Special Issue "Electronic Nanodevices"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 23639

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Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
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Guest Editor
Department of Physics “E.R. Caianiello”, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Interests: optical and electrical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and 2D materials; van der Waals heterostructures and Schottky junctions; field-effect transistors; non-volatile memories; solar cells; photodetectors; field emission devices
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The start of high-volume production of field-effect transistors with a feature size below 100 nm at the end of the 20th century signaled the transition from microelectronics to nanoelectronics. Since then, downscaling in the semiconductor industry has continued until the recent development of sub-10 nm technologies.

Although the basic operating principles of transistors have remained more or less the same during the transition to the nanoscale regime, several phenomena related to the wave nature of electrons have gradually appeared, and some traditional issues, such as short-channel effects, junction or dielectric leakages, have become more severe. Tunneling and other quantum effects or fluctuations in several transistor parameters due to the granularity of matter have become more relevant.

The new phenomena and issues as well as the technological challenges of the fabrication and manipulation at the nanoscale have spurred an intense theoretical and experimental research activity. New device structures, operating principles, materials, and measurement techniques have emerged, and new approaches to electronic transport and device modeling have become necessary. Examples are the introduction of vertical MOSFETs in addition to the planar ones to enable the multigate approach as well as the development of new tunneling, high-electron mobility, and single-electron devices. The search for new materials such as nanowires, nanotubes, and 2D materials for the transistor channel, dielectrics, and interconnects has been part of the process.

Other than for integrated circuits, new electronic nanodevices, often consisting of nanoscale heterojunctions, have been developed for light emission, transmission, and detection in optoelectronic and photonic systems, as well for new chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

This Special Issue focuses on the design, fabrication, modeling, and demonstration of nanodevices for electronic, optoelectronic, and sensing applications. Specific topics include the structure, materials, characterization techniques, underlying physical phenomena, and theoretical understanding of transistors, diodes, and memory devices used as building blocks of electronic and optoelectronic systems or sensors.

We encourage the submission of research and review articles as well as of numerical simulations, especially if supported by experimental evidence.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Field-effect nanotransistors (MOSFET, JFET, MESFET, HEMT, CMOS)
  • Multigate MOSFETs
  • Volatile and nonvolatile memories: DRAM, SRAM, Flash memories, memristors, ferroelectric memories
  • Quantum wire devices: nanowire and nanotube MOSFETs
  • Ballistic MOSFETs
  • Tunneling field-effect transistors
  • Heterojunctions, Schottky devices, resonant tunneling diodes
  • Hot electron transistors, field emission transistors, bipolar junction transistors
  • Nanocapacitors, tunnel junctions
  • Quantum dot devices, single electron transistors
  • Molecular transistors
  • Nanosensors: photodetectors, environmental, chemical, biological nanosensors
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Light-emitting nanodevices
  • Photonic nanodevices
  • Plasmonic nanodevices

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Electronic Nanodevices
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132125 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The new phenomena observed in nanodevices and the related technological challenges of fabrication and manipulation at the nanoscale have spurred intense theoretical, simulation and experimental research activity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)

