Special Issue "Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanofabrication and Nanomanufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José Luis Barriada Pereira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, 15071 Campus da Zapateira, Spain
Interests: ionic interactions; acid-base properties; adsorption; green technologies; nanoparticles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology is a research field that has experienced enormous expansion and a rise in scientific interest in recent years. However, interest is also rising in the anthropogenic effect into the environment. Consequently, alternative efficient procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles are also on the focus of research. Cost-effective nanoparticle synthesis pathways, using renewable resources or employing byproducts of other activities are attracting scientists’ interest, in line with a world immersed in the circular economy concept. The use of complex matrixes, sometimes not well defined, is not free of new scientific challenges and limitations. This Special Issue will describe green synthesis approaches for the preparation of metallic nanoparticles and their applications.

Dr. José Luis Barriada Pereira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metallic nanoparticles
  • metal–oxide nanoparticles
  • green synthesis
  • circular economy
  • cost-effective processes
  • renewable resources
  • low-cost materials
  • redox behavior of metals

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Green Synthesis of Iron-Doped Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles from Palm Kernel Oil via Co-Precipitation and Structural Characterization
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112833 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
In this study, a bio-derived precipitating agent/ligand, palm kernel oil, has been used as an alternative route for the green synthesis of nanoparticles of Fe-doped Co3O4 via the co-precipitation reaction. The palm oil was extracted from dried palm kernel seeds [...] Read more.
In this study, a bio-derived precipitating agent/ligand, palm kernel oil, has been used as an alternative route for the green synthesis of nanoparticles of Fe-doped Co3O4 via the co-precipitation reaction. The palm oil was extracted from dried palm kernel seeds by crushing, squeezing and filtration. The reaction of the palm kernel oil with potassium hydroxide, under reflux, yielded a solution containing a mixture of potassium carboxylate and excess hydroxide ions, irrespective of the length of saponification. The as-obtained solution reacts with an aqueous solution containing iron and cobalt ions to yield the desired metallo-organic precursor, iron cobalt carboxylate. Characterization of the precursors by IR and gas chromatography (GC) attests to the presence of carboxylate fatty acids in good agreement with the proportion contained in the oil, and ICP confirms that the metallic ratios are in the proportion used during the synthesis. Analysis of the products thermally decomposed between 400 °C and 600 °C by XRD, EDX, TEM and ToF-SIMS, established that cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (Co(1−x)Fex)3O4 were obtained for x ≤ 0.2 and a nanocomposite material (Co(1−x)Fex)3O4/Fe3O4 for x ≥ 0.2, with sizes between 22 and 9 nm. ToF-SIMS and XRD provided direct evidence of the progressive substitution of cobalt by iron in the Co3O4 crystal structure for x ≤ 0.2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Morphological Analysis of PSMA/PEI Core–Shell Nanoparticles Synthesized by Soap-Free Emulsion Polymerization
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081958 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Emulsion polymerization presents the disadvantage that the physical properties of polymer particles are altered by surfactant adsorption. Therefore, in the soap-free emulsion polymerization method, a hydrophilic initiator is utilized while inducing repulsion among particles on the polymer particle surface, resulting in stable polymer [...] Read more.
Emulsion polymerization presents the disadvantage that the physical properties of polymer particles are altered by surfactant adsorption. Therefore, in the soap-free emulsion polymerization method, a hydrophilic initiator is utilized while inducing repulsion among particles on the polymer particle surface, resulting in stable polymer particle production. In this study, we developed a methodology wherein spherical and uniform poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) core–shell nanoparticles were prepared. Further, their morphology was analyzed. During PSMA polymerization, the addition of up to 30% maleic anhydride (MA) resulted in stable polymerization. In PSMA/PEI nanoparticle fabrication, the number of reactants increased with increased initial monomer feed amounts; consequently, the particle size increased, and as the complete monomer consumption time increased, the particle distribution widened. The styrene (St) copolymer acted as a stabilizer, reducing particle size and narrowing particle distribution. Furthermore, the monomers were more rapidly consumed at high initiator concentrations, irrespective of the initiator used, resulting in increased particle stability and narrowed particle distribution. The shell thickness and particle size were PEI feed ratio dependent, with 0.08 being the optimal PEI-to-MA ratio. The fabricated nanoparticles possess immense potential for application in environmental science and in chemical and health care industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Hydrotalcite-Embedded Magnetite Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia-Triggered Chemotherapy
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071796 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 747
Abstract
A magnetic nanocomposite, consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded into a Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) matrix, was developed for cancer multimodal therapy, based on the combination of local magnetic hyperthermia and thermally induced drug delivery. The synthesis procedure involves the [...] Read more.
