Special Issue "Synthesis and Applications of Graphite Oxide and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tamás Szabó
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Hungary
Interests: graphene oxide; graphene-based materials; colloid and interface science; materials science; intercalation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanocomposite systems have been extensively studied since the 1990s. These early research efforts have already covered the use of graphite oxide (GO), a layered material of hydrophilic and swellable structure, as a filler for some polymers, e.g., for enhanced flame retardancy. GO and its exfoliated sheets (termed as graphene oxide) are also capable of forming nanocomposites with a wide range of materials other than soft matter. With less than two decades of history and a greatly increasing number of research papers and reviews, the development of GO-based inorganic composites with functional (e.g., magnetic, fluorescent) properties has become a hot topic. Despite this growth, there is a lack of a collection of papers that describe not only the current status of one type of graphene oxide nanocomposites, but provides a more comprehensive overview of this subject with emerging applications.

Within the frame of the present Special Issue, we intend to compile a set of publications selected in the broad field of the “Synthesis and Applications of Graphite oxide and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites”. Likewise, contributions in which GO may either serve as a matrix material or as the dispersed counterpart of the nanocomposite phase all fall within the scope of the present issue. Synthesis routes may range from conventional bulk blending or casting methods to advanced film deposition methods of Langmuir–Blodgett or Layer-by-Layer assembly.

Many formats of manuscripts to be submitted are welcome: full research papers, communications, and reviews.

Dr. Tamás Szabó
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Graphite oxide (phase-separated) composites
  • Intercalated nanocomposites
  • Exfoliated nanocomposites
  • Platelet-reinforced polymer composites using GO
  • Inorganic-matrix GO or chemically derived graphene nanocomposites
  • Nanocomposite dispersions
  • Ultrathin nanocomposite films

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Controlling the Structures, Flexibility, Conductivity Stability of Three-Dimensional Conductive Networks of Silver Nanoparticles/Carbon-Based Nanomaterials with Nanodispersion and their Application in Wearable Electronic Sensors
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10051009 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
This research has successfully synthesized highly flexible and conductive nanohybrid electrode films. Nanodispersion and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved via non-covalent adsorption and with an organic polymeric dispersant and inorganic carbon-based nanomaterials—nano-carbon black (CB), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and graphene oxide (GO). [...] Read more.
This research has successfully synthesized highly flexible and conductive nanohybrid electrode films. Nanodispersion and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved via non-covalent adsorption and with an organic polymeric dispersant and inorganic carbon-based nanomaterials—nano-carbon black (CB), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and graphene oxide (GO). The new polymeric dispersant—polyisobutylene-b-poly(oxyethylene)-b-polyisobutylene (PIB-POE-PIB) triblock copolymer—could stabilize AgNPs. Simultaneously, this stabilization was conducted through the addition of mixed organic/inorganic dispersants based on zero- (0D), one- (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, namely CB, CNT, and GO. Furthermore, the dispersion solution was evenly coated/mixed onto polymeric substrates, and the products were heated. As a result, highly conductive thin-film materials (with a surface electrical resistance of approximately 10−2 Ω/sq) were eventually acquired. The results indicated that 2D carbon-based nanomaterials (GO) could stabilize AgNPs more effectively during their reductNion and, hence, generate particles with the smallest sizes, as the COO functional groups of GO are evenly distributed. The optimal AgNPs/PIB-POE-PIB/GO ratio was 20:20:1. Furthermore, the flexible electrode layers were successfully manufactured and applied in wearable electronic sensors to generate electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs were, thereafter, successfully obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption Performance for Reactive Blue 221 Dye of β-Chitosan/Polyamine Functionalized Graphene Oxide Hybrid Adsorbent with High Acid–Alkali Resistance Stability in Different Acid–Alkaline Environments
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040748 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
A hybrid material obtained by blending β-chitosan (CS) with triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene oxide (TFGO) (CSGO), was used as an adsorbent for a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 221 Dye, RB221), and the adsorption and removal performances of unmodified CS and mix-modified CSGO were investigated [...] Read more.
