Graphene-Based Materials for Cancer Therapy

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 17565

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada Di Dio, I-98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: organic synthesis; advanced synthetic methodologies for the organic functionalization of nanomaterials for applications in drug delivery, biosensors, tissue engineering and in environmental field
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada Di Dio, I-98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: nanomaterials; drug delivery systems; tissue engineering; biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes graphene oxide, and graphene quantum dots have shown great potential in revolutionizing the future of nanomedicine and biotechnology. Their outstanding physical and chemical properties and the presence of more reactive groups on the graphene surface, which allow the multimodal conjugation with different functional groups and biologically active molecules, make them ideal candidates for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These nanomaterials have been conjugated with drugs and also labeled with tumor-targeting ligands, which are able to specifically recognize cancer receptors exposed on cancer cells, thus allowing a more efficient targeted delivery of anticancer agents while minimizing their distribution in healthy tissues. Graphene-based materials have been also investigated for the development of new imaging agents for the in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of several types of cancer as well as for the development of biosensors for the identification of specific cancer bio-markers. “Graphene-based materials for cancer therapy” aims at collecting full papers communications and reviews that prominently demonstrate the continuous efforts in developing advanced, graphene-based nanomaterials for cancer treatment and diagnosis. This Special Issue aims to cover a broad range of subjects, from nanomaterials synthesis to the design and development of nanostructures to be used as drug delivery systems, biosensors, and imaging agents for cancer treatment.

Prof. Daniela Iannazzo
Prof. Alessandro Pistone
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • graphene-based materials
  • anticancer therapy
  • drug delivery systems
  • imaging agents
  • biosensors

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4546 KiB  
Article
Dual pH- and GSH-Responsive Degradable PEGylated Graphene Quantum Dot-Based Nanoparticles for Enhanced HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Therapy
by Na Re Ko, Se Young Van, Sung Hwa Hong, Seog-Young Kim, Miran Kim, Jae Seo Lee, Sang Ju Lee, Yong-kyu Lee, Il Keun Kwon and Seung Jun Oh
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010091 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4286
Abstract
Dual stimuli-responsive degradable carbon-based nanoparticles (DS-CNPs) conjugated with Herceptin (HER) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been designed for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Each component has been linked through disulfide linkages that are sensitive to glutathione in a cancer microenvironment. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) [...] Read more.
Dual stimuli-responsive degradable carbon-based nanoparticles (DS-CNPs) conjugated with Herceptin (HER) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been designed for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Each component has been linked through disulfide linkages that are sensitive to glutathione in a cancer microenvironment. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the surface of DS-CNPs formed an inclusion complex (DL-CNPs) with doxorubicin (DOX) at a high loading capacity of 5.3 ± 0.4%. In response to a high level of glutathione (GSH) and low pH in a tumor environment, DL-CNPs were rapidly degraded and released DOX in a controlled manner via disruption of host–guest inclusion. These novel DL-CNPs exhibited high cellular uptake with low toxicity, which induced the efficient inhibition of antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and animal studies indicate that DL-CNPs are a great platform with a synergistically enhanced antitumor effect from the dual delivery of HER and DOX in DL-CNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials for Cancer Therapy)
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17 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
A Smart Nanovector for Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery Based on Graphene Quantum Dots
by Daniela Iannazzo, Alessandro Pistone, Consuelo Celesti, Claudia Triolo, Salvatore Patané, Salvatore V. Giofré, Roberto Romeo, Ida Ziccarelli, Raffaella Mancuso, Bartolo Gabriele, Giuseppa Visalli, Alessio Facciolà and Angela Di Pietro
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020282 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 8169
Abstract
Graphene quantum dots (GQD), the new generation members of graphene-family, have shown promising applications in anticancer therapy. In this study, we report the synthesis of a fluorescent and biocompatible nanovector, based on GQD, for the targeted delivery of an anticancer drug with benzofuran [...] Read more.
Graphene quantum dots (GQD), the new generation members of graphene-family, have shown promising applications in anticancer therapy. In this study, we report the synthesis of a fluorescent and biocompatible nanovector, based on GQD, for the targeted delivery of an anticancer drug with benzofuran structure (BFG) and bearing the targeting ligand riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2). The highly water-dispersible nanoparticles, synthesized from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) by prolonged acidic treatment, were linked covalently to the drug by means of a cleavable PEG linker while the targeting ligand RF was conjugated to the GQD by π–π interaction using a pyrene linker. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized drug delivery system (DDS) GQD-PEG-BFG@Pyr-RF was tested on three cancer cell lines and this effect was compared with that exerted by the same nanovector lacking the RF ligand (GQD-PEG-BFG) or the anticancer drug (GQD@Pyr-RF). The results of biological tests underlined the low cytotoxicity of the GQD sample and the cytotoxic activity of the DDS against the investigated cancer cell lines with a higher or similar potency to that exerted by the BFG alone, thus opening new possibilities for the use of this drug or other anticancer agents endowed of cytotoxicity and serious side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials for Cancer Therapy)
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Review

