Special Issue "Electronic Nanodevices"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physics Department, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy
Interests: optical and electrical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and 2D materials; van der Waals heterostructures and Schottky junctions; field-effect transistors; non-volatile memories; solar cells; photodetectors; field emission devices
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The start of high-volume production of field-effect transistors with a feature size below 100 nm at the end of the 20th century signaled the transition from microelectronics to nanoelectronics. Since then, downscaling in the semiconductor industry has continued until the recent development of sub-10 nm technologies.

Although the basic operating principles of transistors have remained more or less the same during the transition to the nanoscale regime, several phenomena related to the wave nature of electrons have gradually appeared, and some traditional issues, such as short-channel effects, junction or dielectric leakages, have become more severe. Tunneling and other quantum effects or fluctuations in several transistor parameters due to the granularity of matter have become more relevant.

The new phenomena and issues as well as the technological challenges of the fabrication and manipulation at the nanoscale have spurred an intense theoretical and experimental research activity. New device structures, operating principles, materials, and measurement techniques have emerged, and new approaches to electronic transport and device modeling have become necessary. Examples are the introduction of vertical MOSFETs in addition to the planar ones to enable the multigate approach as well as the development of new tunneling, high-electron mobility, and single-electron devices. The search for new materials such as nanowires, nanotubes, and 2D materials for the transistor channel, dielectrics, and interconnects has been part of the process.

Other than for integrated circuits, new electronic nanodevices, often consisting of nanoscale heterojunctions, have been developed for light emission, transmission, and detection in optoelectronic and photonic systems, as well for new chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

This Special Issue focuses on the design, fabrication, modeling, and demonstration of nanodevices for electronic, optoelectronic, and sensing applications. Specific topics include the structure, materials, characterization techniques, underlying physical phenomena, and theoretical understanding of transistors, diodes, and memory devices used as building blocks of electronic and optoelectronic systems or sensors.

We encourage the submission of research and review articles as well as of numerical simulations, especially if supported by experimental evidence.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Field-effect nanotransistors (MOSFET, JFET, MESFET, HEMT, CMOS)
  • Multigate MOSFETs
  • Volatile and nonvolatile memories: DRAM, SRAM, Flash memories, memristors, ferroelectric memories
  • Quantum wire devices: nanowire and nanotube MOSFETs
  • Ballistic MOSFETs
  • Tunneling field-effect transistors
  • Heterojunctions, Schottky devices, resonant tunneling diodes
  • Hot electron transistors, field emission transistors, bipolar junction transistors
  • Nanocapacitors, tunnel junctions
  • Quantum dot devices, single electron transistors
  • Molecular transistors
  • Nanosensors: photodetectors, environmental, chemical, biological nanosensors
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Light-emitting nanodevices
  • Photonic nanodevices
  • Plasmonic nanodevices

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Numerical Evaluation of the Effect of Geometric Tolerances on the High-Frequency Performance of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113121 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The interest in graphene-based electronics is due to graphene’s great carrier mobility, atomic thickness, resistance to radiation, and tolerance to extreme temperatures. These characteristics enable the development of extremely miniaturized high-performing electronic devices for next-generation radiofrequency (RF) communication systems. The main building block [...] Read more.
The interest in graphene-based electronics is due to graphene’s great carrier mobility, atomic thickness, resistance to radiation, and tolerance to extreme temperatures. These characteristics enable the development of extremely miniaturized high-performing electronic devices for next-generation radiofrequency (RF) communication systems. The main building block of graphene-based electronics is the graphene-field effect transistor (GFET). An important issue hindering the diffusion of GFET-based circuits on a commercial level is the repeatability of the fabrication process, which affects the uncertainty of both the device geometry and the graphene quality. Concerning the GFET geometrical parameters, it is well known that the channel length is the main factor that determines the high-frequency limitations of a field-effect transistor, and is therefore the parameter that should be better controlled during the fabrication. Nevertheless, other parameters are affected by a fabrication-related tolerance; to understand to which extent an increase of the accuracy of the GFET layout patterning process steps can improve the performance uniformity, their impact on the GFET performance variability should be considered and compared to that of the channel length. In this work, we assess the impact of the fabrication-related tolerances of GFET-base amplifier geometrical parameters on the RF performance, in terms of the amplifier transit frequency and maximum oscillation frequency, by using a design-of-experiments approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Optical Nanoantennas for Photovoltaic Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020422 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
In the last decade, the development and progress of nanotechnology has enabled a better understanding of the light–matter interaction at the nanoscale. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the development and progress of nanotechnology has enabled a better understanding of the light–matter interaction at the nanoscale. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide range of fields. In this context, nanotechnology allows the development of models, such as nanometric optical antennas, with dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this article, the behavior of optical aperture nanoantennas, a metal sheet with apertures of dimensions smaller than the wavelength, combined with photovoltaic solar panels is studied. This technique emerged as a potential renewable energy solution, by increasing the efficiency of solar cells, while reducing their manufacturing and electricity production costs. The objective of this article is to perform a performance analysis, using COMSOL Multiphysics software, with different materials and designs of nanoantennas and choosing the most suitable one for use on a solar photovoltaic panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Area-Scalable 109-Cycle-High-Endurance FeFET of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Using a Dummy-Gate Process
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010101 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with channel lengths of 85 nm were fabricated by a replacement-gate process. They had metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor stacked-gate structures of Ir/SBT/HfO2/Si. In the fabrication process, we prepared dummy-gate transistor patterns and then replaced the dummy [...] Read more.
Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with channel lengths of 85 nm were fabricated by a replacement-gate process. They had metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor stacked-gate structures of Ir/SBT/HfO2/Si. In the fabrication process, we prepared dummy-gate transistor patterns and then replaced the dummy substances with an SBT precursor. After forming Ir gate electrodes on the SBT, the whole gate stacks were annealed for SBT crystallization. Nonvolatility was confirmed by long stable data retention measured for 105 s. High erase-and-program endurance of the FeFETs was demonstrated for up to 109 cycles. By the new process proposed in this work, SBT-FeFETs acquire good channel-area scalability in geometry along with lithography ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Article
Characterization and Design of Photovoltaic Solar Cells That Absorb Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Light
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010078 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
The world is witnessing a tide of change in the photovoltaic industry like never before; we are far from the solar cells of ten years ago that only had 15–18% efficiency. More and more, multi-junction technologies seem to be the future for photovoltaics, [...] Read more.
The world is witnessing a tide of change in the photovoltaic industry like never before; we are far from the solar cells of ten years ago that only had 15–18% efficiency. More and more, multi-junction technologies seem to be the future for photovoltaics, with these technologies already hitting the mark of 30% under 1-sun. This work focuses especially on a state-of-the-art triple-junction solar cell, the GaInP/GaInAs/Ge lattice-matched, that is currently being used in most satellites and concentrator photovoltaic systems. The three subcells are first analyzed individually and then the whole cell is put together and simulated. The typical figures-of-merit are extracted; all the IV curves obtained are presented, along with the external quantum efficiencies. A study on how temperature affects the cell was done, given its relevance when talking about space applications. An overall optimization of the cell is also elaborated; the cell’s thickness and doping are changed so that maximum efficiency can be reached. For a better understanding of how varying both these properties affect efficiency, graphic 3D plots were computed based on the obtained results. Considering this optimization, an improvement of 0.2343% on the cell’s efficiency is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Review

