Innovative Advanced Materials for Energy Storage and Beyond: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 54517

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1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
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Dear Colleagues,

Recently, advanced materials have attracted considerable interest owing to their possible applications in different fields such as in supercapacitors, capacitors, batteries and other energy storage systems. Many of the 21st century’s advancing technologies, e.g., electric vehicles (and hybrids), portable electronic devices, and renewable energy systems, drive the demand for high-performance energy storage systems. In fact, the increasing demand for processable, lightweight, flexible energy storage materials has motivated researchers from both academia and industry to develop and manufacture new materials that offer excellent properties depending on the targeted applications. This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the current state-of-the-art in new advanced materials to address the various challenging issues researchers have been confronted with in this field for a number of applications, especially for energy storage.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will publish high quality short communications, and research papers covering the most recent advances, as well as comprehensive reviews addressing novel and state-of-the-art topics from active researchers in innovative advanced materials and hybrid materials, concerning not only their synthesis, preparation and characterization, but especially focusing on the applications of such  materials with outstanding performances.

Prof. Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • New advanced materials for supercapacitors; batteries; solar cells; dielectric materials
  • Structure, chemistry and processing of innovative materials
  • Modeling and simulation study of materials for energy storage
  • New innovative nanostructures and functional materials
  • Solid-electrolyte interphase; high-performance anode; electrochemical energy storage
  • Double-layer capacitors; nanotechnology
  • Electric vehicle applications, superior cycling stability
  • Other materials and nano-devices

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

5 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Innovative Advanced Materials for Energy Storage and Beyond: Synthesis, Characterisation and Applications
by Vijay Kumar Thakur
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091817 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Recently, advanced materials have attracted considerable interest owing to their possible applications in different fields such as in catalysts, supercapacitors, capacitors, batteries and other energy storage systems [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

26 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Synthesis of Mg-Doped LiMn2O4 Nanoparticles
by Aleksei Llusco, Mario Grageda and Svetlana Ushak
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071409 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4304
Abstract
In this work, a first study on kinetics and thermodynamics of thermal decomposition for synthesis of doped LiMn2O4 nanoparticles is presented. The effect of Mg doping concentration on thermal decomposition of synthesis precursors, prepared by ultrasound-assisted Pechini-type sol–gel process, and [...] Read more.
In this work, a first study on kinetics and thermodynamics of thermal decomposition for synthesis of doped LiMn2O4 nanoparticles is presented. The effect of Mg doping concentration on thermal decomposition of synthesis precursors, prepared by ultrasound-assisted Pechini-type sol–gel process, and its significance on nucleation and growth of Mg-doped LiMn2O4 nanoparticles was studied through a method based on separation of multistage processes in single-stage reactions by deconvolution and transition state theory. Four zones of thermal decomposition were identified: Dehydration, polymeric matrix decomposition, carbonate decomposition and spinel formation, and spinel decomposition. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis focused on the second zone. First-order Avrami-Erofeev equation was selected as reaction model representing the polymer matrix thermal decomposition. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters revealed that Mg doping causes an increase in thermal inertia on conversion rate, and CO2 desorption was the limiting step for formation of thermodynamically stable spinel phases. Based on thermogravimetry experiments and the effect of Mg on thermal decomposition, an optimal two-stage heat treatment was determined for preparation of LiMgxMn2−xO4 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10) nanocrystalline powders as promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Crystalline structure, morphology, and stoichiometry of synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, and AAS, respectively. Full article
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11 pages, 2978 KiB  
Communication
Hole Transfer Layer Engineering for CdTe Nanocrystal Photovoltaics with Improved Efficiency
by Yasi Jiang, Yiyang Pan, Wanhua Wu, Kaiying Luo, Zhitao Rong, Sihang Xie, Wencai Zuo, Jingya Yu, Ruibo Zhang, Donghuan Qin, Wei Xu, Dan Wang and Lintao Hou
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071348 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
Interface engineering has led to significant progress in solution-processed CdTe nanocrystal (NC) solar cells in recent years. High performance solar cells can be fabricated by introducing a hole transfer layer (HTL) between CdTe and a back contact electrode to reduce carrier recombination by [...] Read more.
