Special Issue "Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 January 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Nadine Millot

Université Bourgogne Franche Comté/CNRS, Dijon, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Innovative nanoparticles for biomedical applications; SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Titanate nanotubes; Soft chemistry; Hydrothermal Synthesis; Nanohybrids; Functionalization; Biocompatibility; Vectorization; Theranostic; Bimodal contrast agents; Possible toxicity of these nanoparticles through the deployment of innovative biotests; Biodistribution studies (MRI, TEP/CT, SPECT/CT, optical imaging)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of nanomaterials that can be designed and administered for the human body to improve health is of great interest. During the past few years, there has been an increasing amount of research on the use of nanomaterials in diverse areas of biomedical research, including biological sensing, labelling, imaging, cell separation and therapy. Nano-objects are associated with organic molecules to vectorize drugs. The objective is then to concentrate these treatments on the pathological site by limiting the side effects. Nanoparticles are also used as contrast agents in medical imaging, especially in MRI or intrinsically as therapeutic agents. In the latter case, the nanoparticles, via physical phenomena emanating from their composition and/or their size, lead, for example, to the destruction of cancer cells by phenomena of hyperthermia or radiosensitization. Since each nanoparticle has its own peculiarities (bioavailability, more or less important grafting capacity, internalization, etc.) it is, however, essential to develop new types or improve the properties of existing ones.

The format of welcomed articles includes full papers, communications, and reviews. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  1. Nanomaterials development, synthesis, and fabrication for biomedical applications;
  2. Nanoparticles functionalization for biomedical applications;
  3. Innovative nanomaterials, nanocomposites, nanohybrids for biomedical applications;
  4. Scale-up, reproducibility and qualification of the nanoparticles batches produced for biomedical applications;
  5. Original approaches of characterization of nanohybrids for biomedical applications;
  6. Model nanoparticles development for the evaluation of their toxicity/innocuity;
  7. Design and preparation of novel nanostructured surfaces for biomedical applications;
  8. Design and preparation of novel nanostructured ceramics or alloys for biomedical applications;
  9. Other studies of nanoscience and nanotechnology associated with biomedical applications.

Prof. Nadine Millot
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Innovative nanoparticles for biomedical applications
  • Nanohybrids
  • Nanovectorization
  • Nanoparticles as new contrast agents
  • Nanostructured ceramics or surfaces
  • Nanoparticles functionalization

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Homologous Gold Nanoparticles and Nanoclusters Composites with Enhanced Surface Raman Scattering and Metal Fluorescence for Cancer Imaging
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100819
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
A large number of deaths from cancer can be attributed to the lack of effective early-stage diagnostic techniques. Thus, accurate and effective early diagnosis is a major research goal worldwide. With the unique phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), plasmonic nanomaterials have
[...] Read more.
A large number of deaths from cancer can be attributed to the lack of effective early-stage diagnostic techniques. Thus, accurate and effective early diagnosis is a major research goal worldwide. With the unique phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), plasmonic nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF). Both SERS and MEF are ultra-sensitive methods for the detection and identification of early tumor at molecular level. To combine the merits of the fast and accurate imaging of MEF and the stable and clear imaging of SERS, we propose a novel dual functional imaging nanoprobe based on gold nanoparticles and gold nanocluster composites (denoted AuNPC-RGD). The gold nanoparticles are used as LSPR substrates to realized enhancement of Raman or fluorescence signal, while the gold nanoclusters serve as a fluorophore for MEF imaging, and exhibit better biocompatibility and stability. Furthermore, target molecule of cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) is incorporated into the composite to improve delivery efficiency, selectivity and imaging accuracy. These integrated properties endow AuNPC-RGD composites with outstanding biocompatibility and excellent imaging abilities, which could be used to achieve accurate and effective diagnosis for early cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructured Dihydroartemisinin Plus Epirubicin Liposomes Enhance Treatment Efficacy of Breast Cancer by Inducing Autophagy and Apoptosis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100804
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
The heterogeneity of breast cancer and the development of drug resistance are the relapse reasons of disease after chemotherapy. To address this issue, a combined therapeutic strategy was developed by building the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes. Investigations were performed on human breast
[...] Read more.