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22 pages, 2533 KiB  
Review
Theranostic Applications of 2D Graphene-Based Materials for Solid Tumors Treatment
by Daniela Iannazzo, Consuelo Celesti, Salvatore V. Giofrè, Roberta Ettari and Alessandra Bitto
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(16), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13162380 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Solid tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, being characterized by rapid tumor growth and local and distant metastases. The failures encountered in cancer treatment are mainly related to the complicated biology of the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles-based (NPs) approaches have shown [...] Read more.
Solid tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, being characterized by rapid tumor growth and local and distant metastases. The failures encountered in cancer treatment are mainly related to the complicated biology of the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles-based (NPs) approaches have shown the potential to overcome the limitations caused by the pathophysiological features of solid cancers, enabling the development of multifunctional systems for cancer diagnosis and therapy and allowing effective inhibition of tumor growth. Among the different classes of NPs, 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), due to their outstanding chemical and physical properties, easy surface multi-functionalization, near-infrared (NIR) light absorption and tunable biocompatibility, represent ideal nanoplatforms for the development of theranostic tools for the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we reviewed the most recent advances related to the synthesis of nano-systems based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), for the development of theranostic NPs to be used for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal–chemotherapy, photothermal (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), applied to solid tumors destruction. The advantages in using these nano-systems are here discussed for each class of GBNs, taking into consideration the different chemical properties and possibility of multi-functionalization, as well as biodistribution and toxicity aspects that represent a key challenge for their translation into clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials for Cancer Therapy)
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17 pages, 2922 KiB  
Review
Graphene Oxide-Based Biosensors for Liquid Biopsies in Cancer Diagnosis
by Shiue-Luen Chen, Chong-You Chen, Jason Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Zih-Yu Yu, Sheng-Jen Cheng, Kuan Yu Hsieh, Jia-Wei Yang, Priyank V Kumar, Shien-Fong Lin and Guan-Yu Chen
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121725 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5517
Abstract
Liquid biopsies use blood or urine as test samples, which are able to be continuously collected in a non-invasive manner. The analysis of cancer-related biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), microRNA, and exosomes provides important information in early [...] Read more.
Liquid biopsies use blood or urine as test samples, which are able to be continuously collected in a non-invasive manner. The analysis of cancer-related biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), microRNA, and exosomes provides important information in early cancer diagnosis, tumor metastasis detection, and postoperative recurrence monitoring assist with clinical diagnosis. However, low concentrations of some tumor markers, such as CTCs, ctDNA, and microRNA, in the blood limit its applications in clinical detection and analysis. Nanomaterials based on graphene oxide have good physicochemical properties and are now widely used in biomedical detection technologies. These materials have properties including good hydrophilicity, mechanical flexibility, electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and optical performance. Moreover, utilizing graphene oxide as a biosensor interface has effectively improved the sensitivity and specificity of biosensors for cancer detection. In this review, we discuss various cancer detection technologies regarding graphene oxide and discuss the prospects and challenges of this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials for Cancer Therapy)
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