Special Issue "Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Simona Barison
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Technologies for Energy, CNR, Italian National Research Council, Padova 35127, Italy
Interests: nanofluids; PCMs; nanolubricants; nanoparticles; ceramics for energy; membranes
Dr. Filippo Agresti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Technologies for Energy, CNR, Italian National Research Council, Padova 35127, Italy
Interests: nanofluids; nanoemulsions; PCMs; nanolubricants; nanoparticles; magneto- and electroresponsive colloids; metal hydrides
Dr. Laura Fedele
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Construction Technologies Institute, CNR, Italian National Research Council, 35127 Padova, Italy
Interests: HVAC&R applications; nanofluids; PCMs; energy savings
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. David Cabaleiro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Physics, University of Vigo, Vigo 36310, Spain
Interests: heat transfer fluids; nano-enhanced materials; thermophysical properties; rheological behavior

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Colloids have been known for centuries and find innumerable applications in everyday life, from the food industry, to medicine, filtering and purification systems, and so on. In 1995, the colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles with the specific purpose of modifying the functional properties of the fluid itself were identified and defined by Choi as “nanofluids”. Since then, studies on nanofluids have multiplied exponentially. Different types of fluids (water, glycols, alcohols, oils, etc.) containing nanoparticles of various metals, oxides, and carbon nanostructures have been studied. Research has begun on the heat transfer and then expanded by investigating other properties and potential applications, including thermal energy storage, pool boiling, wettability, surface tension, lubrication properties, optical properties particularly absorption of solar radiation, magnetic or electric properties, etc.

However, altough the first prototypes or the first commercial scouting begin to appear, some issues still need to be addressed, such as stability over time and in operating conditions or viscosity increase and pressure drop.

This Special Issue will attempt to explore recent advances in nanofluids, focusing on all aspects of their development: the design, from synthesis methods to new formulations; new potential applications and properties investigated; advances in understanding the behavior of nanoparticles and in modeling; and advancement in engineering and industrialization of nanofluids. This Special Issue also aims to investigate the advances on cutting-edge strategies to deal with issues still to be overcome in the nanofluids development. The intent is to give an overview of the progress of research, including different types of fluids, nanoparticles, colloids or emulsions, particularly focusing on energy aspects including heat exchange efficiency, thermal energy storage, lubrication, and in general on the energy efficiency increase of devices.

Dr. Simona Barison
Dr. Filippo Agresti
Dr. Laura Fedele
Dr. David Cabaleiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanofluids
  • colloids
  • emulsions
  • heat transfer
  • thermal energy storage
  • direct solar absorption
  • lubrication
  • viscosity
  • nano-PCMs
  • stability
  • magneto- and electroresponsive colloids