The heterogeneity of breast cancer and the development of drug resistance are the relapse reasons of disease after chemotherapy. To address this issue, a combined therapeutic strategy was developed by building the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes. Investigations were performed on human breast cancer cells in vitro and xenografts in nude mice. The results indicated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly enhance the efficacy of epirubicin in killing different breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that the combined use of dihydroartemisinin with epirubicin could efficiently inhibit the activity of Bcl-2, facilitate release of Beclin 1, and further activate Bax. Besides, Bax activated apoptosis which led to the type I programmed death of breast cancer cells while Beclin 1 initiated the excessive autophagy that resulted in the type II programmed death of breast cancer cells. In addition, the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes prolonged circulation of drugs, and were beneficial for simultaneously delivering drugs into breast cancer tissues. Hence, the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes could provide a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Biocompatible Nanocomposite Implant with Silver Nanoparticles for Otology—In Vivo Evaluation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100764
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate of biocompatibility of polymeric implants modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Middle ear prostheses (otoimplants) made of the (poly)acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and ABS modified with silver nanoparticles were prepared through extrusion and injection moulding process.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate of biocompatibility of polymeric implants modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Middle ear prostheses (otoimplants) made of the (poly)acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and ABS modified with silver nanoparticles were prepared through extrusion and injection moulding process. The obtained prostheses were characterized by SEM-EDX, micro-CT and mechanical tests, confirming their proper shape, good AgNPs homogenization and mechanical parameters stability. The biocompatibility of the implants was evaluated in vivo on rats, after 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks of implantation. The tissue-healing process and cytotoxicity of the implants were evaluated on the basis of microscopic observations of the materials morphology after histochemical staining with cytochrome c oxidase (OCC) and acid phosphatase (AP), as well as via micro-tomography (ex vivo). The in vivo studies confirmed biocompatibility of the implants in the surrounding tissue environment. Both the pure ABS and nanosilver-modified ABS implants exhibited a distinct decrease in the area of granulation tissue which was replaced with the regenerating muscle tissue. Moreover, a slightly smaller area of granulation tissue was observed in the surroundings of the silver-doped prosthesis than in the case of pure ABS prosthesis. The kinetics of silver ions releasing from implants was investigated by ICP-MS spectrometry. The measurement confirmed that concentration of the silver ions increased within the implant’s immersion period. Our results showed that middle ear implant with the nanoscale modification is biocompatible and might be used in ossicular reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Ag-Film Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using DNA Molecular Switch for Ultra-Sensitive Mercury Ions Detection
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080596
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Heavy metal pollution has long been the focus of attention because of its serious threat to human health and the environment. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great potential for metal detection owing to many advantages, including, requiring fewer samples, its minimal
[...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution has long been the focus of attention because of its serious threat to human health and the environment. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great potential for metal detection owing to many advantages, including, requiring fewer samples, its minimal damage to specimen, and its high sensitivity. In this work, we proposed a simple and distinctive method, based on SERS, using facile silver film (Ag-film) combined with a DNA molecular switch, which allowed for the highly specific detection of heavy metal mercury ions (Hg2+). When in the presence of Hg2+ ions, the signals from Raman probes attach to single-stranded DNA, which will be dramatically enhanced due to the specific structural change of DNA strands—resulting from the interaction between Hg2+ ions and DNA bases. This SERS sensor could achieve an ultralow limit of detection (1.35 × 10−15 M) for Hg2+ detection. In addition, we applied this SERS sensor to detect Hg2+ in real blood samples. The results suggested that this SERS platform could be a promising alternative tool for Hg2+ detection in clinical, environmental, and food inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Oropharyngeal Candida glabrata Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Clinical Strains of Bacteria and Fungi
