Special Issue "Advanced Carbon Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties and Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marianna V. Kharlamova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/2, 1060 Vienna, Austria
2. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Russia
Interests: carbon nanomaterials; carbon nanotubes; graphene; chemical functionalization; Raman spectroscopy; growth kinetics; electronic properties
Dr. Christian Kramberger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: graphene; carbon nanotubes; electron microscopy; electron energy loss spectroscopy; photoemission spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy
Dr. Alexander Chernov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Russian Quantum Center, Skolkovo innovation city, 30 Bolshoy Bulvar, Moscow, Russia
2. Center for Photonics and 2D Materials, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Russia
Interests: graphene nanoribbons; photoluminescence spectroscopy; optical absorption spectroscopy; ultrafast laser spectroscopy; magneto-optics; carbon nanotube separation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,


Carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene nanoribbons, 2D heterostructures, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and related carbon nanostructures) are a wide class of materials that reflect the chemical versatility of carbon. They provide unique systems where beautifully simple concepts of low-dimensional physics and chemistry can be explored in experimental materials science. The inherent appeal of simple physics and chemistry is, however, intimately coupled to a plethora of exceptional material properties. These give rise to the fascinating physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of carbon nanomaterials. The unusual properties have triggered right from the beginning an ever-growing and unstoppable avalanche of fundamental and applied research. Today, fundamental research on carbon nanomaterials has matured, and the ongoing research is expanding toward applications. Functional carbon nanostructures have strong application potential in such fields as electronics, energy storage devices, catalysis, sensors, spintronics, photovoltaics, light emission, construction materials, and nanomedicine.


This Special issue will focus on the synthesis, purification, sorting, functionalization, characterization, chemical and physical properties, application, theory, and modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene nanoribbons, 2D heterostructures, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and other novel carbon nanostructures. The issue is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent and forthcoming progress in the field. It will help researchers to quickly find and identify related and relevant publications for their own work on carbon nanostructures.

 

We invite interested authors to submit their original experimental and theoretical papers as well as review articles themed within the subject for inclusion in this Special issue, which will boost the visibility of their work.

Dr. Marianna V. Kharlamova
Dr. Christian Kramberger
Dr. Alexander Chernov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbon nanostructure
  • Carbon nanotube
  • Graphene
  • Graphene nanoribbon
  • 2D heterostructure
  • Synthesis
  • Sorting
  • Functionalization
  • Characterization
  • Chemical and physical properties
  • Application
  • Theory and modeling