Interface engineering has led to significant progress in solution-processed CdTe nanocrystal (NC) solar cells in recent years. High performance solar cells can be fabricated by introducing a hole transfer layer (HTL) between CdTe and a back contact electrode to reduce carrier recombination by forming interfacial dipole effect at the interface. Here, we report the usage of a commercial product 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro) as a hole transfer layer to facilitate the hole collecting for CdTe nanocrystal solar cells. It is found that heat treatment on the hole transfer layer has significant influence on the NC solar cells performance. The Jsc, Voc, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of NC solar cells are simultaneously increased due to the decreased contact resistance and enhanced built-in electric field. We demonstrate solar cells that achieve a high PCE of 8.34% for solution-processed CdTe NC solar cells with an inverted structure by further optimizing the HTL annealing temperature, which is among the highest value in CdTe NC solar cells with the inverted structure. Full article
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11 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
W2C/WS2 Alloy Nanoflowers as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Storage
by Thang Phan Nguyen and Il Tae Kim
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071336 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3580
Abstract
Recently, composites of MXenes and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as promising materials for energy storage applications. In this study, W2C/WS2 alloy nanoflowers (NFs) were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The alloy NFs showed a particle size of [...] Read more.
Recently, composites of MXenes and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as promising materials for energy storage applications. In this study, W2C/WS2 alloy nanoflowers (NFs) were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The alloy NFs showed a particle size of 200 nm–1 μm, which could be controlled. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared alloy NFs was investigated to evaluate their potential for application as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes. The incorporation of W2C in the WS2 NFs improved their electronic properties. Among them, the W2C/WS2_4h NF electrode showed the best electrochemical performance with an initial discharge capacity of 1040 mAh g−1 and excellent cyclability corresponding to a reversible capacity of 500 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles compared to that of the pure WS2 NF electrode. Therefore, the incorporation of W2C is a promising approach to improve the performance of LIB anode materials. Full article
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13 pages, 4329 KiB  
Article
Noble Metal Nanoparticles Incorporated Siliceous TUD-1 Mesoporous Nano-Catalyst for Low-Temperature Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide
by Badria M. Al-Shehri, Mohd Shkir, A. S. Khder, Ajeet Kaushik and Mohamed S. Hamdy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061067 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
This report, for the first time, demonstrated the low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) using nano-catalysts consisting of noble metal nanoparticles incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica nano-structures synthesized via a one-pot surfactant-free sol–gel synthesis methodology. Herein, we investigated a nano-catalyst, represented as M-TUD-1 [...] Read more.
This report, for the first time, demonstrated the low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) using nano-catalysts consisting of noble metal nanoparticles incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica nano-structures synthesized via a one-pot surfactant-free sol–gel synthesis methodology. Herein, we investigated a nano-catalyst, represented as M-TUD-1 (M = Rh, Pd, Pt and Au), which was prepared using a constant Si/M ratio of 100. The outcome of the analytical studies confirmed the formation of a nano-catalyst ranging from 5 to 10 nm wherein noble metal nanoparticles were distributed uniformly onto the mesopores of TUD-1. The catalytic performance of M-TUD-1 catalysts was examined in the environmentally impacted CO oxidation reaction to CO2. The catalytic performance of Au-TUD-1 benchmarked other M-TUD-1 catalysts and a total conversion of CO was obtained at 303 K. The activity of the other nano-catalysts was obtained as Pt-TUD-1 > Pd-TUD-1 > Rh-TUD-1, with a total CO conversion at temperatures of 308, 328 and 348 K, respectively. The Au-TUD-1 exhibited a high stability and reusability as indicated by the observed high activity after ten continuous runs without any treatment. The outcomes of this research suggested that M-TUD-1 are promising nano-catalysts for the removal of the toxic CO gas and can also potentially be useful to protect the environment where a long-life time, cost-effectiveness and industrial scaling-up are the key approaches. Full article
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12 pages, 2886 KiB  
Article
TiO2 Nanotube Layers Decorated with Al2O3/MoS2/Al2O3 as Anode for Li-ion Microbatteries with Enhanced Cycling Stability
by Alexander Teklit Tesfaye, Hanna Sopha, Angela Ayobi, Raul Zazpe, Jhonatan Rodriguez-Pereira, Jan Michalicka, Ludek Hromadko, Siowwoon Ng, Zdenek Spotz, Jan Prikryl, Jan M. Macak and Thierry Djenizian
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050953 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
TiO2 nanotube layers (TNTs) decorated with Al2O3/MoS2/Al2O3 are investigated as a negative electrode for 3D Li-ion microbatteries. Homogenous nanosheets decoration of MoS2, sandwiched between Al2O3 coatings within self-supporting [...] Read more.
