Special Issue "Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carlos Negro
Website
Guest Editor
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanocellulose; paper technology; water treatment; industrial processes; fibre–cement
Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Concepcion Monte
Website
Guest Editor
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanocellulose; paper technology; water treatment; industrial processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanocelluloses (NCs) are bio-based nano-structured products that open up new solutions for natural material sciences. In recent years, many research groups and industries have been extensively working on ground-breaking innovations for the characterization and production of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), making possible new potential applications in many different areas, such as composites, paper and board, packaging, paints and coatings, oil and gas, personal care, cosmetics, UV filters, medical implants, antibacterial materials, drug delivery, 3D printing, inks, food stabilizers, functional food ingredients, food and beverages, super-absorbents, environmental and wastewater treatments, metal removal, membrane filtration, CO2 adsorption, agriculture, insulators, fire retardants, batteries, biosensors, flexible electronics, energy storage, cement industry, textiles, sports footwear, plastics, rheology modifiers, etc.. In summary, NCs open up an endless number of applications.

This Special Issue aims to cover a broad range of NCs applications in the industry. Full papers, short communications, and reviews are welcome.

Submissions with outstanding contributions to accelerate the generation of new knowledge and to make significant advances in the industrial use of NCs are especially welcome.

Prof. Dr. Carlos Negro
Prof. Dr. M. Concepcion Monte
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanocellulose
  • cellulose nanofiber (CNF)
  • cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)
  • cellulose microfibrillated (CMF)
  • bacteria nanocellulose (BC)
  • cellulose nanomaterials
  • nanocellulose hydrogels
  • nanocellulose aerogels
  • cellulose nanostructured materials
  • nanocellulose applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Microcrystalline Cellulose Extracted from Native Plants as an Excipient for Solid Dosage Formulations in Drug Delivery
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050975 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
Excipients represent the complement of the active principle in any pharmaceutical form. Their function is to provide stability, protection, and to ensure absorption of the drug and acceptability in patients. Cellulose is a conventional excipient in many pharmaceutical solid dosage products. Most of [...] Read more.
Excipients represent the complement of the active principle in any pharmaceutical form. Their function is to provide stability, protection, and to ensure absorption of the drug and acceptability in patients. Cellulose is a conventional excipient in many pharmaceutical solid dosage products. Most of the sources used to extract microcrystalline cellulose come from cotton or wood, which are expensive and in high demand from other industries. As plants are considered the main source of excipient production, we have taken advantage of the biodiversity of Ecuador to evaluate microcrystalline cellulose extracted from borojó (Alibertia patinoi), a native plant, as an excipient for solid dosage formulations. The method of choice for tablet manufacturing was direct compression since it is a conventional fabrication method in the pharmaceutical industry. First, we performed scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to compare the structure and characteristics of the extracted cellulose with two reference commercial cellulose materials. Second, we performed quality tests to evaluate the use of the isolate as an excipient including fluidity, hardness, friability, and disintegration. Compared with commercial and microcrystalline cellulose, the extracted cellulose from the native plant showed comparable characteristics and is consequently a potential excipient that could be used in the pharmaceutical industry. Last, we performed a dissolution test in which we concluded that all tablets have a short release time of active principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bacterial Cellulose for the Production of Nanocrystals for the Food Packaging Industry
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040735 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis have been loaded in pullulan biopolymer for use as nanoparticles in the generation of high-oxygen barrier coatings intended for food packaging applications. Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans was hydrolyzed by two different enzymatic [...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis have been loaded in pullulan biopolymer for use as nanoparticles in the generation of high-oxygen barrier coatings intended for food packaging applications. Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans was hydrolyzed by two different enzymatic treatments, i.e., using endo-1,4-β-glucanases (EGs) from Thermobifida halotolerans and cellulase from Trichoderma reesei. The hydrolytic activity was compared by means of turbidity experiments over a period of 145 h, whereas BCNCs in their final state were compared, in terms of size and morphology, by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Though both treatments led to particles of similar size, a greater amount of nano-sized particles (≈250 nm) were observed in the system that also included cellulase enzymes. Unexpectedly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that cellulose nanoparticles were round-shaped and made of 4–5 short (150–180 nm) piled whiskers. Pullulan/BCNCs nanocomposite coatings allowed an increase in the overall oxygen barrier performance, of more than two and one orders of magnitude (≈0.7 mL·m−2·24 h−1), of pure polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (≈120 mL·m−2·24 h−1) as well as pullulan/coated PET (≈6 mL·m−2·24 h−1), with no significant difference between treatments (hydrolysis mediated by EGs or with the addition of cellulase). BCNCs obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to generate high oxygen barrier coatings for the food packaging industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
White Magnetic Paper with Zero Remanence Based on Electrospun Cellulose Microfibers Doped with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030517 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The preparation procedure of zero magnetic remanence superparamagnetic white paper by means of three-layer membrane configuration (sandwiched structure) is presented. The cellulose acetate fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning. The middle membrane layer was magnetically loaded by impregnation with an aqueous ferrofluid of [...] Read more.
The preparation procedure of zero magnetic remanence superparamagnetic white paper by means of three-layer membrane configuration (sandwiched structure) is presented. The cellulose acetate fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning. The middle membrane layer was magnetically loaded by impregnation with an aqueous ferrofluid of 8 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles colloidally stabilized with a double layer of oleic acid. The nanoparticles show zero magnetic remanence due to their very small diameters and their soft magnetic properties. Changing the ferrofluid magnetic nanoparticle volume fraction, white papers with zero magnetic remanence and tunable saturation magnetization in the range of 0.5–3.5 emu/g were prepared. The dark coloring of the paper owing to the presence of the black magnetite nanoparticles was concealed by the external layers of pristine white cellulose acetate electrospun fibrous membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Acetaminophen Release from Biodegradable Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) and Nanocellulose Films Using a Multiphase Release Mechanism