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
The Role of Temperature on the Degree of End-Closing and Filling of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123365 - 11 Dec 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio and hollow core, can be employed as hosts for adsorbed and/or encapsulated molecules. At high temperatures, the ends of CNTs close spontaneously, which is relevant for several applications, including catalysis, gas storage, and [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio and hollow core, can be employed as hosts for adsorbed and/or encapsulated molecules. At high temperatures, the ends of CNTs close spontaneously, which is relevant for several applications, including catalysis, gas storage, and biomedical imaging and therapy. This study highlights the influence of the annealing temperature in the range between 400 and 1100 °C on the structure and morphology of single-walled CNTs. The nitrogen adsorption and density functional theory calculations indicate that the fraction of end-closed CNTs increases with temperature. Raman spectroscopy reveals that the thermal treatment does not alter the tubular structure. Insight is also provided into the efficacy of CNTs filling from the molten phase, depending on the annealing temperature. The CNTs are filled with europium (III) chloride and analyzed by using electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confirming the presence of filling and closed ends. The filling yield increases with temperature, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results show that the apparent surface area of CNTs, fraction of closed ends, and amount of encapsulated payload can be tailored via annealing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Temperature-Dependent Growth of 36 Inner Nanotubes inside Nickelocene, Cobaltocene and Ferrocene-Filled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112984 - 06 Nov 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
We have investigated the effects of temperature, diameter and metal catalyst type on the growth of inner nanotubes inside metallocene-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The effects on the yield of different chiralities of inner nanotubes were scrutinized by multifrequency Raman spectroscopy. The investigated [...] Read more.
We have investigated the effects of temperature, diameter and metal catalyst type on the growth of inner nanotubes inside metallocene-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The effects on the yield of different chiralities of inner nanotubes were scrutinized by multifrequency Raman spectroscopy. The investigated diameters range from ~0.7 to 1.3 nm and comprise 36 distinct chiralities. For all three investigated metals (Ni, Co, Fe), there is a linear correlation of growth temperature with nanotube diameter. The common slope for these metals is found to be 40.5 °C/Å. The temperature difference between the largest and the smallest diameter tubes amounts to ~230 °C for all three precursors. The growth temperatures are offset by 34 °C from Ni to Co and another 28 °C from Co to Fe. The quantified correlations of temperature, diameter and metal catalyst type provide the basis for engineering the diameter-specific growth of nanotubes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of the Piezoelectric Properties of Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112912 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
Recent studies reveal that carbon nanostructures show anomalous piezoelectric properties when the central symmetry of their structure is violated. Particular focus is given to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with initial significant curvature of the graphene sheet surface, which leads to an asymmetric redistribution of [...] Read more.
Recent studies reveal that carbon nanostructures show anomalous piezoelectric properties when the central symmetry of their structure is violated. Particular focus is given to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with initial significant curvature of the graphene sheet surface, which leads to an asymmetric redistribution of the electron density. This paper presents the results of studies on the piezoelectric properties of aligned multi-walled CNTs. An original technique for evaluating the effective piezoelectric coefficient of CNTs is presented. For the first time, in this study, we investigate the influence of the growth temperature and thickness of the catalytic Ni layer on the value of the piezoelectric coefficient of CNTs. We establish the relationship between the effective piezoelectric coefficient of CNTs and their defectiveness and diameter, which determines the curvature of the graphene sheet surface. The calculated values of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of CNTs are shown to be between 0.019 and 0.413 C/m2, depending on the degree of their defectiveness and diameter. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metal Cluster Size-Dependent Activation Energies of Growth of Single-Chirality Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes inside Metallocene-Filled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102649 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 427
Abstract
By combining in situ annealing and Raman spectroscopy measurements, the growth dynamics of nine individual-chirality inner tubes (8,8), (12,3), (13,1), (9,6), (10,4), (11,2), (11,1), (9,3) and (9,2) with diameters from ~0.8 to 1.1 nm are monitored using a time resolution of several minutes. [...] Read more.
By combining in situ annealing and Raman spectroscopy measurements, the growth dynamics of nine individual-chirality inner tubes (8,8), (12,3), (13,1), (9,6), (10,4), (11,2), (11,1), (9,3) and (9,2) with diameters from ~0.8 to 1.1 nm are monitored using a time resolution of several minutes. The growth mechanism of inner tubes implies two successive stages of the growth on the carburized and purely metallic catalytic particles, respectively, which are formed as a result of the thermally induced decomposition of metallocenes inside the outer SWCNTs. The activation energies of the growth on carburized Ni and Co catalytic particles amount to 1.85–2.57 eV and 1.80–2.71 eV, respectively. They decrease monotonically as the tube diameter decreases, independent of the metal type. The activation energies of the growth on purely metallic Ni and Co particles equal 1.49–1.91 eV and 0.77–1.79 eV, respectively. They increase as the tube diameter decreases. The activation energies of the growth of large-diameter tubes (dt = ~0.95–1.10 nm) on Ni catalyst are significantly larger than on Co catalyst, whereas the values of small-diameter tubes (dt = ~0.80–0.95 nm) are similar. For both metals, no dependence of the activation energies on the chirality of inner tubes is observed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nickelocene-Filled Purely Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Sorting and Tuning the Electronic Properties
