Special Issue "Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giovanni Benelli

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390502216116
Fax: +390502216116
Interests: arthropod vectors; entomology; insect control; mosquitoes; nano-synthesis; nanoparticles; nano-pesticides; nanotechnology; non-target effects; ticks; aggression; behavioral asymmetries; courtship; ecology; entomology; insects; laterality; lateralization; mites; parasitology; vectors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They have a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled size and shape—two key features determining their bioactivity. 

However, real-world applications of green-fabricated nanomaterials are largely unexplored. Besides, what do we really know about their non-target toxicity? Which are their main modes of action? What is their possible fate in the environment? In this framework, the present Special Issue will include articles by expert authorities on nanomaterials synthesis and applications. Special emphasis will be devoted to their impact on the environment and long-term toxicity.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Benelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chronic toxicity
  • nanoparticles
  • nanopesticides
  • environmental applications
  • environmental fate
  • genotoxicity
  • insecticides
  • nanotoxicity
  • non-target effects
  • sub-lethal effects
  • antimicrobials
  • drug development
  • nanocarriers
  • catalysts
  • sensors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Method for Tailoring Biocompatible and Antimicrobial Surfaces of Poly-L-Lactic Acid
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030428
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, a facile, eco-friendly route, in two steps, for obtaining of poly-L-lactic acid/chitosan-silver nanoparticles scaffolds under quiescent conditions was presented. The method consists of plasma treatment and then wet chemical treatment of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) films in a chitosan based-silver nanoparticles [...] Read more.
In this study, a facile, eco-friendly route, in two steps, for obtaining of poly-L-lactic acid/chitosan-silver nanoparticles scaffolds under quiescent conditions was presented. The method consists of plasma treatment and then wet chemical treatment of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) films in a chitosan based-silver nanoparticles solution (Cs/AgNp). The changes of the physical and chemical surface proprieties were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and profilometry methods. A certain combination of plasma treatment and chitosan-based silver nanoparticles solution increased the biocompatibility of PLLA films in combination with cell line seeding as well as the antimicrobial activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The sample that demonstrated from Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDAX) to have the highest amount of nitrogen and the smallest amount of Ag, proved to have the highest value for cell viability, demonstrating better biocompatibility and very good antimicrobial proprieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication A Polyol-Mediated Fluoride Ions Slow-Releasing Strategy for the Phase-Controlled Synthesis of Photofunctional Mesocrystals
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010028
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
There are only a few inorganic compounds that have evoked as much interest as sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4). Its extensive applications in various fields, including transparent displays, luminescence coding, data storage, as well as biological imaging, demand the precise tuning of [...] Read more.
There are only a few inorganic compounds that have evoked as much interest as sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4). Its extensive applications in various fields, including transparent displays, luminescence coding, data storage, as well as biological imaging, demand the precise tuning of the crystal phase. Controlling the emergence of the desired α-phase has so far remained a formidable challenge, especially via a simple procedure. Herein, we represented a polyol-assisted fluoride ions slow-release strategy for the rational control of pure cubic phase NaYF4 mesocrystals. The combination of fluorine-containing ionic liquid as a fluoride source and the existence of a polyalcohol as the reactive medium ensure the formation of uniform α-phase mesocrystallines in spite of a higher temperature and/or higher doping level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Green Synthesis of High Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Gum Kondagogu: Characterization and Solar Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121002
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
The present study reports a green and sustainable method for the synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) from titanium oxysulfate solution using Kondagogu gum (Cochlospermum gossypium), a carbohydrate polymer, as the NPs formation agent. The synthesized TiO2 [...] Read more.
The present study reports a green and sustainable method for the synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) from titanium oxysulfate solution using Kondagogu gum (Cochlospermum gossypium), a carbohydrate polymer, as the NPs formation agent. The synthesized TiO2 NPs were categorized by techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope- Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and particle size analysis. Additionally, the photocatalytic actions of TiO2 NPs were assessed with regard to their ability to degrade an organic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution in the presence of solar light. Various parameters affecting the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 NPs were examined, including catalyst loading, reaction time, pH value and calcination temperature of the aforementioned particles. This green synthesis method involving TiO2 NPs explores the advantages of inexpensive and non-toxic precursors, the TiO2 NPs themselves exhibiting excellent photocatalytic activity against dye molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle From Hollow to Solid Carbon Spheres: Time-Dependent Facile Synthesis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100861
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Here, we report a facile route for obtaining carbon spheres with fully tunable shell thickness. Using a hard template in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hollow carbon spheres, solid carbon spheres, and intermediate structures can be obtained with optimized process time. The resulting carbon [...] Read more.