A hybrid material obtained by blending β-chitosan (CS) with triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene oxide (TFGO) (CSGO), was used as an adsorbent for a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 221 Dye, RB221), and the adsorption and removal performances of unmodified CS and mix-modified CSGO were investigated and compared systematically at different pH values (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12). The adsorption capacities of CS and CSGO were 45.5 and 56.1 mg/g, respectively, at a pH of 2 and 5.4 and 37.2 mg/g, respectively, at a pH of 12. This indicates that TFGO was successfully introduced into CSGO, enabling π–π interactions and electrostatic attraction with the dye molecules. Additionally, benzene ring-shaped GO exhibited a high surface chemical stability, which was conducive to maintaining the stability of the acid and alkali resistance of the CSGO adsorbent. The RB221 adsorption performance of CS and CSGO at acidic condition (pH 3) and alkaline condition (pH 12) and different temperatures was investigated by calculating the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of adsorbents. Overall, the adsorption efficiency of CSGO was superior to that of CS; thus, CSGO is promising for the treatment of dye effluents in a wide pH range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Graphene Oxide/Graphene Hybrid on Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar and Mechanism Investigation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010113 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper evaluated the effect of graphene oxide/graphene (GO/GR) hybrid on mechanical properties of cement mortar. The underlying mechanism was also investigated. In the GO/GR hybrid, GO was expected to act as a dispersant for GR while GR was used as reinforcement in [...] Read more.
This paper evaluated the effect of graphene oxide/graphene (GO/GR) hybrid on mechanical properties of cement mortar. The underlying mechanism was also investigated. In the GO/GR hybrid, GO was expected to act as a dispersant for GR while GR was used as reinforcement in mortar due to its excellent mechanical properties. For the mortar specimen, flexural and compressive strength were measured at varied GO to GR ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 by keeping the total amount of GO and GR constant. The underlying mechanism was investigated through the dispersibility of GR, heat releasing characteristics during hydration, and porosity of mortar. The results showed that GO/GR hybrid significantly enhanced the flexural and compressive strength of cement mortars. The flexural strength reached maximum at GO:GR = 1:1, where the enhancement level was up to 23.04% (28 days) when compared to mortar prepared with only GO, and up to 15.63% (7 days) when compared to mortar prepared with only GR. In terms of compressive strength, the enhancement level for GO:GR = 3:1 was up to 21.10% (3 days) when compared with that of mortar incorporating GO only. The enhancement in compressive strength with mortar at GO:GR = 1:1 was up to 14.69% (7-day) when compared with mortar incorporating GR only. In addition to dispersibility, the compressive strength was also influenced by other factors, such as the degree of hydration, porosity, and pore size distribution of mortar, which made the mortars perform best at different ages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Anisotropic Aerogels with Pristine Graphene by Heat Flow and Study of Their Effects on Heat Transfer in Paraffin
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111622 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this study, anisotropic graphene/graphene oxide (GO) aerogels (AGAs) were obtained by freeze-drying after direct participation of pristine graphene in the self-assembly of anisotropic gel by the heat flow method. After vacuum microwave treatment, the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the AGAs [...] Read more.
In this study, anisotropic graphene/graphene oxide (GO) aerogels (AGAs) were obtained by freeze-drying after direct participation of pristine graphene in the self-assembly of anisotropic gel by the heat flow method. After vacuum microwave treatment, the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the AGAs were investigated. The results show that AGAs, in which the internal graphene sheets are parallel to the heat flow direction, are successfully prepared. After microwave treatment, the amount of oxygen and nitrogen reduces significantly and the sp2 domain increases. However, at the same time, many fragments and holes are generated in the graphene sheets. The effects of AGAs on the phase transition of paraffin is studied, and the results show that the melting enthalpy, solidification enthalpy and initial melting temperature of AGA/paraffin composites decreases as the GO content in the AGAs increases, whereas the melting range, solidifying range and subcooling degree increases. The highest axial thermal conductivity of the AGA/paraffin composite is 1.45 W/(mK), and the thermal conductivity enhancement efficiency is 884% (AGA content was 0.53 vol %). Compared with previously investigated, similar AGA/paraffin composites, the aerogels fabricated in this study have the obvious advantages of a simple fabrication process, a low cost and a high thermal conductivity enhancement efficiency. These aerogels possess the potential for application in phase-change energy storage (PES), thermal energy management and other fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal-Recoverable Tough Hydrogels Enhanced by Porphyrin Decorated Graphene Oxide
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101487 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Artificial tissue materials usually suffer properties and structure loss over time. As a usual strategy, a new substitution is required to replace the worn one to maintain the functions. Although several approaches have been developed to restore the mechanical properties of hydrogels, they [...] Read more.