Research

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Article
Electric Transport in Few-Layer ReSe2 Transistors Modulated by Air Pressure and Light
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111886 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
We report the fabrication and optoelectronic characterization of field-effect transistors (FETs) based on few-layer ReSe2. The devices show n-type conduction due to the Cr contacts that form low Schottky barriers with the ReSe2 nanosheet. We show that the optoelectronic performance [...] Read more.
We report the fabrication and optoelectronic characterization of field-effect transistors (FETs) based on few-layer ReSe2. The devices show n-type conduction due to the Cr contacts that form low Schottky barriers with the ReSe2 nanosheet. We show that the optoelectronic performance of these FETs is strongly affected by air pressure, and it undergoes a dramatic increase in conductivity when the pressure is lowered below the atmospheric one. Surface-adsorbed oxygen and water molecules are very effective in doping ReSe2; hence, FETs based on this two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor can be used as an effective air pressure gauge. Finally, we report negative photoconductivity in the ReSe2 channel that we attribute to a back-gate-dependent trapping of the photo-excited charges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Effect of Device Scaling on Electron Mobility in Nanoscale GaN HEMTs with Polarization Charge Modulation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101718 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
We have experimentally investigated the impact of vertical and lateral scaling on low-field electron mobility (µ) in InAlN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). It is found that µ reduces as InAlN barrier (TB) and gate length (LG) [...] Read more.
We have experimentally investigated the impact of vertical and lateral scaling on low-field electron mobility (µ) in InAlN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). It is found that µ reduces as InAlN barrier (TB) and gate length (LG) scale down but increases with the scaled source–drain distance (LSD). Polarization Coulomb Field (PCF) scattering is believed to account for the scaling-dependent electron mobility characteristic. The polarization charge distribution is modulated with the vertical and lateral scaling, resulting in the changes in µ limited by PCF scattering. The mobility characteristic shows that PCF scattering should be considered when devices scale down, which is significant for the device design and performance improvement for RF applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Role of Junctionless Mode in Improving the Photosensitivity of Sub-10 nm Carbon Nanotube/Nanoribbon Field-Effect Phototransistors: Quantum Simulation, Performance Assessment, and Comparison
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101639 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
In this article, ultrascaled junctionless (JL) field-effect phototransistors based on carbon nanotube/nanoribbons with sub-10 nm photogate lengths were computationally assessed using a rigorous quantum simulation. This latter self-consistently solves the Poisson equation with the mode space (MS) non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism in [...] Read more.
In this article, ultrascaled junctionless (JL) field-effect phototransistors based on carbon nanotube/nanoribbons with sub-10 nm photogate lengths were computationally assessed using a rigorous quantum simulation. This latter self-consistently solves the Poisson equation with the mode space (MS) non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism in the ballistic limit. The adopted photosensing principle is based on the light-induced photovoltage, which alters the electrostatics of the carbon-based junctionless nano-phototransistors. The investigations included the photovoltage behavior, the I-V characteristics, the potential profile, the energy-position-resolved electron density, and the photosensitivity. In addition, the subthreshold swing–photosensitivity dependence as a function of change in carbon nanotube (graphene nanoribbon) diameter (width) was thoroughly analyzed while considering the electronic proprieties and the quantum physics in carbon nanotube/nanoribbon-based channels. As a result, the junctionless paradigm substantially boosted the photosensitivity and improved the scaling capability of both carbon phototransistors. Moreover, from the point of view of comparison, it was found that the junctionless graphene nanoribbon field-effect phototransistors exhibited higher photosensitivity and better scaling capability than the junctionless carbon nanotube field-effect phototransistors. The obtained results are promising for modern nano-optoelectronic devices, which are in dire need of high-performance ultra-miniature phototransistors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Lower Limits of Contact Resistance in Phosphorene Nanodevices with Edge Contacts
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040656 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Edge contacts are promising for improving carrier injection and contact resistance in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials, among which monolayer black phosphorus (BP), or phosphorene, is especially attractive for device applications. Cutting BP into phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) widens the design space for [...] Read more.
Edge contacts are promising for improving carrier injection and contact resistance in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials, among which monolayer black phosphorus (BP), or phosphorene, is especially attractive for device applications. Cutting BP into phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) widens the design space for BP devices and enables high-density device integration. However, little is known about contact resistance (RC) in PNRs with edge contacts, although RC is the main performance limiter for 2D material devices. Atomistic quantum transport simulations are employed to explore the impact of attaching metal edge contacts (MECs) on the electronic and transport properties and contact resistance of PNRs. We demonstrate that PNR length downscaling increases RC to 192 Ω µm in 5.2 nm-long PNRs due to strong metallization effects, while width downscaling decreases the RC to 19 Ω µm in 0.5 nm-wide PNRs. These findings illustrate the limitations on PNR downscaling and reveal opportunities in the minimization of RC by device sizing. Moreover, we prove the existence of optimum metals for edge contacts in terms of minimum metallization effects that further decrease RC by ~30%, resulting in lower intrinsic quantum limits to RC of ~90 Ω µm in phosphorene and ~14 Ω µm in ultra-narrow PNRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Synergy of Electrostatic and Chemical Doping to Improve the Performance of Junctionless Carbon Nanotube Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors: Ultrascaling, Energy-Efficiency, and High Switching Performance
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030462 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
The low on-current and direct source-to-drain tunneling (DSDT) issues are the main drawbacks in the ultrascaled tunneling field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotube and ribbons. In this article, the performance of nanoscale junctionless carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistors (JL CNTTFETs) is greatly improved [...] Read more.
The low on-current and direct source-to-drain tunneling (DSDT) issues are the main drawbacks in the ultrascaled tunneling field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotube and ribbons. In this article, the performance of nanoscale junctionless carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistors (JL CNTTFETs) is greatly improved by using the synergy of electrostatic and chemical doping engineering. The computational investigation is conducted via a quantum simulation approach, which solves self-consistently the Poisson equation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism in the ballistic limit. The proposed high-performance JL CNTTFET is endowed with a particular doping approach in the aim of shrinking the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) window and dilating the direct source-to-drain tunneling window, while keeping the junctionless paradigm. The obtained improvements include the on-current, off-current, ambipolar behavior, leakage current, I60 metric, subthreshold swing, current ratio, intrinsic delay, and power-delay product. The scaling capability of the proposed design was also assessed, where greatly improved switching performance and sub-thermionic subthreshold swing were recorded by using JL CNTTFET with 5 nm gate length. Moreover, a ferroelectric-based gating approach was employed for more enhancements, where further improvements in terms of switching performance were recorded. The obtained results and the conducted quantum transport analyses indicate that the proposed improvement approach can be followed to improve similar cutting-edge ultrascaled junctionless tunnel field-effect transistors based on emerging atomically thin nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Nanostructured Molybdenum-Oxide Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: An Outstanding Increase in Capacity
