Special Issue "Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Graphene/Semiconductor Devices"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics E. R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Salerno, Italy
Interests: field-effect transistors; tunneling transistors; nonvolatile memories; CMOS technologies; solid-state radiation detectors; field emission; optical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and 2D materials; semiconductor heterojunctions and their application as photodetectors, solar cells, and chemical sensors; van der Waals heterojunctions of 2D-layered materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The heterojunction formed by graphene with a bulk 3D semiconductor or with a layered 2D semiconductor has attracted a lot of attention in the last five years. Currently, it is one of the hottest research topics in material and device science, from both a technological and a fundamental perspective.

The graphene/semiconductor heterojunction offers the opportunity to study new physical phenomena occurring at the interface between a gapless 2D material with massless Dirac fermions and a 2D or a 3D semiconductor with parabolic energy bands. From an electrical viewpoint, it presents similarities to a metal/semiconductor Schottky diode, exhibiting rectifying behavior. However, the graphene/semiconductor heterojunction adds new features and functionalities to the traditional metal/semiconductor diodes. Indeed, apart from the higher robustness due to graphene’s thermal stability, chemical inertness and flexibility, it offers a Schottky barrier that is tunable by applied voltage. This novel control stems from the low density of states of graphene and can enable new applications such as photodetection in the infrared region or the detection of gas molecules.

The graphene/semiconductor heterojunction has been proposed for a new generation of photodetectors, solar cells or chemical sensors. Photodetectors based on graphene/Si junctions outperform devices on the market due to their higher responsivity and detectivity over a wide spectrum, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR). Several aspects such as the quality of the interface, the doping or the layout of the semiconductor substrate have been extensively studied. In solar cell applications, graphene not only forms the Schottky junction for photocharge separation, but simultaneously works as antireflective and charge transport layer. High sensitivity chemical sensors have been demonstrated, based on the principle that molecules can modify the Schottky barrier and dramatically change the electrical response. From a theoretical perspective, several effects have been studied to account for the unique properties of graphene, resulting in modifications of the classical thermionic theory of Schottky diodes.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect high-quality articles dealing with the design, fabrication and characterization of the graphene/semiconductor heterojunction. Although the Special Issue is focused mainly on practical applications, it also includes theoretical aspects.

We strongly encourage both research papers and review articles.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Di Bartolomeo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Heterojunction
  • Schottky barrier
  • Thermionic emission
  • Photovoltaic effect
  • Charge transfer
  • Van der Waals heterojunction
  • Graphene/bulk semiconductors
  • Graphene/2D materials
  • Light absorption, responsivity, detectivity
  • IR light detection
  • UV light detection
  • Graphene/semiconductor photodetectors
  • Graphene/semiconductor radiation detectors
  • Graphene/semiconductor solar cells
  • Graphene/semiconductor chemical sensors.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Reduction of Schottky Barrier Height at Graphene/Germanium Interface with Surface Passivation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5014; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235014 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces forbids a total control over the Schottky barrier height. 2D materials may be an interesting route to circumvent this problem. As they weakly interact with their substrate through Van der Waals forces, deposition of 2D materials avoids [...] Read more.
Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces forbids a total control over the Schottky barrier height. 2D materials may be an interesting route to circumvent this problem. As they weakly interact with their substrate through Van der Waals forces, deposition of 2D materials avoids the formation of the large density of state at the semiconductor interface often responsible for Fermi level pinning. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to alleviate Fermi-level pinning and reduce the Schottky barrier height by the association of surface passivation of germanium with the deposition of 2D graphene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Step Plasma Treatment on Sputtered and Electroplated Cu Surfaces for Cu-To-Cu Bonding Application
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173535 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The technology trends of next generation electronic packaging are moving toward heterogeneous 3D packaging systems. One of the key processes of 3D packaging system is Cu-to-Cu bonding, which is highly dependent on the planarized, activated, and oxygen-free Cu surface. A two-step plasma treatment [...] Read more.
The technology trends of next generation electronic packaging are moving toward heterogeneous 3D packaging systems. One of the key processes of 3D packaging system is Cu-to-Cu bonding, which is highly dependent on the planarized, activated, and oxygen-free Cu surface. A two-step plasma treatment is studied to form a Cu surface that does not react with oxygen and improves the Cu bonding interface quality at low bonding temperature (300 °C). In this study, the effects of two-step plasma treatment on both sputtered and electroplated Cu surfaces were evaluated through structural, chemical, and electrical analysis. The Cu bonding interface was studied by scanning acoustic tomography analysis after the thermocompression bonding process. Both sputtered and electroplated Cu thin films had the preferred orientation of (111) plane, but sputtered Cu exhibited larger grains than the electroplated Cu. As a result, the roughness of sputtered Cu was lower, and the resistivity was higher than that of electroplated Cu. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the sputtered Cu formed more copper nitrides and fewer copper oxides than the electroplated Cu. A significant improvement in bonding quality at the Cu bonded interface was observed in sputtered Cu. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Voltage Graphene Nanowall Trench MOS Barrier Schottky Diode Characterization for High Temperature Applications
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081587 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
Graphene’s superior electronic and thermal properties have gained extensive attention from research and industrial sectors to study and develop the material for various applications such as in sensors and diodes. In this paper, the characteristics and performance of carbon-based nanostructure applied on a [...] Read more.
Graphene’s superior electronic and thermal properties have gained extensive attention from research and industrial sectors to study and develop the material for various applications such as in sensors and diodes. In this paper, the characteristics and performance of carbon-based nanostructure applied on a Trench Metal Oxide Semiconductor MOS barrier Schottky (TMBS) diode were investigated for high temperature application. The structure used for this study was silicon substrate with a trench and filled trench with gate oxide and polysilicon gate. A graphene nanowall (GNW) or carbon nanowall (CNW), as a barrier layer, was grown using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The TMBS device was then tested to determine the leakage current at 60 V under various temperature settings and compared against a conventional metal-based TMBS device using TiSi2 as a Schottky barrier layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement data were analyzed to obtain the Schottky barrier height, ideality factor, and series resistance (Rs) values. From I-V measurement, leakage current measured at 60 V and at 423 K of the GNW-TMBS and TiSi2-TMBS diodes were 0.0685 mA and above 10 mA, respectively, indicating that the GNW-TMBS diode has high operating temperature advantages. The Schottky barrier height, ideality factor, and series resistance based on dV/dln(J) vs. J for the GNW were calculated to be 0.703 eV, 1.64, and 35 ohm respectively. Full article
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