Artificial tissue materials usually suffer properties and structure loss over time. As a usual strategy, a new substitution is required to replace the worn one to maintain the functions. Although several approaches have been developed to restore the mechanical properties of hydrogels, they require direct heating or touching, which cannot be processed within the body. In this manuscript, a photothermal method was developed to restore the mechanical properties of the tough hydrogels by using near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. By adding the porphyrin decorated graphene oxide (PGO) as the nanoreinforcer and photothermal agent into carrageenan/polyacrylamide double network hydrogels (PDN), the compressive strength of the PDN was greatly improved by 104%. Under a short time of NIR laser irradiation, the PGO effectively converts light energy to thermal energy to heat the PDN hydrogels. The damaged carrageenan network was rebuilt, and a 90% compressive strength recovery was achieved. The PGO not only significantly improves the mechanical performance of PDN, but also restores the compressive property of PDN via a photothermal method. These tough hydrogels with superior photothermal recovery may work as promising substitutes for load-bearing tissues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)-Block-Poly(Caprolactone) Based Nanocomposites Containing Graphene Oxide (GO) and Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101459 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This work reports a study on the influence of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the functional properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(caprolactone) (PTT-block-PCL-T) (75/25 wt.%/wt.%) copolymer, obtained from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), 1,3-biopropanediol and polycaprolactone diol (PCL) via in situ [...] Read more.
This work reports a study on the influence of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the functional properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(caprolactone) (PTT-block-PCL-T) (75/25 wt.%/wt.%) copolymer, obtained from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), 1,3-biopropanediol and polycaprolactone diol (PCL) via in situ polymerization. The article presents, if and how the reduction of graphene oxide, in comparison to the non-reduced one, can affect morphological, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. SEM examination confirms/reveals the homogeneous distribution of GO/rGO nanoplatelets in the PTT-block-PCL-T copolymer matrix. More than threefold increase in the value of the tensile modulus is achieved by the addition of 1.0 wt.% of GO and rGO. Moreover, the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of the GO and rGO-based nanocomposites are also improved. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement indicates that the incorporation of GO and rGO has a remarkable impact on the crystallinity of the nanocomposites (an increase of crystallization temperature up to 58 °C for nanocomposite containing 1.0 wt.% of GO is observed). Therefore, the high performances of the PTT-block-PCL-T-based nanocomposites are mainly attributed to the uniform dispersion of nanoplatelets in the polymer matrix and strong interfacial interactions between components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Desalination by 3:1 Reduced Graphene Oxide/Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes (rGO/TiONTs) Composite via Capacitive Deionization at Different Sodium Chloride Concentrations
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091319 - 15 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The capability of novel 3:1 reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanotubes (rGO/TiONTs) composite to desalinate using capacitive deionization (CDI) employing highly concentrated NaCl solutions was tested in this study. Parameters such as material wettability, electrosorption capacity, charge efficiency, energy consumption, and charge-discharge retention were [...] Read more.