TiO2 nanotube layers (TNTs) decorated with Al2O3/MoS2/Al2O3 are investigated as a negative electrode for 3D Li-ion microbatteries. Homogenous nanosheets decoration of MoS2, sandwiched between Al2O3 coatings within self-supporting TNTs was carried out using atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the Al2O3/MoS2/Al2O3-decorated TNTs were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and chronopotentiometry. Al2O3/MoS2/Al2O3-decorated TNTs deliver an areal capacity almost three times higher than that obtained for MoS2-decorated TNTs and as-prepared TNTs after 100 cycles at 1C. Moreover, stable and high discharge capacity (414 µAh cm−2) has been obtained after 200 cycles even at very fast kinetics (3C). Full article
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13 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Graphitic Carbon Nitride Doped Copper–Manganese Alloy as High–Performance Electrode Material in Supercapacitor for Energy Storage
by Samarjeet Singh Siwal, Qibo Zhang, Changbin Sun and Vijay Kumar Thakur
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010002 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5890
Abstract
Here, we report the synthesis of copper–manganese alloy (CuMnO2) using graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) as a novel support material. The successful formation of CuMnO2-gCN was confirmed through spectroscopic, optical, and other characterization techniques. We have applied this catalyst as [...] Read more.
Here, we report the synthesis of copper–manganese alloy (CuMnO2) using graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) as a novel support material. The successful formation of CuMnO2-gCN was confirmed through spectroscopic, optical, and other characterization techniques. We have applied this catalyst as the energy storage material in the alkaline media and it has shown good catalytic behavior in supercapacitor applications. The CuMnO2-gCN demonstrates outstanding electrocapacitive performance, having high capacitance (817.85 A·g−1) and well-cycling stability (1000 cycles) when used as a working electrode material for supercapacitor applications. For comparison, we have also used the gCN and Cu2O-gCN for supercapacitor applications. This study proposes a simple path for the extensive construction of self-attaining double metal alloy with control size and uniformity in high-performance energy-storing materials. Full article
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13 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
Fluoride-Ion Batteries: On the Electrochemical Stability of Nanocrystalline La0.9Ba0.1F2.9 against Metal Electrodes
by Maria Gombotz, Veronika Pregartner, Ilie Hanzu and H. Martin R. Wilkening
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111517 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4653
Abstract
Over the past years, ceramic fluorine ion conductors with high ionic conductivity have stepped into the limelight of materials research, as they may act as solid-state electrolytes in fluorine-ion batteries (FIBs). A factor of utmost importance, which has been left aside so far, [...] Read more.
Over the past years, ceramic fluorine ion conductors with high ionic conductivity have stepped into the limelight of materials research, as they may act as solid-state electrolytes in fluorine-ion batteries (FIBs). A factor of utmost importance, which has been left aside so far, is the electrochemical stability of these conductors with respect to both the voltage window and the active materials used. The compatibility with different current collector materials is important as well. In the course of this study, tysonite-type La 0.9 Ba 0.1 F 2.9 , which is one of the most important electrolyte in first-generation FIBs, was chosen as model substance to study its electrochemical stability against a series of metal electrodes viz. Pt, Au, Ni, Cu and Ag. To test anodic or cathodic degradation processes we carried out cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements using a two-electrode set-up. We covered a voltage window ranging from −1 to 4 V, which is typical for FIBs, and investigated the change of the response of the CVs as a function of scan rate (2 mV/s to 0.1 V/s). It turned out that Cu is unstable in combination with La 0.9 Ba 0.1 F 2.9 , even before voltage was applied. The cells with Au and Pt electrodes show reactions during the CV scans; in the case of Au the irreversible changes seen in CV are accompanied by a change in color of the electrode as investigated by light microscopy. Ag and Ni electrodes seem to suffer from contact issues which, most likely, also originate from side reactions with the electrode material. The experiments show that the choice of current collectors in future FIBs will become an important topic if we are to develop long-lasting FIBs. Most likely, protecting layers between the composite electrode material and the metal current collector have to be developed to prevent any interdiffusion or electrochemical degradation processes. Full article
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15 pages, 3911 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbons from Thermoplastic Precursors and Their Energy Storage Applications
by Hye-Min Lee, Kwan-Woo Kim, Young-Kwon Park, Kay-Hyeok An, Soo-Jin Park and Byung-Joo Kim
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060896 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-derived activated carbons (PE-AC) were prepared as electrode materials for an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) by techniques of cross-linking, carbonization, and subsequent activation under various conditions. The surface morphologies and structural characteristics of the PE-AC were observed by [...] Read more.