A magnetic nanocomposite, consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded into a Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) matrix, was developed for cancer multimodal therapy, based on the combination of local magnetic hyperthermia and thermally induced drug delivery. The synthesis procedure involves the sequential hydrolysis of iron salts (Fe2+, Fe3+) and Mg2+/Al3+ nitrates in a carbonate-rich mild alkaline environment followed by the loading of 5-fluorouracil, an anionic anticancer drug, in the interlayer LDH space. Magnetite nanoparticles with a diameter around 30 nm, dispersed in water, constitute the hyperthermia-active phase able to generate a specific loss of power of around 500 W/g-Fe in an alternating current (AC) magnetic field of 24 kA/m and 300 kHz as determined by AC magnetometry and calorimetric measurements. Heat transfer was found to trigger a very rapid release of drug which reached 80% of the loaded mass within 10 min exposure to the applied field. The potential of the Fe3O4/LDH nanocomposites as cancer treatment agents with minimum side-effects, owing to the exclusive presence of inorganic phases, was validated by cell internalization and toxicity assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antioxidant Capacity Assessment of Plant Extracts for Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071679 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
In this work, water extracts from different bio-based products of plant origin were studied to evaluate their antioxidant capacity and their potential to form metal nanoparticles from aqueous solutions. Two traditional tests, the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity method were [...] Read more.
In this work, water extracts from different bio-based products of plant origin were studied to evaluate their antioxidant capacity and their potential to form metal nanoparticles from aqueous solutions. Two traditional tests, the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity method were compared with a more recent one, SNPAC, based on the formation of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle antioxidant capacity method (SNPAC) was optimized for its application in the characterization of the extracts selected in this work; kinetic studies and extract concentration were also evaluated. The extracts were obtained from leaves of oak, eucalyptus, green tea, white and common thyme, white cedar, mint, rosemary, bay, lemon, and the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The results demonstrate that any of these three methods can be used as a quick test to identify an extract to be employed for nanoparticle formation. Additionally, we studied the synthesis of Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Ag nanoparticles using eucalyptus extracts demonstrating the efficiency of this plant extract to form metallic nanoparticles from aqueous metal salt solutions. Metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Exploiting the Potential of Biosilica from Rice Husk as Porous Support for Catalytically Active Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051259 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Biomass-derived materials are put forward as eco-friendly alternatives to design heterogeneous catalysts. To contribute in this field, we explored the potential of mesoporous biogenic silica (RH-Silica) obtained from lignocellulosic waste, in particular from rice husk, as an inorganic support to prepare heterogenized iron [...] Read more.
Biomass-derived materials are put forward as eco-friendly alternatives to design heterogeneous catalysts. To contribute in this field, we explored the potential of mesoporous biogenic silica (RH-Silica) obtained from lignocellulosic waste, in particular from rice husk, as an inorganic support to prepare heterogenized iron oxide-based catalysts. Mechanochemistry, considered as a green and sustainable technique, was employed to synthetize iron oxide nanoparticles in pure hematite phase onto the biosilica (α-Fe2O3/RH-Silica), making this material a good candidate to perform catalyzed organic reactions. The obtained material was characterized by different techniques, and its catalytic activity was tested in the selective oxidation of styrene under microwave irradiation. α-Fe2O3/RH-Silica displayed a good catalytic performance, achieving a conversion of 45% under optimized conditions, and more importantly, with a total selectivity to benzaldehyde. Furthermore, a good reusability was achieved without decreasing its activity after multiple catalytic cycles. This work represents a good example of using sustainable approaches and green materials as alternatives to conventional methods in the production of high-added value products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Green Synthesis of Platinum and Palladium Nanoparticles Using Peganum harmala L. Seed Alkaloids: Biological and Computational Studies
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040965 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
This study reports a facile and eco-friendly method for the green synthesis of platinum and palladium nanoparticles (Pt NPs and Pd NPs) using Peganum harmala seed alkaloid fraction. The ζ-potential of the synthesized Pt NPs, Pd NPs and Pt–Pd NPs were −11.2 ± [...] Read more.