The capability of novel 3:1 reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanotubes (rGO/TiONTs) composite to desalinate using capacitive deionization (CDI) employing highly concentrated NaCl solutions was tested in this study. Parameters such as material wettability, electrosorption capacity, charge efficiency, energy consumption, and charge-discharge retention were tested at different NaCl initial concentrations—100 ppm, 2000 ppm, 15,000 ppm, and 30,000 ppm. The rGO/TiONTs composite showed good material wettability before and after CDI runs with its contact angles equal to 52.11° and 56.07°, respectively. Its two-hour electrosorption capacity during CDI at 30,000 ppm NaCl influent increased 1.34-fold compared to 100 ppm initial NaCl influent with energy consumption constant at 1.11 kWh per kg with NaCl removed. However, the percentage discharge (concentration-independent) at zero-voltage ranged from 4.9–7.27% only after 30 min of desorption. Repeated charge/discharge at different amperes showed that the slowest charging rate of 0.1 A·g−1 had the highest charging time retention at 60% after 100 cycles. Increased concentration likewise increases charging time retention. With this consistent performance of a CDI system utilizing rGO/TiONTs composite, even at 30,000 ppm and 100 cycles, it can be a sustainable alternative desalination technology, especially if a low charging current with reverse voltage discharge is set for a longer operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Flow Self-Assembled Anisotropic Chemically Derived Graphene Aerogels and Their Thermal Conductivity Enhancement
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091226 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the directional heating of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion to generate a temperature gradient and form a simulated “ocean current” inside the dispersion so that GO sheets could be aligned in a directional manner and then reduced and self-assembled [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the directional heating of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion to generate a temperature gradient and form a simulated “ocean current” inside the dispersion so that GO sheets could be aligned in a directional manner and then reduced and self-assembled into anisotropic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) gel. After freeze-drying and varying degrees of vacuum microwave treatment, anisotropic chemically derived graphene aerogels (AGAs) were obtained. Through performance detection and the analysis of the results, it was verified that the AGAs with certain characteristics of “ocean current” were prepared in this experiment, and its axial direction has obvious directional arrangement. After being treated by vacuum microwave for a short time (1 min.), the axial thermal conductivity of the composite materials (AGA-adsorbed paraffin) was observed to be 1.074 W/mK, and the thermal conductivity enhancement efficiency was 995%; as compared with similar thermal conductivity enhancement composites that were found in previous studies, the proposed method in this paper has the advantages of simple processing, high efficiency, and energy conservation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Grafting of Polypyrrole-3-carboxylic Acid to the Surface of Hexamethylene Diisocyanate-Functionalized Graphene Oxide
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081095 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
A polypyrrole-carboxylic acid derivative (PPy-COOH) was covalently anchored on the surface of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-modified graphene oxide (GO) following two different esterification approaches: activation of the carboxylic acids of the polymer by carbodiimide, and conversion of the carboxylic groups to acyl chloride. Microscopic [...] Read more.
A polypyrrole-carboxylic acid derivative (PPy-COOH) was covalently anchored on the surface of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-modified graphene oxide (GO) following two different esterification approaches: activation of the carboxylic acids of the polymer by carbodiimide, and conversion of the carboxylic groups to acyl chloride. Microscopic observations revealed a decrease in HDI-GO layer thickness for the sample prepared via the first strategy, and the heterogeneous nature of the grafted samples. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies corroborated the grafting success, demonstrating the emergence of a peak associated with the ester group. The yield of the grafting reactions (31% and 42%) was roughly calculated from thermogravimetric analysis, and it was higher for the sample synthesized via formation of the acyl chloride-functionalized PPy. The grafted samples showed higher thermal stability (~30 and 40 °C in the second decomposition stage) and sheet resistance than PPy-COOH. They also exhibited superior stiffness and strength both at 25 and 100 °C, and the reinforcing efficiency was approximately maintained at high temperatures. Improved mechanical performance was attained for the sample with higher grafting yield. The developed method is a valuable approach to covalently attach conductive polymers onto graphenic nanomaterials for application in flexible electronics, fuel cells, solar cells, and supercapacitors. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Graphene-Based Hybrid Materials for Water Purification: A Review
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081123 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Graphene-based nanostructures and nanomaterials have been widely used for the applications in materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, sensors, energy, catalysis, and environmental science due to their unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) graphene materials, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based hybrid materials [...] Read more.
Graphene-based nanostructures and nanomaterials have been widely used for the applications in materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, sensors, energy, catalysis, and environmental science due to their unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) graphene materials, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based hybrid materials (GBHMs) exhibited higher surface area and special porous structure, making them excellent candidates for practical applications in water purification. In this work, we present recent advances in the synthesis and water remediation applications of 3D GBHMs. More details on the synthesis strategies of GBHMs, the water treatment techniques, and the adsorption/removal of various pollutants from water systems with GBHMs are demonstrated and discussed. It is expected that this work will attract wide interests on the structural design and facile synthesis of novel 3D GBHMs, and promote the advanced applications of 3D GBHMs in energy and environmental fields. Full article
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