In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-derived activated carbons (PE-AC) were prepared as electrode materials for an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) by techniques of cross-linking, carbonization, and subsequent activation under various conditions. The surface morphologies and structural characteristics of the PE-AC were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope, Cs-corrected field-emission transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm-desorption characteristics were confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, nonlocal density functional theory, and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda equations at 77 K. The results showed that the specific surface area and total pore volume of the activated samples increased with increasing the activation time. The specific surface area, the total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the PE-AC were found to be increased finally to 1600 m2/g, 0.86 cm3/g, and 0.3 cm3/g, respectively. The PE-AC also exhibited a high mesopore volume ratio of 35%. This mesopore-rich characteristic of the activated carbon from the LDPE is considered to be originated from the cross-linking density and crystallinity of precursor polymer. The high specific surface area and mesopore volume of the PE-AC led to their excellent performance as EDLC electrodes, including a specific capacitance of 112 F/g. Full article
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10 pages, 3101 KiB  
Article
Dual Substitution and Spark Plasma Sintering to Improve Ionic Conductivity of Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12
by Zhencai Dong, Chao Xu, Yongmin Wu, Weiping Tang, Shufeng Song, Jianyao Yao, Zhengyong Huang, Zhaoyin Wen, Li Lu and Ning Hu
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050721 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3559
Abstract
Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 is one of the most promising solid electrolytes used for solid-state lithium batteries. However, low ionic conductivity impedes its application. Herein, we report Ta-doping garnets with compositions of Li7-xLa3Zr2-x [...] Read more.
Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 is one of the most promising solid electrolytes used for solid-state lithium batteries. However, low ionic conductivity impedes its application. Herein, we report Ta-doping garnets with compositions of Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) obtained by solid-state reaction and free sintering, which was facilitated by graphene oxide (GO). Furthermore, to optimize Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12, Mg2+ was select as a second dopant. The dual substitution of Ta5+ for Zr4+ and Mg2+ for Li+ with a composition of Li6.5Mg0.05La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 showed an enhanced total ionic conductivity of 6.1 × 10−4 S cm−1 at room temperature. Additionally, spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to further densify the garnets and enhance their ionic conductivities. Both SPS specimens present higher conductivities than those produced by the conventional free sintering. At room temperature, the highest ionic conductivity of Li6.5Mg0.05La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 sintered at 1000 °C is 8.8 × 10−4 S cm−1, and that of Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 sintered at 1050 °C is 1.18 × 10−3 S cm−1. Full article
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16 pages, 4185 KiB  
Article
On the Beneficial Effect of MgCl2 as Electrolyte Additive to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of Li4Ti5O12 as Cathode in Mg Batteries
by Marta Cabello, Gregorio F. Ortiz, Pedro Lavela and José L. Tirado
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030484 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4283
Abstract
Magnesium batteries are a promising technology for a new generation of energy storage for portable devices. Attention should be paid to electrolyte and electrode material development in order to develop rechargeable Mg batteries. In this study, we report the use of the spinel [...] Read more.
Magnesium batteries are a promising technology for a new generation of energy storage for portable devices. Attention should be paid to electrolyte and electrode material development in order to develop rechargeable Mg batteries. In this study, we report the use of the spinel lithium titanate or Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as an active electrode for Mg2+-ion batteries. The theoretical capacity of LTO is 175 mA h g−1, which is equivalent to an insertion reaction with 1.5 Mg2+ ions. The ability to enhance the specific capacity of LTO is of practical importance. We have observed that it is possible to increase the capacity up to 290 mA h g−1 in first discharge, which corresponds to the reaction with 2.5 Mg2+ ions. The addition of MgCl2·6H2O to the electrolyte solutions significantly improves their electrochemical performance and enables reversible Mg deposition. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal little structural changes, while X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) (XPS) measurements suggest Mg reacts with LTO. The Ti3+/Ti4+ ratio increases with the amount of inserted magnesium. The impedance spectra show the presence of a semicircle at medium-low frequencies, ascribable to Mg2+ ion diffusion between the surface film and LTO. Further experimental improvements with exhaustive control of electrodes and electrolytes are necessary to develop the Mg battery with practical application. Full article
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20 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
Non-Isothermal Crystallisation Kinetics of Carbon Black- Graphene-Based Multimodal-Polyethylene Nanocomposites
by Ibrahim A. Ahmad, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Suleyman Deveci and R. Vasant Kumar
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010110 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4313 | Correction
Abstract
The effect of carbon black (CB) and microwave-induced plasma graphene (g) on the crystallisation kinetics of the multimodal high-density polyethylene was studied under non-isothermal conditions. The non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of the multimodal-high-density polyethylene (HDPE), containing up to 5 wt.% graphene, was compared with [...] Read more.
The effect of carbon black (CB) and microwave-induced plasma graphene (g) on the crystallisation kinetics of the multimodal high-density polyethylene was studied under non-isothermal conditions. The non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of the multimodal-high-density polyethylene (HDPE), containing up to 5 wt.% graphene, was compared with that of neat multimodal-HDPE and its carbon black based nanocomposites. The results suggested that the non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of polyethylene (PE)-g nanocomposites relied significantly on both the graphene content and the cooling rate. The addition of graphene caused a change in the mechanism of the nucleation and the crystal growth of the multimodal-HDPE, while carbon black was shown to have little effect. Combined Avrami and Ozawa equations were shown to be effective in describing the non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of the neat multimodal-HDPE and its nanocomposites. The mean activation energy barrier (ΔE), required for the transportation of the molecular chains from the melt state to the growing crystal surface, gradually diminished as the graphene content increased, which is attributable to the nucleating agent effect of graphene platelets. On the contrary, the synergistic effect resulting from the PE-CB nanocomposite decreased the ΔE of the neat multimodal-HDPE significantly at the lowest carbon black content. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

22 pages, 3264 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Biomass Activated Carbons as Electrodes for Battery and Supercapacitors—A Mini-Review
by Glaydson Simões dos Reis, Sylvia H. Larsson, Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira, Mikael Thyrel and Eder Claudio Lima
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071398 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 6354
Abstract
Some recent developments in the preparation of biomass carbon electrodes (CEs) using various biomass residues for application in energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, are presented in this work. The application of biomass residues as the primary precursor for the production [...] Read more.
Some recent developments in the preparation of biomass carbon electrodes (CEs) using various biomass residues for application in energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, are presented in this work. The application of biomass residues as the primary precursor for the production of CEs has been increasing over the last years due to it being a renewable source with comparably low processing cost, providing prerequisites for a process that is economically and technically sustainable. Electrochemical energy storage technology is key to the sustainable development of autonomous and wearable electronic devices. This article highlights the application of various types of biomass in the production of CEs by using different types of pyrolysis and experimental conditions and denotes some possible effects on their final characteristics. An overview is provided on the use of different biomass types for the synthesis of CEs with efficient electrochemical properties for batteries and supercapacitors. This review showed that, from different biomass residues, it is possible to obtain CEs with different electrochemical properties and that they can be successfully applied in high-performance batteries and supercapacitors. As the research and development of producing CEs still faces a gap by linking the type and composition of biomass residues with the carbon electrodes’ electrochemical performances in supercapacitor and battery applications, this work tries to diminish this gap. Physical and chemical characteristics of the CEs, such as porosity, chemical composition, and surface functionalities, are reflected in the electrochemical performances. It is expected that this review not only provides the reader with a good overview of using various biomass residues in the energy storage applications, but also highlights some goals and challenges remaining in the future research and development of this topic. Full article
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Other

1 pages, 171 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Ahmad, I.A., et al. Non-Isothermal Crystallisation Kinetics of Carbon Black-Graphene-Based Multimodal-Polyethylene Nanocomposites. Nanomaterials, 2019, 9, 100
by Ibrahim A. Ahmad, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Suleyman Deveci and R. Vasant Kumar
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030392 - 7 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
In the published paper [1], there was a typo error mistake in Equation (5), which was supposed to be expressed as “ log Z t + n log t = log K T m log Φ ” instead of “log [...] Read more.
In the published paper [1], there was a typo error mistake in Equation (5), which was supposed to be expressed as “ log Z t + n log t = log K T m log Φ ” instead of “log Zt + n log t = log KTml” [...] Full article
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