This study reports a facile and eco-friendly method for the green synthesis of platinum and palladium nanoparticles (Pt NPs and Pd NPs) using Peganum harmala seed alkaloid fraction. The ζ-potential of the synthesized Pt NPs, Pd NPs and Pt–Pd NPs were −11.2 ± 0.5, −9.7 ±1.2, and −12.7 ± 2.1 mV; respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of spherical-shaped nanoparticles with smooth margins. The mean diameters of the synthesized Pt NPs, Pd NPs, and Pt–Pd NPs were determined using TEM analysis and were found to be 20.3 ± 1.9, 22.5 ± 5.7, and 33.5 ± 5.4 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles’ bioreduction was confirmed by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and their organic contents were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The Pt–Pd NPs mixture showed more pronounced antioxidant activity of 843.0 ± 60 μM Trolox equivalent (TE)/mg NPs compared to the individual Pt NPs (277.3 ± 13.5 μM TE/mg NPs) and Pd NPs (167.6 ± 4.8 μM TE/mg NPs). Furthermore, the Pt–Pd NPs exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against lung cancer (A549) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, IC50 of 8.8 and 3.6 µg/mL, respectively; as compared to Pt NPs (IC50 of 10.9 and 6.7 µg/mL, respectively) and Pd NPs (IC50 of 31 and 10.8 µg/mL, respectively and compared to carboplatin (IC50 of 23 and 9.5 µg/mL, respectively). Moreover, molecular docking studies were conducted to explore the possible anticancer and antioxidant mechanisms of the biogenic nanoparticles. Pt NPs, Pd NPs, and their mixture showed inhibitory activity against cysteine proteinase, which supports their high antitumor activity, but moderate antioxidant activity. In conclusion, Pd-Pt NPs mixture prepared using harmala seed alkaloid fraction showed potential as effective antineoplastic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Therapeutic Potential of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles Alone or Combined with Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime®) in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040891 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Background: In recent years, the focus on nanotechnological methods in medicine, especially in the treatment of microbial infections, has increased rapidly. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) green synthesized by Capparis [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, the focus on nanotechnological methods in medicine, especially in the treatment of microbial infections, has increased rapidly. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) green synthesized by Capparis spinosa fruit extract alone and combined with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Methods: CuNPs were green synthesized by C. spinosa methanolic extract. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of CuNPs (10–200 µg/mL) or MA alone (10–200 µg/mL), and various concentrations of MA (10–200 μg/mL) along with 20 μg/mL of CuNPs, was assessed against the Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) amastigote forms and, then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis induced in male BALB/c mice by L. major. Moreover, infectivity rate, nitric oxide (NO) production, and cytotoxic effects of CuNPs on J774-A1 cells were evaluated. Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particle size of CuNPs was 17 to 41 nm. The results demonstrated that CuNPs, especially combined with MA, significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the growth rate of L. major amastigotes and triggered the production of NO (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. CuNPs also had no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. The mean number of parasites was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the infected mice treated with CuNPs, especially combined with MA in a dose-dependent response. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased by 43 and 58 mm after the treatment with concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/mL of CuNPs, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated the high potency and synergistic effect of CuNPs alone and combined with MA in inhibiting the growth of amastigote forms of L. major, as well as recovery and improving cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) induced by L. major in BALB/c mice. Additionally, supplementary studies, especially in clinical settings, are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Green Synthesized Magnetic Nanoparticles as Effective Nanosupport for the Immobilization of Lipase: Application for the Synthesis of Lipophenols
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020458 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
In this work, hybrid zinc oxide–iron oxide (ZnOFe) magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized employing Olea europaea leaf aqueous extract as a reducing/chelating and capping medium. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by basic spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [...] Read more.
In this work, hybrid zinc oxide–iron oxide (ZnOFe) magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized employing Olea europaea leaf aqueous extract as a reducing/chelating and capping medium. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by basic spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), exhibiting a spherical shape, average size of 15–17 nm, and a functionalized surface. Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) was efficiently immobilized on the surface of ZnOFe nanoparticles through physical absorption. The activity of immobilized lipase was found to directly depend on the enzyme to support the mass ratio, and also demonstrated improved pH and temperature activity range compared to free lipase. Furthermore, the novel magnetic nanobiocatalyst (ZnOFe-TLL) was applied to the preparation of hydroxytyrosyl fatty acid esters, including derivatives with omega-3 fatty acids, in non-aqueous media. Conversion yields up to 90% were observed in non-polar solvents, including hydrophobic ionic liquids. Different factors affecting the biocatalyst performance were studied. ZnOFe-TLL was reutilized for eight subsequent cycles, exhibiting 90% remaining esterification activity (720 h of total operation at 50 °C). The green synthesized magnetic nanoparticles, reported here for the first time, are excellent candidates as nanosupports for the immobilization of enzymes with industrial interest, giving rise to nanobiocatalysts with elevated features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Application of ZnO Nanoparticles Phycosynthesized with Ulva fasciata Extract for Preserving Peeled Shrimp Quality