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080586
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the present study was one step extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using supernatant of Candida glabrata isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal potential against human pathogenic bacteria and
[...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was one step extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using supernatant of Candida glabrata isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal potential against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The mycosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by color visualization, ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra revealed the binding and stabilization of nanoparticles with protein. The TEM analysis showed that nanoparticles were well dispersed and predominantly spherical in shape within the size range of 2–15 nm. The antibacterial and antifungal potential of AgNPs were characterized by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/ minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and well diffusion methods. The MBC and MFC were found in the range of 62.5–250 μg/mL and 125–500 μg/mL, which revealed that bacterial strains were more susceptible to AgNPs than fungal strains. These differences in bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of the AgNPs were due to the differences in the cell structure and organization of bacteria and yeast cells. The interaction of AgNPs with C. albicans analyzed by TEM showed the penetration of nanoparticles inside the Candida cells, which led the formation of “pits” and “pores” that result from the rupturing of the cell wall and membrane. Further, TEM analysis showed that Candida cells treated with AgNPs were highly deformed and the cells had shrunken to a greater extent because of their interaction with the fungal cell wall and membrane, which disrupted the structure of the cell membrane and inhibited the normal budding process due to the destruction and loss of membrane integrity and formation of pores that may led to the cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Coating Dependent In Vitro Biocompatibility of New Fe-Si Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070495
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles offer multiple utilization possibilities in biomedicine. In this context, the interaction with cellular structures and their biological effects need to be understood and controlled for clinical safety. New magnetic nanoparticles containing metallic/carbidic iron and elemental silicon phases were synthesized by laser
[...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles offer multiple utilization possibilities in biomedicine. In this context, the interaction with cellular structures and their biological effects need to be understood and controlled for clinical safety. New magnetic nanoparticles containing metallic/carbidic iron and elemental silicon phases were synthesized by laser pyrolysis using Fe(CO)5 vapors and SiH4 gas as Fe and Si precursors, then passivated and coated with biocompatible agents, such as l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). The resulting magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, EDS, and TEM techniques. To evaluate their biocompatibility, doses ranging from 0–200 µg/mL hybrid Fe-Si nanoparticles were exposed to Caco2 cells for 24 and 72 h. Doses below 50 μg/mL of both l-DOPA and CMC-Na-coated Fe-Si nanoparticles induced no significant changes of cellular viability or membrane integrity. The cellular internalization of nanoparticles was dependent on their dispersion in culture medium and caused some changes of F-actin filaments organization after 72 h. However, reactive oxygen species were generated after exposure to 25 and 50 μg/mL of both Fe-Si nanoparticles types, inducing the increase of intracellular glutathione level and activation of transcription factor Nrf2. At nanoparticles doses below 50 μg/mL, Caco2 cells were able to counteract the oxidative stress by activating the cellular protection mechanisms. We concluded that in vitro biological responses to coated hybrid Fe-Si nanoparticles depended on particle synthesis conditions, surface coating, doses and incubation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the PEG Density in the PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Drug Carrier for Curcumin and Mitoxantrone
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070486
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyethylene glycolated (PEGylated)curcumin-grafted-chitosan (PCC) conjugates were synthesized with three PEG/chitosan feed molar ratios (1/5, 1/7.5, and 1/10), namely PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3. Chemical structures of these conjugates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR).
[...] Read more.