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010013 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
This work aimed at synthesizing MoO3 and MoO2 by a facile and cost-effective method using extract of orange peel as a biological chelating and reducing agent for ammonium molybdate. Calcination of the precursor in air at 450 °C yielded the stochiometric [...] Read more.
This work aimed at synthesizing MoO3 and MoO2 by a facile and cost-effective method using extract of orange peel as a biological chelating and reducing agent for ammonium molybdate. Calcination of the precursor in air at 450 °C yielded the stochiometric MoO3 phase, while calcination in vacuum produced the reduced form MoO2 as evidenced by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed different morphologies and sizes of MoOx particles. MoO3 formed platelet particles that were larger than those observed for MoO2. MoO3 showed stable thermal behavior until approximately 800 °C, whereas MoO2 showed weight gain at approximately 400 °C due to the fact of re-oxidation and oxygen uptake and, hence, conversion to stoichiometric MoO3. Electrochemically, traditional performance was observed for MoO3, which exhibited a high initial capacity with steady and continuous capacity fading upon cycling. On the contrary, MoO2 showed completely different electrochemical behavior with less initial capacity but an outstanding increase in capacity upon cycling, which reached 1600 mAh g−1 after 800 cycles. This outstanding electrochemical performance of MoO2 may be attributed to its higher surface area and better electrical conductivity as observed in surface area and impedance investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Numerical Evaluation of the Effect of Geometric Tolerances on the High-Frequency Performance of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113121 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The interest in graphene-based electronics is due to graphene’s great carrier mobility, atomic thickness, resistance to radiation, and tolerance to extreme temperatures. These characteristics enable the development of extremely miniaturized high-performing electronic devices for next-generation radiofrequency (RF) communication systems. The main building block [...] Read more.
The interest in graphene-based electronics is due to graphene’s great carrier mobility, atomic thickness, resistance to radiation, and tolerance to extreme temperatures. These characteristics enable the development of extremely miniaturized high-performing electronic devices for next-generation radiofrequency (RF) communication systems. The main building block of graphene-based electronics is the graphene-field effect transistor (GFET). An important issue hindering the diffusion of GFET-based circuits on a commercial level is the repeatability of the fabrication process, which affects the uncertainty of both the device geometry and the graphene quality. Concerning the GFET geometrical parameters, it is well known that the channel length is the main factor that determines the high-frequency limitations of a field-effect transistor, and is therefore the parameter that should be better controlled during the fabrication. Nevertheless, other parameters are affected by a fabrication-related tolerance; to understand to which extent an increase of the accuracy of the GFET layout patterning process steps can improve the performance uniformity, their impact on the GFET performance variability should be considered and compared to that of the channel length. In this work, we assess the impact of the fabrication-related tolerances of GFET-base amplifier geometrical parameters on the RF performance, in terms of the amplifier transit frequency and maximum oscillation frequency, by using a design-of-experiments approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Optical Nanoantennas for Photovoltaic Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020422 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
In the last decade, the development and progress of nanotechnology has enabled a better understanding of the light–matter interaction at the nanoscale. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the development and progress of nanotechnology has enabled a better understanding of the light–matter interaction at the nanoscale. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide range of fields. In this context, nanotechnology allows the development of models, such as nanometric optical antennas, with dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this article, the behavior of optical aperture nanoantennas, a metal sheet with apertures of dimensions smaller than the wavelength, combined with photovoltaic solar panels is studied. This technique emerged as a potential renewable energy solution, by increasing the efficiency of solar cells, while reducing their manufacturing and electricity production costs. The objective of this article is to perform a performance analysis, using COMSOL Multiphysics software, with different materials and designs of nanoantennas and choosing the most suitable one for use on a solar photovoltaic panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Area-Scalable 109-Cycle-High-Endurance FeFET of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Using a Dummy-Gate Process
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010101 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4426
Abstract
Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with channel lengths of 85 nm were fabricated by a replacement-gate process. They had metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor stacked-gate structures of Ir/SBT/HfO2/Si. In the fabrication process, we prepared dummy-gate transistor patterns and then replaced the dummy [...] Read more.
Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with channel lengths of 85 nm were fabricated by a replacement-gate process. They had metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor stacked-gate structures of Ir/SBT/HfO2/Si. In the fabrication process, we prepared dummy-gate transistor patterns and then replaced the dummy substances with an SBT precursor. After forming Ir gate electrodes on the SBT, the whole gate stacks were annealed for SBT crystallization. Nonvolatility was confirmed by long stable data retention measured for 105 s. High erase-and-program endurance of the FeFETs was demonstrated for up to 109 cycles. By the new process proposed in this work, SBT-FeFETs acquire good channel-area scalability in geometry along with lithography ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Characterization and Design of Photovoltaic Solar Cells That Absorb Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Light
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010078 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
The world is witnessing a tide of change in the photovoltaic industry like never before; we are far from the solar cells of ten years ago that only had 15–18% efficiency. More and more, multi-junction technologies seem to be the future for photovoltaics, [...] Read more.
The world is witnessing a tide of change in the photovoltaic industry like never before; we are far from the solar cells of ten years ago that only had 15–18% efficiency. More and more, multi-junction technologies seem to be the future for photovoltaics, with these technologies already hitting the mark of 30% under 1-sun. This work focuses especially on a state-of-the-art triple-junction solar cell, the GaInP/GaInAs/Ge lattice-matched, that is currently being used in most satellites and concentrator photovoltaic systems. The three subcells are first analyzed individually and then the whole cell is put together and simulated. The typical figures-of-merit are extracted; all the IV curves obtained are presented, along with the external quantum efficiencies. A study on how temperature affects the cell was done, given its relevance when talking about space applications. An overall optimization of the cell is also elaborated; the cell’s thickness and doping are changed so that maximum efficiency can be reached. For a better understanding of how varying both these properties affect efficiency, graphic 3D plots were computed based on the obtained results. Considering this optimization, an improvement of 0.2343% on the cell’s efficiency is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Review