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081871 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Nowadays, numerous studies on nanomaterials (NMs) and Nanofluids (NFs) are account a plethora of applications. With the scientific society’s common goal of fulfilling the target of sustainable development proposed by the UN by 2030, it is necessary to combine efforts based on the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, numerous studies on nanomaterials (NMs) and Nanofluids (NFs) are account a plethora of applications. With the scientific society’s common goal of fulfilling the target of sustainable development proposed by the UN by 2030, it is necessary to combine efforts based on the scientific and technological knowledge already acquired, to apply these new systems with safety. There are thousands of publications that examine the use of NFs, their benefits and drawbacks, properties, behaviors, etc., but very little is known about the safety of some of these systems at a laboratory and industrial scale. What is the correct form of manipulating, storing, or even destroying them? What is their life cycle, and are they likely to be reused? Depending on the nanoparticles, the characteristics of the base fluid (water, propylene glycol, or even an ionic liquid) and the addition or not of additives/surfactants, the safety issue becomes complex. In this study, general data regarding the safety of NF (synthetic and natural) are discussed, for a necessary reflection leading to the elaboration of a methodology looking at the near future, intended to be sustainable at the level of existing resources, health, and environmental protection, paving the way for safer industrial and medical applications. A discussion on the efficient use of nanofluids with melanin (natural NM) and TiO2 in a pilot heat collector for domestic solar energy applications illustrates this methodology, showing that technical advantages can be restricted by their environment and safety/security implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
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Article
Finite Element Study of Bio-Convective Stefan Blowing Ag-MgO/Water Hybrid Nanofluid Induced by Stretching Cylinder Utilizing Non-Fourier and Non-Fick’s Laws
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071735 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
In the present framework, an analysis on nanofluid magneto-transport phenomena over an extending cylinder influenced by gyrotactic behavior of algal suspension, is made using the Cattaneo–Christov heat flux (non-Fourier) and mass flux (non-Fick’s) concept in modified Buongiorno’s model. Two dimensional incompressible MHD hybrid [...] Read more.
In the present framework, an analysis on nanofluid magneto-transport phenomena over an extending cylinder influenced by gyrotactic behavior of algal suspension, is made using the Cattaneo–Christov heat flux (non-Fourier) and mass flux (non-Fick’s) concept in modified Buongiorno’s model. Two dimensional incompressible MHD hybrid nanofluid which comprises chemically reactive hybrid nanomaterials (Ag-MgO NPs) and Stefan blowing effect along with multiple slips is considered. The experimental correlations with their dependency on initial nanoparticle volume fraction are used for viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Similarity transformation is used to convert the governing PDE’s into non-linear ODE’s along with boundary conditions, which are solved using the Galerkin Finite Element Method (GFEM). The mesh independent test with different boundary layer thickness (ξ) has been conducted by taking both linear and quadratic shape functions to achieve a optimal desired value. The results are calculated for a realistic range of physical parameters. The validation of FEM results shows an excellent correlation with MATLAB bvp5c subroutine. The warmth exhibitions are assessed through modified version of Buongiorno’s model which effectively reflects the significant highlights of Stefan blowing, slip, curvature, free stream, thermophoresis, Brownian motion and bio-convection parameters. The present study in cylindrical domain is relevant to novel microbial fuel cell technologies utilizing hybrid nanoparticles and concept of Stefan blowing with bioconvection phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
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Article
Laminar Pipe Flow with Mixed Convection under the Influence of Magnetic Field
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030824 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Magnetic influence on ferronanofluid flow is gaining increasing interest from not only the scientific community but also industry. The aim of this study is the examination of the potentials of magnetic forces to control heat transfer. Experiments are conducted to investigate the interaction [...] Read more.
Magnetic influence on ferronanofluid flow is gaining increasing interest from not only the scientific community but also industry. The aim of this study is the examination of the potentials of magnetic forces to control heat transfer. Experiments are conducted to investigate the interaction between four different configurations of permanent magnets and laminar pipe flow with mixed convection. For that purpose a pipe flow test rig is operated with a water-magnetite ferronanofluid. The Reynolds number is varied over one order of magnitude (120–1200). To characterise this suspension, density, solid content, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity are measured. It is found that, depending on the positioning of the magnet(s) and the Reynolds number, heat transfer is either increased or decreased. The experiments indicate that this is a local effect. After relaxation lengths ranging between 2 and 3.5 lengths of a magnet, all changes disappeared. The conclusion from these findings is that magnetic forces are rather a tool to control heat transfer locally than to enhance the overall heat transfer of heat exchangers or the like. Magnetically caused disturbances decay due to viscous dissipation and the flow approaches the basic state again. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
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Article
Thermal and Physical Characterization of PEG Phase Change Materials Enhanced by Carbon-Based Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061168 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation and thermal/physical characterization of phase change materials (PCMs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) 400 g·mol−1 and nano-enhanced by either carbon black (CB), a raw graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-r), a purified graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-p) or nano-Diamond nanopowders with purity grades [...] Read more.
This paper presents the preparation and thermal/physical characterization of phase change materials (PCMs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) 400 g·mol−1 and nano-enhanced by either carbon black (CB), a raw graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-r), a purified graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-p) or nano-Diamond nanopowders with purity grades of 87% or 97% (nD87 and nD97, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory rheology experiments were used to provide an insight into the thermal and mechanical changes taking place during solid-liquid phase transitions of the carbon-based suspensions. PEG400-based samples loaded with 1.0 wt.% of raw graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-r) exhibited the lowest sub-cooling effect (with a reduction of ~2 K regarding neat PEG400). The influences that the type of carbon-based nanoadditive and nanoparticle loading (0.50 and 1.0 wt.%) have on dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density and surface tension were also investigated in the temperature range from 288 to 318 K. Non-linear rheological experiments showed that all dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic behavior, which was more noticeable in the case of carbon black nanofluids at low shear rates. The highest enhancements in thermal conductivity were observed for graphite/diamond nanomixtures (3.3–3.6%), while nano-diamond suspensions showed the largest modifications in density (0.64–0.66%). Reductions in surface tension were measured for the two nano-diamond nanopowders (nD87 and nD97), while slight increases (within experimental uncertainties) were observed for dispersions prepared using the other three carbon-based nanopowders. Finally, a good agreement was observed between the experimental surface tension measurements performed using a Du Noüy ring tensiometer and a drop-shape analyzer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
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Review

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Review
State of the Art in PEG-Based Heat Transfer Fluids and Their Suspensions with Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010086 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
Research on nanoparticle enhanced fluids has increased rapidly over the last decade. Regardless of several unreliable reports, these new fluids have established performance in heat transfer. Lately, polyethylene glycol with nanoparticles has been demarcated as an innovative class of phase change materials with [...] Read more.
Research on nanoparticle enhanced fluids has increased rapidly over the last decade. Regardless of several unreliable reports, these new fluids have established performance in heat transfer. Lately, polyethylene glycol with nanoparticles has been demarcated as an innovative class of phase change materials with conceivable uses in the area of convective heat transfer. The amplified thermal conductivity of these nanoparticle enhanced phase change materials (PCMs) over the basic fluids (e.g., polyethylene glycol—PEG) is considered one of the driving factors for their improved performance in heat transfer. Most of the research, however, is centered on the thermal conductivity discussion and less on viscosity variation, while specific heat capacity seems to be fully ignored. This short review abridges most of the recent investigations on new PEG-based fluids and is dedicated especially to thermophysical properties of the chemicals, while a number of PEG-based nanofluids are compared in terms of base fluid and/or nanoparticle type and concentration. This review outlines the possibility of developing promising new heat transfer fluids. To conclude, this research is in its pioneering phase, and a large amount of experimental and numerical work is required in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
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