersions in various industrial fields has grown remarkably over the last few years, offering new research opportunities for researchers with different expertise and scientific backgrounds. These nanoscaled dispersions represent smart, nontoxic carriers for encapsulation and delivery of functional compounds, including hydrophobic drugs, natural antioxidants, plant extracts, and micronutrients. Nanodispersions for food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes should be compatible with biological tissues of living organisms, performing their targeted function without any undesirable effects. The grand challenge in the field of nanoformulations involves both the creation of precisely tailored, nanoscale particles of bioactive compounds and the safe and efficient delivery of those tiny particles to their exact targets.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials dedicated to Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility aims to attract contributions related to the development, structural investigation, and biological evaluation of diverse nanoscale dispersions. Nanoemulsions with different surface properties based on safe oils and surfactants and also biocompatible amphiphilic block copolymers forming nanoparticulate core–shell micellar structures in aqueous media could be considered as representative systems for the encapsulation of various bioactive compouds.

Dr. Vassiliki Papadimitriou
Dr. Aristotelis Xenakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanodispersion
  • Biocompatible
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Bioactive polymers
  • Encapsulation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Polyglycerol Ester-Based Low Energy Nanoemulsions with Red Raspberry Seed Oil and Fruit Extracts: Formulation Development toward Effective In Vitro/In Vivo Bioperformance
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010217 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of biocompatible oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions based on polyglycerol esters, as promising carriers for natural actives: red raspberry seed oil—RO and hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry—RE and French oak—FE. Nanoemulsions were obtained via phase inversion composition (PIC) [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of biocompatible oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions based on polyglycerol esters, as promising carriers for natural actives: red raspberry seed oil—RO and hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry—RE and French oak—FE. Nanoemulsions were obtained via phase inversion composition (PIC) method at room temperature by dilution of microemulsion phase, confirmed by visual appearance, percentage of transmittance, microscopic, rheological and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations. The results have shown that the basic RO-loaded formulation could be further enriched with hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry or French oak, while keeping a semi-transparent appearance due to the fine droplet size (Z-ave: 50 to 70 nm, PDI value ≤ 0.1). The highest antioxidant activity (~92% inhibition of the DPPH radical) was achieved in the formulation containing both lipophilic (RO) and hydrophilic antioxidants (FE), due to their synergistic effect. The nanoemulsion carrier significantly increased the selective cytotoxic effect of RO towards malignant melanoma (Fem-X) cells, compared to normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT). In vivo study on human volunteers showed satisfactory safety profiles and significant improvement in skin hydration during 2 h after application for all nanoemulsions. Therefore, polyglycerol ester-based nanoemulsions can be promoted as effective carriers for red raspberry seed oil and/or hydro-glycolic fruit extracts in topical formulations intended for skin protection and hydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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Article
Development and Study of Nanoemulsions and Nanoemulsion-Based Hydrogels for the Encapsulation of Lipophilic Compounds
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122464 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Biocompatible nanoemulsions and nanoemulsion-based hydrogels were formulated for the encapsulation and delivery of vitamin D3 and curcumin. The aforementioned systems were structurally studied applying dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and viscometry. In vitro studies were conducted using Franz [...] Read more.
Biocompatible nanoemulsions and nanoemulsion-based hydrogels were formulated for the encapsulation and delivery of vitamin D3 and curcumin. The aforementioned systems were structurally studied applying dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and viscometry. In vitro studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells to investigate the release of the bioactive compounds from the nanocarriers. The cytotoxicity of the nanoemulsions was investigated using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay and RPMI 2650 nasal epithelial cells as in vitro model. DLS measurements showed that vitamin D3 and curcumin addition in the dispersed phase of the nanoemulsions caused an increase in the size of the oil droplets from 78.6 ± 0.2 nm to 83.6 ± 0.3 nm and from 78.6 ± 0.2 nm to 165.6 ± 1.0 nm, respectively. Loaded nanoemulsions, in both cases, were stable for 60 days of storage at 25 °C. EPR spectroscopy revealed participation of vitamin D3 and curcumin in the surfactants monolayer. In vitro release rates of both lipophilic compounds from the nanoemulsions were comparable to the corresponding ones from the nanoemulsion-based hydrogels. The developed o/w nanoemulsions did not exhibit cytotoxic effect up to the concentration threshold of 1 mg/mL in the cell culture medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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Article
Structural Study of (Hydroxypropyl)Methyl Cellulose Microemulsion-Based Gels Used for Biocompatible Encapsulations
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112204 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
(Hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC) can be used to form gels integrating a w/o microemulsion. The formulation in which a microemulsion is mixed with a hydrated HPMC matrix has been successfully used as a carrier of biocompatible ingredients. However, little is known about the structure [...] Read more.
(Hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC) can be used to form gels integrating a w/o microemulsion. The formulation in which a microemulsion is mixed with a hydrated HPMC matrix has been successfully used as a carrier of biocompatible ingredients. However, little is known about the structure of these systems. To elucidate this, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology and the bulk of the microemulsion-based gels (MBGs) and small-angle X-ray scattering to clarify the structure and detect any residual reverse micelles after microemulsion incorporation in the gel. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied using spin probes to investigate the polar and non-polar areas of the gel. Furthermore, the enzyme-labelling technique was followed to investigate the location of an enzyme in the matrix. A structural model for HPMC matrix is proposed according to which, although a w/o microemulsion is essential to form the final gel, no microemulsion droplets can be detected after incorporation in the gel. Channels are formed by the organic solvent (oil), which are coated by surfactant molecules and a water layer in which the enzyme can be hosted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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Article
Biocompatible PEO-b-PCL Nanosized Micelles as Drug Carriers: Structure and Drug–Polymer Interactions
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091872 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
We report on the preparation of drug nanocarriers by encapsulating losartan potassium (LSR) into amphiphilic block copolymer micelles, utilizing the biocompatible/biodegradable poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) diblock copolymer. The PEO-b-PCL micelles and LSR-loaded PEO-b-PCL nanocarriers were prepared by organic solvent evaporation method (OSEM). Light scattering [...] Read more.
We report on the preparation of drug nanocarriers by encapsulating losartan potassium (LSR) into amphiphilic block copolymer micelles, utilizing the biocompatible/biodegradable poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) diblock copolymer. The PEO-b-PCL micelles and LSR-loaded PEO-b-PCL nanocarriers were prepared by organic solvent evaporation method (OSEM). Light scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provide information on micelle structure and polymer–drug interactions. According to dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, the PEO-b-PCL micelles and LSR-loaded PEO-b-PCL nanocarriers formed nanostructures in the range of 17–26 nm in aqueous milieu. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) measurements confirmed the presence of LSR in the polymeric drug solutions. NMR results proved the successful encapsulation of LSR into the PEO-b-PCL micelles by analyzing the drug–micelles intermolecular interactions. Specifically, 2D-NOESY experiments clearly evidenced the intermolecular interactions between the biphenyl ring and butyl chain of LSR structure with the methylene signals of PCL. Additionally, NMR studies as a function of temperature demonstrated an unexpected, enhanced proton mobility of the PEO-b-PCL micellar core in D2O solutions, probably caused by the melting of the PCL hydrophobic core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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Article
Curcumin and Quercetin-Loaded Nanoemulsions: Physicochemical Compatibility Study and Validation of a Simultaneous Quantification Method
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091650 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Biphasic oil/water nanoemulsions have been proposed as delivery systems for the intranasal administration of curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU), due to their high drug entrapment efficiency, the possibility of simultaneous drug administration and protection of the encapsulated compounds from degradation. To better understand [...] Read more.
Biphasic oil/water nanoemulsions have been proposed as delivery systems for the intranasal administration of curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU), due to their high drug entrapment efficiency, the possibility of simultaneous drug administration and protection of the encapsulated compounds from degradation. To better understand the physicochemical and biological performance of the selected formulation simultaneously co-encapsulating CUR and QU, a stability test of the compound mixture was firstly carried out using X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The determination and quantification of the encapsulated active compounds were then carried out being an essential parameter for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Thus, a new HPLC–UV/Vis method for the simultaneous determination of CUR and QU in the nanoemulsions was developed and validated. The X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that no interaction between the mixture of active ingredients, if any, is strong enough to take place in the solid state. Moreover, the thermal analysis demonstrated that the CUR and QU are stable in the nanoemulsion production temperature range. The proposed analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of the two actives was selective and linear for both compounds in the range of 0.5–12.5 µg/mL (R2 > 0.9997), precise (RSD below 3%), robust and accurate (recovery 100 ± 5 %). The method was validated in accordance with ICH Q2 R1 “Validation of Analytical Procedures” and CDER-FDA “Validation of chromatographic methods” guideline. Furthermore, the low limit of detection (LOD 0.005 µg/mL for CUR and 0.14 µg/mL for QU) and the low limit of quantification (LOQ 0.017 µg/mL for CUR and 0.48 µg/mL for QU) of the method were suitable for the application to drug release and permeation studies planned for the development of the nanoemulsions. The method was then applied for the determination of nanoemulsions CUR and QU encapsulation efficiencies (> 99%), as well as for the stability studies of the two compounds in simulated biological fluids over time. The proposed method represents, to our knowledge, the only method for the simultaneous quantification of CUR and QU in nanoemulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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Review

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Review
Biocompatibility of Biomaterials for Nanoencapsulation: Current Approaches
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091649 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Nanoencapsulation is an approach to circumvent shortcomings such as reduced bioavailability, undesirable side effects, frequent dosing and unpleasant organoleptic properties of conventional drug delivery systems. The process of nanoencapsulation involves the use of biomaterials such as surfactants and/or polymers, often in combination with [...] Read more.
Nanoencapsulation is an approach to circumvent shortcomings such as reduced bioavailability, undesirable side effects, frequent dosing and unpleasant organoleptic properties of conventional drug delivery systems. The process of nanoencapsulation involves the use of biomaterials such as surfactants and/or polymers, often in combination with charge inducers and/or ligands for targeting. The biomaterials selected for nanoencapsulation processes must be as biocompatible as possible. The type(s) of biomaterials used for different nanoencapsulation approaches are highlighted and their use and applicability with regard to haemo- and, histocompatibility, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenesis are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
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