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Review
A Brief Review of the Role of 2D Mxene Nanosheets toward Solar Cells Efficiency Improvement
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102732 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
This article discusses the application of two-dimensional metal MXenes in solar cells (SCs), which has attracted a lot of interest due to their outstanding transparency, metallic electrical conductivity, and mechanical characteristics. In addition, some application examples of MXenes as an electrode, additive, and [...] Read more.
This article discusses the application of two-dimensional metal MXenes in solar cells (SCs), which has attracted a lot of interest due to their outstanding transparency, metallic electrical conductivity, and mechanical characteristics. In addition, some application examples of MXenes as an electrode, additive, and electron/hole transport layer in perovskite solar cells are described individually, with essential research issues highlighted. Firstly, it is imperative to comprehend the conversion efficiency of solar cells and the difficulties of effectively incorporating metal MXenes into the building blocks of solar cells to improve stability and operational performance. Based on the analysis of new articles, several ideas have been generated to advance the exploration of the potential of MXene in SCs. In addition, research into other relevant MXene suitable in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is required to enhance the relevant work. Therefore, we identify new perspectives to achieve solar cell power conversion efficiency with an excellent quality–cost ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Review
On the Thermal Models for Resistive Random Access Memory Circuit Simulation
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051261 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3511
Abstract
Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAMs) are based on resistive switching (RS) operation and exhibit a set of technological features that make them ideal candidates for applications related to non-volatile memories, neuromorphic computing and hardware cryptography. For the full industrial development of these devices [...] Read more.
Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAMs) are based on resistive switching (RS) operation and exhibit a set of technological features that make them ideal candidates for applications related to non-volatile memories, neuromorphic computing and hardware cryptography. For the full industrial development of these devices different simulation tools and compact models are needed in order to allow computer-aided design, both at the device and circuit levels. Most of the different RRAM models presented so far in the literature deal with temperature effects since the physical mechanisms behind RS are thermally activated; therefore, an exhaustive description of these effects is essential. As far as we know, no revision papers on thermal models have been published yet; and that is why we deal with this issue here. Using the heat equation as the starting point, we describe the details of its numerical solution for a conventional RRAM structure and, later on, present models of different complexity to integrate thermal effects in complete compact models that account for the kinetics of the chemical reactions behind resistive switching and the current calculation. In particular, we have accounted for different conductive filament geometries, operation regimes, filament lateral heat losses, the use of several temperatures to characterize each conductive filament, among other issues. A 3D numerical solution of the heat equation within a complete RRAM simulator was also taken into account. A general memristor model is also formulated accounting for temperature as one of the state variables to describe electron device operation. In addition, to widen the view from different perspectives, we deal with a thermal model contextualized within the quantum point contact formalism. In this manner, the temperature can be accounted for the description of quantum effects in the RRAM charge transport mechanisms. Finally, the thermometry of conducting filaments and the corresponding models considering different dielectric materials are tackled in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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