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Review
A Brief Review of the Role of 2D Mxene Nanosheets toward Solar Cells Efficiency Improvement
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102732 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
This article discusses the application of two-dimensional metal MXenes in solar cells (SCs), which has attracted a lot of interest due to their outstanding transparency, metallic electrical conductivity, and mechanical characteristics. In addition, some application examples of MXenes as an electrode, additive, and [...] Read more.
This article discusses the application of two-dimensional metal MXenes in solar cells (SCs), which has attracted a lot of interest due to their outstanding transparency, metallic electrical conductivity, and mechanical characteristics. In addition, some application examples of MXenes as an electrode, additive, and electron/hole transport layer in perovskite solar cells are described individually, with essential research issues highlighted. Firstly, it is imperative to comprehend the conversion efficiency of solar cells and the difficulties of effectively incorporating metal MXenes into the building blocks of solar cells to improve stability and operational performance. Based on the analysis of new articles, several ideas have been generated to advance the exploration of the potential of MXene in SCs. In addition, research into other relevant MXene suitable in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is required to enhance the relevant work. Therefore, we identify new perspectives to achieve solar cell power conversion efficiency with an excellent quality–cost ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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Review
On the Thermal Models for Resistive Random Access Memory Circuit Simulation
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051261 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAMs) are based on resistive switching (RS) operation and exhibit a set of technological features that make them ideal candidates for applications related to non-volatile memories, neuromorphic computing and hardware cryptography. For the full industrial development of these devices [...] Read more.
Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAMs) are based on resistive switching (RS) operation and exhibit a set of technological features that make them ideal candidates for applications related to non-volatile memories, neuromorphic computing and hardware cryptography. For the full industrial development of these devices different simulation tools and compact models are needed in order to allow computer-aided design, both at the device and circuit levels. Most of the different RRAM models presented so far in the literature deal with temperature effects since the physical mechanisms behind RS are thermally activated; therefore, an exhaustive description of these effects is essential. As far as we know, no revision papers on thermal models have been published yet; and that is why we deal with this issue here. Using the heat equation as the starting point, we describe the details of its numerical solution for a conventional RRAM structure and, later on, present models of different complexity to integrate thermal effects in complete compact models that account for the kinetics of the chemical reactions behind resistive switching and the current calculation. In particular, we have accounted for different conductive filament geometries, operation regimes, filament lateral heat losses, the use of several temperatures to characterize each conductive filament, among other issues. A 3D numerical solution of the heat equation within a complete RRAM simulator was also taken into account. A general memristor model is also formulated accounting for temperature as one of the state variables to describe electron device operation. In addition, to widen the view from different perspectives, we deal with a thermal model contextualized within the quantum point contact formalism. In this manner, the temperature can be accounted for the description of quantum effects in the RRAM charge transport mechanisms. Finally, the thermometry of conducting filaments and the corresponding models considering different dielectric materials are tackled in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Nanodevices)
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