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020301 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biodegradable polymers hold great therapeutic value, especially through the addition of additives for controlled drug release. Nanocellulose has shown promise in drug delivery, yet usually requires chemical crosslinking with harsh acids and solvents. Nanocellulose fibrils (NFCs) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidized nanocellulose fibrils (TNFCs) [...] Read more.
Biodegradable polymers hold great therapeutic value, especially through the addition of additives for controlled drug release. Nanocellulose has shown promise in drug delivery, yet usually requires chemical crosslinking with harsh acids and solvents. Nanocellulose fibrils (NFCs) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidized nanocellulose fibrils (TNFCs) with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) could be aqueously formulated to control the release of model drug acetaminophen over 144 h. The release was evaluated with a multiphase release mechanism to determine which mechanism(s) contribute to the overall release and to what degree. Doing so indicated that the TNFCs in PVA control the release of acetaminophen more than NFCs in PVA. Modeling showed that this release was mostly due to burst release—drug coming off the immediate surface, rather than diffusing out of the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers: A Potential Bio-Based Superabsorbent for Diaper Production
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091271 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Single-use plastics are expected to disappear, mainly due to the rise of stricter regulations to combat their impact on the environment. As an example, the recent European Directive on Single-Use-Plastics (SUP) will be implemented between 2021 and 2024 and will directly prohibit the [...] Read more.
Single-use plastics are expected to disappear, mainly due to the rise of stricter regulations to combat their impact on the environment. As an example, the recent European Directive on Single-Use-Plastics (SUP) will be implemented between 2021 and 2024 and will directly prohibit the use of some SUP. Baby diapers are one of the most used single-used products in our daily lives, and it is estimated that most of the ~4000 diapers that each baby uses in their life go to landfill. Such diapers usually contain superabsorbent polymers (SAP) that are based on acrylic acid-acrylamide mixtures with high water retention capacity, but they are neither bio-based nor biodegradable. In this work, we have developed bio-based superabsorbent aerogels made of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and propose their potential use in baby diapers. TEMPO-oxidized CNF at different oxidation degrees were prepared and tested. The obtained CNF exhibited higher free swelling capacity (FSC) than the commercial fluff pulp (ranging from 117.62% to 245.21% higher) and also than the diaper absorbent, except for CNF-5 (ranging from 31.56% to 54.55%), even under compression. Overall, the present work shows a case study where CNF could have a potential application with market opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nanocelluloses and Related Materials Applicable in Thermal Management of Electronic Devices: A Review
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030448 - 02 Mar 2020
Abstract
Owing to formidable advances in the electronics industry, efficient heat removal in electronic devices has been an urgent issue. For thermal management, electrically insulating materials that have higher thermal conductivities are desired. Recently, nanocelluloses (NCs) and related materials have been intensely studied because [...] Read more.
Owing to formidable advances in the electronics industry, efficient heat removal in electronic devices has been an urgent issue. For thermal management, electrically insulating materials that have higher thermal conductivities are desired. Recently, nanocelluloses (NCs) and related materials have been intensely studied because they possess outstanding properties and can be produced from renewable resources. This article gives an overview of NCs and related materials potentially applicable in thermal management. Thermal conduction in dielectric materials arises from phonons propagation. We discuss the behavior of phonons in NCs as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Open AccessReview
The Nanofication and Functionalization of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030406 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since economic and environmental issues have become critical in the last several years, the amount of sustainable bio-based production has increased. In this article, microbial polysaccharides, including bacterial cellulose (BC), are analyzed as promising resources with the potential for applications in biofields and [...] Read more.
Since economic and environmental issues have become critical in the last several years, the amount of sustainable bio-based production has increased. In this article, microbial polysaccharides, including bacterial cellulose (BC), are analyzed as promising resources with the potential for applications in biofields and non-biofields. Many scientists have established various methods of BC production, nanofication, and functionalization. In particular, this review will address the essential advances in recent years focusing on nanofication methods and nanoficated BC applications as well as functionalization methods and functionalized BC applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanocellulose in the Industry)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bacterial Cellulose for The Production of Nanocrystals for the Food Packaging Industry
Authors: Cesare Rovera 1, Filippo Fiori 1, Silvia Trabattoni 2, Diego Romano 1,3 and Stefano Farris 1,3,*
Affiliations:
1 DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milan, Italy
2 Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milan, Italy
3 INSTM, National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Local Unit University of Milan, via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milan, Italy
Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have been used as a new generation of nanoparticles in different fields. While CNCs have outstanding performance (e.g., in terms of mechanical properties), their production mainly relies on chemical routes that make use of harsh reagents. Finding cleaner alternatives is therefore of great interest in light of the increasing attention to green chemistry approaches.  In this work, we have evaluated the obtainment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via enzymatic hydrolysis. To this scope, bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans was used. The hydrolytic effect of two enzymes (endo-1,4-β-glucanases and cellulase from Trichoderma reesei) with different hydrolytic activity was compared by means of turbidity experiments over a period of 145 h. Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) arising from the two different enzymes were compared in terms of size and morphology by TEM and AFM. BCNCs were used as a reinforcement of biopolymer coatings deposited on PET for the food packaging industry. The positive effect arising from the addition of BCNCs in the main pullulan coating was evaluated in terms of oxygen barrier properties. Noticeably, the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the pullulan/BCNCs-coated PET film was below 1 mL/m-2 24h-1, demonstrating the potential of BCNCs for the generation of high oxygen barrier coatings.

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