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102500 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
We conducted the filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with nickelocene molecules and separation of the filled SWCNTs by conductivity type by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. We tailored the electronic properties of nickelocene-filled purely metallic SWCNTs by thermal treatment in high vacuum. Our results demonstrated [...] Read more.
We conducted the filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with nickelocene molecules and separation of the filled SWCNTs by conductivity type by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. We tailored the electronic properties of nickelocene-filled purely metallic SWCNTs by thermal treatment in high vacuum. Our results demonstrated that annealing at low temperatures (360–600 °C) leads to n-doping of SWCNTs, whereas annealing at high temperatures (680–1200 °C) results in p-doping of SWCNTs. We found a correlation between the chemical state of the incorporated substances at different annealing temperatures and its influence on the electronic properties of SWCNTs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Oxidative Desulfurization Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid Supported on Hierarchical Porous Carbons
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092369 - 12 Sep 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
A hierarchical porous carbon material (HPC) with an ultra-high specific surface area was synthesized with sisal fiber (SF) as a precursor, and then H3PW12O40·24H2O (HPW) was immobilized on the support of SF-HPC by a simple [...] Read more.
A hierarchical porous carbon material (HPC) with an ultra-high specific surface area was synthesized with sisal fiber (SF) as a precursor, and then H3PW12O40·24H2O (HPW) was immobilized on the support of SF-HPC by a simple impregnation method. A series characterization technology approved that the obtained SF-HPC had a high surface area of 3152.46 m2g−1 with micropores and macropores. HPW was well-dispersed on the surface of the SF-HPC support, which reduced the loading of HPW to as low as 5%. HPW/SF-HPW showed excellent catalytic performance for oxidative desulfurization, and the desulfurization rate reached almost 100% under the optimal reaction conditions. The desulfurization rate of HPW/SF-HPW could be maintained at above 94% after four recycles. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Organic–Inorganic Ternary Nanohybrids of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Room Temperature Chemiresistive Ethanol Detection
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122552 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Organic–inorganic ternary nanohybrids consisting of oxidized-single walled carbon nanohorns-SnO2-polyvinylpyrrolidone (ox-SWCNH/SnO2/PVP) with stoichiometry 1/1/1 and 2/1/1 and ox-SWCNH/ZnO/PVP = 5/2/1 and 5/3/2 (all mass ratios) were synthesized and characterized as sensing films of chemiresistive test structures for ethanol vapor detection [...] Read more.
Organic–inorganic ternary nanohybrids consisting of oxidized-single walled carbon nanohorns-SnO2-polyvinylpyrrolidone (ox-SWCNH/SnO2/PVP) with stoichiometry 1/1/1 and 2/1/1 and ox-SWCNH/ZnO/PVP = 5/2/1 and 5/3/2 (all mass ratios) were synthesized and characterized as sensing films of chemiresistive test structures for ethanol vapor detection in dry air, in the range from 0 up to 50 mg/L. All the sensing films had an ox-SWCNH concentration in the range of 33.3–62.5 wt%. A comparison between the transfer functions and the response and recovery times of these sensing devices has shown that the structures with ox-SWCNH/SnO2/PVP = 1/1/1 have the highest relative sensitivities of 0.0022 (mg/L)−1, while the devices with ox-SWCNH/SnO2/PVP = 2/1/1 have the lowest response time (15 s) and recovery time (50 s) for a room temperature operation, proving the key role of carbonic material in shaping the static and dynamic performance of the sensor. These response and recovery times are lower than those of “heated” commercial sensors. The sensing mechanism is explained in terms of the overall response of a p-type semiconductor, where ox-SWCNH percolated between electrodes of the sensor, shunting the heterojunctions made between n-type SnO2 or ZnO and p-type ox-SWCNH. The hard–soft acid–base (HSAB) principle supports this mechanism. The low power consumption of these devices, below 2 mW, and the sensing performances at room temperature may open new avenues towards ethanol sensors for passive samplers of environment monitoring, alcohol test portable instruments and wireless network sensors for Internet of Things applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Control of Fermi level shifts in single-walled carbon nanotubes by filling with halogenides of 3d, 4d, 4f, 5s and 6p metals
Authors: Marianna V. Kharlamova1,2, Christian Kramberger3, Dominik Eder1
Affiliation: 1 Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/2, 1060 Vienna, Austria, 2 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutskii pereulok 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Russia, 3 Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Abstract: We performed the filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with halogenides of 3d, 4d, 4f, 5s and 6p metals (AgCl, CdI2, TbCl3, RbI and PbCl2, respectively). The filling was conformed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electronic properties of the filled SWCNTs were studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shows that despite the similar filling procedure of SWCNTs, the encapsulated salts cause different Fermi level shifts of SWCNTs by -0.4 (AgCl), -0.3 (CdI2), -0.4 (TbCl3),+0.2 (RbI) and -0.15 eV (PbCl2), i.e. AgCl, CdI2, TbCl3 and PbCl2 lead to p-doping of SWCNTs and RbI causes n-doping of SWCNTs. This demonstrates the dependence of Fermi level position in filled SWCNTs on the embedded salt. The possibility of control of Fermi level shifts of SWCNTs by filling with appropriate substances puts filled SWCNTs step forward toward applications.

Back to TopTop