Here, we report a facile route for obtaining carbon spheres with fully tunable shell thickness. Using a hard template in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hollow carbon spheres, solid carbon spheres, and intermediate structures can be obtained with optimized process time. The resulting carbon spheres with particle diameters of ~400 nm, as well as a controllable shell thickness from 0 to 70 nm, had high Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area (up to 344.8 m2·g−1) and pore volume (up to 0.248 cm3·g−1). The sphere formation mechanism is also proposed. This simple and reproducible technique can deliver carbon materials for various applications, e.g., energy storage and conversion, adsorption, catalytic, biomedical, and environmental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Environmentally-Friendly Green Approach for the Production of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Fungal, Ovicidal, and Larvicidal Properties
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070500
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Green synthesis of nanoparticles can be an important alternative compared to conventional physio-chemical synthesis. We utilized Scadoxus multiflorus leaf powder aqueous extract as a capping and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Further, the synthesized ZnO NPs [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of nanoparticles can be an important alternative compared to conventional physio-chemical synthesis. We utilized Scadoxus multiflorus leaf powder aqueous extract as a capping and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Further, the synthesized ZnO NPs were subjected to various characterization techniques. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed an irregular spherical shape, with an average particle size of 31 ± 2 nm. Furthermore, the synthesized ZnO NPs were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and eggs, giving significant LC50 value of 34.04 ppm. Ovicidal activity resulted in a higher percentage mortality rate of 96.4 ± 0.24 at 120 ppm with LC50 value of 32.73 ppm. Anti-fungal studies were also conducted for ZnO NPs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, which demonstrated a higher inhibition rate for Aspergillus flavus compared to Aspergillus niger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle “Chocolate” Gold Nanoparticles—One Pot Synthesis and Biocompatibility
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070496
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The chemical synthesis of nanoparticles can involve and generate toxic materials. Here, we present for the first time, a one pot direct route to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using natural cacao extract as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles were characterized [...] Read more.
The chemical synthesis of nanoparticles can involve and generate toxic materials. Here, we present for the first time, a one pot direct route to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using natural cacao extract as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and have excellent biocompatibility with human primary dermal fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Sample Preparation on Particle Size Distributions of Different Types of Silica in Suspensions
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070454
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The granulometric characterization of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) nanomaterials (NMs) still demands harmonized standard operation procedures. SAS is produced as either precipitated, fumed (pyrogenic), gel and colloidal SAS and these qualities differ, among others, with respect to their state of aggregation and aggregate [...] Read more.
The granulometric characterization of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) nanomaterials (NMs) still demands harmonized standard operation procedures. SAS is produced as either precipitated, fumed (pyrogenic), gel and colloidal SAS and these qualities differ, among others, with respect to their state of aggregation and aggregate strength. The reproducible production of suspensions from SAS, e.g., for biological testing purposes, demands a reasonable amount of dispersing energy. Using materials representative for each of the types of SAS, we employed ultrasonic dispersing (USD) at energy densities of 8–1440 J/mL and measured resulting particle sizes by dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. In this energy range, USD had no significant impact on particle size distributions of colloidal and gel SAS, but clearly decreased the particle size of precipitated and fumed SAS. For high energy densities, we observed a considerable contamination of SAS suspensions with metal particles caused by abrasion of the sonotrode’s tip. To avoid this problem, the energy density was limited to 270 J/mL and remaining coarse particles were removed with size-selective filtration. The ultrasonic dispersion of SAS at medium levels of energy density is suggested as a reasonable compromise to produce SAS suspensions for toxicological in vitro testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Facile and Robust Solvothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CuInS2 Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060405
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
This work demonstrates that the solvothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline CuInS2 thin films using the amino acid l-cysteine as sulfur source is facile and robust against variation of reaction time and temperature. Synthesis was carried out in a reaction time range of [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates that the solvothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline CuInS2 thin films using the amino acid l-cysteine as sulfur source is facile and robust against variation of reaction time and temperature. Synthesis was carried out in a reaction time range of 3–48 h (at 150 °C) and a reaction temperature range of 100–190 °C (for 18 h). It was found that at least a time of 6 h and a temperature of 140 °C is needed to produce pure nanocrystalline CuInS2 thin films as proven by X-ray and electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Using UV-vis spectroscopy, a good absorption behavior as well as direct band gaps between 1.46 and 1.55 eV have been determined for all grown films. Only for a reaction time of 3 h and temperatures below 140 °C CuInS2 is not formed. This is attributed to the formation of metal ion complexes with l-cysteine and the overall slow assembly of CuInS2. This study reveals that the reaction parameters can be chosen relatively free; the reaction is completely nontoxic and precursors and solvents are rather cheap, which makes this synthesis route interesting for industrial up scaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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