Polyethylene glycolated (PEGylated)curcumin-grafted-chitosan (PCC) conjugates were synthesized with three PEG/chitosan feed molar ratios (1/5, 1/7.5, and 1/10), namely PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3. Chemical structures of these conjugates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The degrees of substitution (DS) of PEG were 0.75%, 0.45% and 0.33%, respectively, for PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3by 1H NMR analysis. Self-assembled PCC nanoparticles (NPs) were spherical as observed in transmission electron microscope images. Mitoxantrone (MTO)-loaded PCC NPs were prepared to analyze the particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity. The MTO-loaded PCC3 NP (DS = 0.33%) possessed the smallest size (~183.1 nm), highest zeta potential (~+34.0 mV) and the largest loading capacity of curcumin (CUR, ~16.1%) and MTO (~8.30%). The release results showed that MTO-loaded PCC3 NP demonstrated the lowest percentage of MTO release and increased as pH decreased, but the CUR release could only be detected at pH 4.0. In the cytotoxicity study, MTO-loaded PCC3 NP displayed the highest cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and the best synergistic effect among the tested NPs. Our results suggest that the DS of PEG has impacts on the structures and functions of PCC NPs: the smaller DS of PEG was associated with the smaller size, the higher zeta potential, the slower drug release, and the higher cytotoxicity of NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Fluorescent Nanoparticles for the Guided Surgery of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080572
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
Complete surgical resection is the ideal cure for ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis, but remains challenging. Fluorescent guided surgery can be a promising approach for precise cytoreduction when appropriate fluorophore is used. In the presence paper, we review already developed near- and short-wave infrared fluorescent
[...] Read more.
Complete surgical resection is the ideal cure for ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis, but remains challenging. Fluorescent guided surgery can be a promising approach for precise cytoreduction when appropriate fluorophore is used. In the presence paper, we review already developed near- and short-wave infrared fluorescent nanoparticles, which are currently under investigation for peritoneal carcinomatosis fluorescence imaging. We also highlight the main ways to improve the safety of nanoparticles, for fulfilling prerequisites of clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanocarriers for Drug and Gene Delivery
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070511
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Compared to traditional cancer treatments, drug/gene delivery is an advanced, safe, and efficient method. Nanoparticles are widely used as nanocarriers in a drug/gene delivery system due to their long circulation time and low multi-drug resistance. In particular, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can
[...] Read more.
Compared to traditional cancer treatments, drug/gene delivery is an advanced, safe, and efficient method. Nanoparticles are widely used as nanocarriers in a drug/gene delivery system due to their long circulation time and low multi-drug resistance. In particular, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can emit UV and visible light by near-infrared (NIR) upconversion demonstrated more efficient and safer drug/gene delivery. Because of the low penetration depth of UV and visible light, a photoinduced reaction such as photocleavage or photoisomerization has proven restrictive. However, NIR light has high tissue penetration depth and stimulates the photoinduced reaction through UV and visible emissions from lanthanide-doped UCNPs. This review discusses the optical properties of UCNPs that are useful in bioapplications and drug/gene delivery systems using the UCNPs as a photoreaction inducer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Antimicrobial applications of biogenic metallic nanoparticles
Authors: Priyanka Singh 1, Santosh Pandit 2, V.R. S.S Mokkapati 2, Abhroop Garg 1, and Ivan Mijakovic 1,2,*
1 The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; (P.S.); (A.G.); (V.R.)
2 Systems and Synthetic Biology Division, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Chalmers, Sweden; (S.P.); (V.R.M.)
Correspondence: ; Tel.: +46-070-982-8446
Abstract: Infectious diseases and their impacts on individuals is one of the greatest health challenge worldwide. Though numerous antimicrobial drugs are presents however, they often lack the effectivity against developing multidrug resistant microorganisms. This results into high antibiotic dose administration and development of new antibiotics, which require time and labor investment. Recently, biogenic nanoparticles have proven their effectiveness against these multidrug resistant microorganisms. Biogenic nanoparticles are easy to produce, facile and ecofriendly in nature. In addition, biogenic nanoparticles have proven for biocompatibility as compared to physio-chemically synthesized nanoparticles due to the presence of biological capping layer around them. Furthermore, these capping layers provide long-term stability and an active surface for the modification of nanoparticles, in order to enhance ether efficacy. This review summarizes the conventional antibiotic treatments and emerging efforts of nanoparticles system in combating against infectious disease.
Keywords: Nanoparticles; Antimicrobial; Antibiotic resistance; Antibiotics

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