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020385 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were the targets of numerous biological syntheses to attain their precious values in various biomedical fields. The phycosynthesis of ZnONPs were innovatively investigated using cell-free extract of the macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile. The phycosynthesized U. fasciata-zinc oxide [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were the targets of numerous biological syntheses to attain their precious values in various biomedical fields. The phycosynthesis of ZnONPs were innovatively investigated using cell-free extract of the macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile. The phycosynthesized U. fasciata-zinc oxide nanoparticles (UFD-ZnONPs) had 77.81 nm mean size, with flower and sphere shapes and positive zeta potential. The UFD-ZnONPs infra-red analysis indicated their basic components’ cross-linkage. The antibacterial potentialities of UFD-ZnONPs were confirmed, qualitatively and quantitatively, against foodborne microorganisms (Escherichia coli plus Staphylococcus aureus); the bactericidal action was higher for UFD-ZnONPs than the annealed phycosynthesized ZnONPs. The scanning micrographs of S. aureus and E. coli cells treated with UFD-ZnONPs indicated the severe action of nanoparticles to destroy bacterial cells in time-dependent manners. Peeled shrimps (Fenneropenaeus indicus) were biopreservated through refrigerated storage (4 °C) with UFD-ZnONPs based solution for six days. The microbial examination of UFD-ZnONPs -treated shrimps displayed decrease in microbial loads throughout the storage days. Moreover, the UFD-ZnONPs-treated shrimps showed acceptable sensorial attributes (appearance, odor, color and texture) compared to untreated shrimps. UFD-ZnONPs nanocomposite concentration of 3% and 5% could be remarkably suggested as efficient procedure for shrimps’ biopreservation during refrigerated storage regarding sensorial quality and microbial profile of product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) Using Arthrospira platensis (Class: Cyanophyceae) and Evaluation of their Biomedical Activities
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010095 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were successfully fabricated through the harnessing of metabolites present in the cell filtrate of a newly isolated and identified microalga Arthrospira platensis (Class: Cyanophyceae). The formed ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) [...] Read more.
In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were successfully fabricated through the harnessing of metabolites present in the cell filtrate of a newly isolated and identified microalga Arthrospira platensis (Class: Cyanophyceae). The formed ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Data showed the efficacy of cyanobacterial metabolites in fabricating spherical, crystallographic ZnO-NPs with a size ≈30.0 to 55.0 nm at a wavelength of 370 nm. Moreover, FT-IR analysis showed varied absorption peaks related to nanoparticle formation. XPS analysis confirms the presence of Zn(II)O at different varied bending energies. Data analyses exhibit that the activities of biosynthesized ZnO-NPs were dose-dependent. Their application as an antimicrobial agent was examined and formed clear zones, 24.1 ± 0.3, 21.1 ± 0.06, 19.1 ± 0.3, 19.9 ± 0.1, and 21.6 ± 0.6 mm, at 200 ppm against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, respectively, and these activities were reduced as the NPs concentration decreased. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined as 50 ppm for S. aureus, 25 ppm for P. aeruginosa, and 12.5 ppm for B. subtilis, E. coli, and C. albicans. More interestingly, ZnO-NPs exhibit high in vitro cytotoxic efficacy against cancerous (Caco-2) (IC50 = 9.95 ppm) as compared with normal (WI38) cell line (IC50 = 53.34 ppm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Nanoporous Silicon as a Green, High-Tech Educational Tool
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020553 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Pedagogical tools are needed that link multidisciplinary nanoscience and technology (NST) to multiple state-of-the-art applications, including those requiring new fabrication routes relying on green synthesis. These can both educate and motivate the next generation of entrepreneurial NST scientists to create innovative products whilst [...] Read more.
Pedagogical tools are needed that link multidisciplinary nanoscience and technology (NST) to multiple state-of-the-art applications, including those requiring new fabrication routes relying on green synthesis. These can both educate and motivate the next generation of entrepreneurial NST scientists to create innovative products whilst protecting the environment and resources. Nanoporous silicon shows promise as such a tool as it can be fabricated from plants and waste materials, but also embodies many key educational concepts and key industrial uses identified for NST. Specific mechanical, thermal, and optical properties become highly tunable through nanoporosity. We also describe exceptional properties for nanostructured silicon like medical biodegradability and efficient light emission that open up new functionality for this semiconductor. Examples of prior lecture courses and potential laboratory projects are provided, based on the author’s experiences in academic chemistry and physics departments in the USA and UK, together with industrial R&D in the medical, food, and consumer-care sectors. Nanoporous silicon-based lessons that engage students in the basics of entrepreneurship can also readily be identified, including idea generation, intellectual property, and clinical translation of nanomaterial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop