Special Issue "Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Materials and Metal-Organic Frameworks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Slawomir Boncel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: c-CVD synthesis; physicochemistry of carbon nanotubes and other carbon sp2-allotropes; nanocomposites/nanohybrids of enhanced mechanical, thermal, electrical and/or magnetic properties; nano(bio)catalysis; magnetically targeted drug delivery dystems; materials for military/civil engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology as penetrating physics, chemistry, biology and formulating many new laws, such as ballistic electron transport, nanocatalysis, quantum effects, superparamagnetism or enhanced molecule-cell interactions, works at the atomic and subatomic scales. One of the greatest breakthroughs nanotechnology owes to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which display the unique combination of superb properties. For example, individual CNTs of well-defined chirality exhibit ‘zero-loss’ electroconductivity, excellent thermal conductivity, extraordinary mechanical strength and tailorable optical properties. It is therefore not surprising that ‘re-discovery’ of CNTs by Iijima has initiated an avalanche of the interdisciplinary research. Indeed, since 1991 on, CNTs has been promising to realize numerous applications in a range of distant areas.

Nevertheless, only a rather small fraction of the promises has been fulfilled in the every-day or scaled-up implementations and many more are still awaiting to come. One of the most challenging problems of transfer the extraordinary properties of CNTs from nano- to macro-scale is control over their chirality, morphology and surface physicochemistry. On the one hand, individualization of pre-defined CNTs as key added-value components in complex systems and hybrid materials plays a vital role. This is particularly true in the manufacture of CNT-based composites of enhanced mechanical, thermal and/or electrical properties. Also ‘debundling’ of CNT agglomerates is crucial in biomedical applications like targeted drug/gene delivery systems or theranostics. On the other hand, assembling of CNTs into desired forms and geometries of superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties would require ‘infinitely’-long CNTs.

The titled Special Issue intends to cover the up-to-date studies on CNTs focused on their applications achievable by the ‘properties-by-design’ approach. Novel strategies of controllable synthesis, original physicochemical modifications or innovative isolation/purification methods accompanied by comprehensive characterization toward applications constitute the cutting-edge science and this Special Issue as well. New openings or the most recent advances in the applications of CNTs – from (opto)electronics to thermal management to materials engineering to biomedicine – are the most welcome.

Dr. Slawomir Boncel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Synthesis routes
  • Surface functionalization
  • Purification/isolation methods
  • Physicochemical characterization
  • Nanocatalysis
  • Nanomaterials for biomedicine
  • Nanomaterials for energy applications
  • Electrical and thermal properties

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Functional Properties of MWCNT/PVA Buckypapers Fabricated by Vacuum Filtration Combined with Hot Press: Thermal, Electrical and Electromagnetic Shielding
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122503 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The applications of pure multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) buckypapers are still limited due to their unavoidable micro/nano-sized pores structures. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added to a uniform MWCNTs suspension to form MWCNT/PVA buckypapers by vacuum infiltration combined with a hot [...] Read more.
The applications of pure multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) buckypapers are still limited due to their unavoidable micro/nano-sized pores structures. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added to a uniform MWCNTs suspension to form MWCNT/PVA buckypapers by vacuum infiltration combined with a hot press method. The results showed an improvement in the thermal, electrical, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties due to the formation of dense MWCNTs networks. The thermal and electrical properties rose from 1.394 W/m·k to 2.473 W/m·k and 463.5 S/m to 714.3 S/m, respectively. The EMI performance reached 27.08 dB. On the other hand, ABAQUS finite element software was used to simulate the coupled temperature-displacement performance. The electronic component module with buckypapers revealed a homogeneous temperature and thermal stress distribution. In sum, the proposed method looks promising for the easy preparation of multi-functional nanocomposites at low-cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotube Sheet-Synthesis and Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102023 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
Decades of extensive research have matured the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Still, the properties of macroscale assemblages, such as sheets of carbon nanotubes, are not good enough to satisfy many applications. This paper gives an overview of different approaches to synthesize CNTs [...] Read more.
Decades of extensive research have matured the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Still, the properties of macroscale assemblages, such as sheets of carbon nanotubes, are not good enough to satisfy many applications. This paper gives an overview of different approaches to synthesize CNTs and then focuses on the floating catalyst method to form CNT sheets. A method is also described in this paper to modify the properties of macroscale carbon nanotube sheets produced by the floating catalyst method. The CNT sheet is modified to form a carbon nanotube hybrid (CNTH) sheet by incorporating metal, ceramic, or other types of nanoparticles into the high-temperature synthesis process to improve and customize the properties of the traditional nanotube sheet. This paper also discusses manufacturing obstacles and the possible commercial applications of the CNT sheet and CNTH sheet. Manufacturing problems include the difficulty of injecting dry nanoparticles uniformly, increasing the output of the process to reduce cost, and safely handling the hydrogen gas generated in the process. Applications for CNT sheet include air and water filtering, energy storage applications, and compositing CNTH sheets to produce apparel with anti-microbial properties to protect the population from infectious diseases. The paper also provides an outlook towards large scale commercialization of CNT material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Early Stage of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Plasma-Pretreated Inconel Plates and Comparison with Other Superalloys as Substrates
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081595 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
We investigate the early stage of carbon nanotube (CNTs) growth on Inconel 600 to address the effect of pretreatments such as annealing and plasma pretreatment on growth behavior. In addition, we compare the growth results to other Ni-based superalloys including Invar 42 and [...] Read more.
We investigate the early stage of carbon nanotube (CNTs) growth on Inconel 600 to address the effect of pretreatments such as annealing and plasma pretreatment on growth behavior. In addition, we compare the growth results to other Ni-based superalloys including Invar 42 and Hastelloy C276. The growth substrates were prepared using mechanical polish, thermal annealing and plasma pretreatment. The air annealing was performed at 725 °C for 10 min and plasma pretreatment was subsequently undergone with 10.5 W at 500 °C for 30 min. The annealed and plasma-pretreated substrates exhibited different surface morphologies on the surface and enhanced growth behavior of CNT was observed from the region of particulate surface. The optimized growth temperature, which produces the highest CNT height, was determined at 525 °C for Ni and Inconel 600 and 625 °C for Invar 42 and Hastelloy C276 substrates. The difference of optimal growth temperature is expected to the existence of high temperature elements such as Mn or Mo in the alloys. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy revealed that the formation of roughened oxide layers caused by the pretreatments would promote the nucleation and growth of the CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Detection Systems of Filling Rates Using Carbon Nanotube Cement Grout
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010010 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
The addition of small amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to cement-based materials modifies their thermal and electrical characteristics. This study investigated the void detection and filling rates of cement grout with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNT grouts of 40 mm × 40 mm [...] Read more.
The addition of small amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to cement-based materials modifies their thermal and electrical characteristics. This study investigated the void detection and filling rates of cement grout with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNT grouts of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm were fabricated. Specimens were tested by thermal imaging, electrical resistance analyses, and magnetic field tests. The experimental parameters were the concentration of MWCNT and the grout filling rate. The filling rate was investigated by measuring resistance and magnetic field changes with respect to cross-sectional area, taking the voids into consideration. The results of the thermal image tests indicate that 1.0 wt % MWCNT cement grout is optimal for void detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Ullmann Reactions of Carbon Nanotubes—Advantageous and Unexplored Functionalization toward Tunable Surface Chemistry
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111619 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
We demonstrate Ullmann-type reactions as novel and advantageous functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) toward tunable surface chemistry. The functionalization routes comprise O-, N-, and C-arylation of chlorinated CNTs. We confirm the versatility and efficiency of the reaction allowing functionalization degrees [...] Read more.
We demonstrate Ullmann-type reactions as novel and advantageous functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) toward tunable surface chemistry. The functionalization routes comprise O-, N-, and C-arylation of chlorinated CNTs. We confirm the versatility and efficiency of the reaction allowing functionalization degrees up to 3.5 mmol g−1 by applying both various nanotube substrates, i.e., single-wall (SWCNTs) and multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs) of various chirality, geometry, and morphology as well as diverse Ullmann-type reagents: phenol, aniline, and iodobenzene. The reactivity of nanotubes was correlatable with the nanotube diameter and morphology revealing SWCNTs as the most reactive representatives. We have determined the optimized conditions of this two-step synthetic protocol as: (1) chlorination using iodine trichloride (ICl3), and (2) Ullmann-type reaction in the presence of: copper(I) iodide (CuI), 1,10-phenanthroline as chelating agent and caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as base. We have analyzed functionalized CNTs using a variety of techniques, i.e., scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, comprehensive Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analyses confirmed the purely covalent nature of those modifications at all stages. Eventually, we have proved the elaborated protocol as exceptionally tunable since it enabled us: (a) to synthesize superhydrophilic films from—the intrinsically hydrophobic—vertically aligned MWCNT arrays and (b) to produce printable highly electroconductive pastes of enhanced characteristics—as compared for non-modified and otherwise modified MWCNTs—for textronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrafast Patterning Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forest on Al Foil and Si Substrate Using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091332 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
This study introduces a method of patterning carbon nanotube (CNTs) forests that is both fast and simple. We found that, as commercially available oil-based markers undergo nanotube synthesis, a thin film forms that prevents the catalyst, ferrocene, from coming into contact with the [...] Read more.
This study introduces a method of patterning carbon nanotube (CNTs) forests that is both fast and simple. We found that, as commercially available oil-based markers undergo nanotube synthesis, a thin film forms that prevents the catalyst, ferrocene, from coming into contact with the surface of the test sample. This, thus, blocks CNT growth. Through further deduction, we used styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) to conduct CNT patterning, in addition to analyzing the relationship between the weight percent concentration of the SMA and the extent to which it blocked CNT growth. We developed two separate methods for applying ink to soft and hard substrates: one method involved ink printing and the other laser stripping. In the CNT pattern we produced, a minimum line width of around 10 µm was attained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Puzzling Potential of Carbon Nanomaterials: General Properties, Application, and Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081508 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Being a member of the nanofamily, carbon nanomaterials exhibit specific properties that mostly arise from their small size. They have proved to be very promising for application in the technical and biomedical field. A wide spectrum of use implies the inevitable presence of [...] Read more.
Being a member of the nanofamily, carbon nanomaterials exhibit specific properties that mostly arise from their small size. They have proved to be very promising for application in the technical and biomedical field. A wide spectrum of use implies the inevitable presence of carbon nanomaterials in the environment, thus potentially endangering their whole nature. Although scientists worldwide have conducted research investigating the impact of these materials, it is evident that there are still significant gaps concerning the knowledge of their mechanisms, as well as the prolonged and chronic exposure and effects. This manuscript summarizes the most prominent representatives of carbon nanomaterial groups, giving a brief review of their general physico-chemical properties, the most common use, and toxicity profiles. Toxicity was presented through genotoxicity and the activation of the cell signaling pathways, both including in vitro and in vivo models, mechanisms, and the consequential outcomes. Moreover, the acute toxicity of fullerenol, as one of the most commonly investigated members, was briefly presented in the final part of this review. Thinking small can greatly help us improve our lives, but also obliges us to deeply and comprehensively investigate all the possible consequences that could arise from our pure-hearted scientific ambitions and work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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