Special Issue "Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Nadine Millot

Université Bourgogne Franche Comté/CNRS, Dijon, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Innovative nanoparticles for biomedical applications; SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Titanate nanotubes; Soft chemistry; Hydrothermal Synthesis; Nanohybrids; Functionalization; Biocompatibility; Vectorization; Theranostic; Bimodal contrast agents; Possible toxicity of these nanoparticles through the deployment of innovative biotests; Biodistribution studies (MRI, TEP/CT, SPECT/CT, optical imaging)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of nanomaterials that can be designed and administered for the human body to improve health is of great interest. During the past few years, there has been an increasing amount of research on the use of nanomaterials in diverse areas of biomedical research, including biological sensing, labelling, imaging, cell separation and therapy. Nano-objects are associated with organic molecules to vectorize drugs. The objective is then to concentrate these treatments on the pathological site by limiting the side effects. Nanoparticles are also used as contrast agents in medical imaging, especially in MRI or intrinsically as therapeutic agents. In the latter case, the nanoparticles, via physical phenomena emanating from their composition and/or their size, lead, for example, to the destruction of cancer cells by phenomena of hyperthermia or radiosensitization. Since each nanoparticle has its own peculiarities (bioavailability, more or less important grafting capacity, internalization, etc.) it is, however, essential to develop new types or improve the properties of existing ones.

The format of welcomed articles includes full papers, communications, and reviews. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  1. Nanomaterials development, synthesis, and fabrication for biomedical applications;
  2. Nanoparticles functionalization for biomedical applications;
  3. Innovative nanomaterials, nanocomposites, nanohybrids for biomedical applications;
  4. Scale-up, reproducibility and qualification of the nanoparticles batches produced for biomedical applications;
  5. Original approaches of characterization of nanohybrids for biomedical applications;
  6. Model nanoparticles development for the evaluation of their toxicity/innocuity;
  7. Design and preparation of novel nanostructured surfaces for biomedical applications;
  8. Design and preparation of novel nanostructured ceramics or alloys for biomedical applications;
  9. Other studies of nanoscience and nanotechnology associated with biomedical applications.

Prof. Nadine Millot
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Innovative nanoparticles for biomedical applications
  • Nanohybrids
  • Nanovectorization
  • Nanoparticles as new contrast agents
  • Nanostructured ceramics or surfaces
  • Nanoparticles functionalization

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Thioredoxin Reductase Activity Predicts Gold Nanoparticle Radiosensitization Effect
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020295
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be effective contrast agents for imaging and emerge as powerful radiosensitizers, constituting a promising theranostic agent for cancer. Although the radiosensitization effect was initially attributed to a physical mechanism, an increasing number of studies challenge this [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be effective contrast agents for imaging and emerge as powerful radiosensitizers, constituting a promising theranostic agent for cancer. Although the radiosensitization effect was initially attributed to a physical mechanism, an increasing number of studies challenge this mechanistic hypothesis and evidence the importance of oxidative stress in this process. This work evidences the central role played by thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in the GNP-induced radiosensitization. A cell type-dependent reduction in TrxR activity was measured in five different cell lines incubated with GNPs leading to differences in cell response to X-ray irradiation. Correlation analyses demonstrated that GNP uptake and TrxR activity inhibition are associated to a GNP radiosensitization effect. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analyses suggested that high TrxR expression is correlated to low patient survival in four different types of cancer. Altogether, these results enable a better understanding of the GNP radiosensitization mechanism, which remains a mandatory step towards further use in clinic. Moreover, they highlight the potential application of this new treatment in a personalized medicine context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Elaboration of Trans-Resveratrol Derivative-Loaded Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Glioma Treatment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020287
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, new nanohybrids based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were elaborated and discussed for the first time as nanovectors of a derivative molecule of trans-resveratrol (RSV), a natural antioxidant molecule, which can be useful for brain disease treatment. The derivative [...] Read more.
In this work, new nanohybrids based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were elaborated and discussed for the first time as nanovectors of a derivative molecule of trans-resveratrol (RSV), a natural antioxidant molecule, which can be useful for brain disease treatment. The derivative molecule was chemically synthesized (4’-hydroxy-4-(3-aminopropoxy) trans-stilbene: HAPtS) and then grafted onto SPIONs surface using an organosilane coupling agent, which is 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane (CPTES) and based on nucleophilic substitution reactions. The amount of HAPtS loaded onto SPIONs surface was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses at 116 µmol·g−1 SPIONs. The synthesized HAPtS molecule, as well as the associated nanohybrids, were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS, TGA, infrared (IR) and UV-visible spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements. The in vitro biological assessment of the synthesized nanohybrid’s efficiency was carried out on C6 glioma cells and showed that the nanovector SPIONs-CPTES-HAPtS do not affect the mitochondrial metabolism (MTT test), but damage the plasma membrane (FDA test), which could contribute to limiting the proliferation of cancerous cells (clonogenic test) at a HAPtS concentration of 50 µM. These nanoparticles have a potential cytotoxic effect that could be used to eliminate cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Elongated-Shaped Silver Nanoparticles as a Biocompatible Anisotropic SERS Probe for Intracellular Imaging: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Verification
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020256
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Progress in the field of biocompatible SERS nanoparticles has promising prospects for biomedical applications. In this work, we have developed a biocompatible Raman probe by combining anisotropic silver nanoparticles with the dye rhodamine 6G followed by subsequent coating with bovine serum albumin. This [...] Read more.
Progress in the field of biocompatible SERS nanoparticles has promising prospects for biomedical applications. In this work, we have developed a biocompatible Raman probe by combining anisotropic silver nanoparticles with the dye rhodamine 6G followed by subsequent coating with bovine serum albumin. This nanosystem presents strong SERS capabilities in the near infrared (NIR) with a very high (2.7 × 107) analytical enhancement factor. Theoretical calculations reveal the effects of the electromagnetic and chemical mechanisms in the observed SERS effect for this nanosystem. Finite element method (FEM) calculations showed a considerable near field enhancement in NIR. Using density functional quantum chemical calculations, the chemical enhancement mechanism of rhodamine 6G by interaction with the nanoparticles was probed, allowing us to calculate spectra that closely reproduce the experimental results. The nanosystem was tested in cell culture experiments, showing cell internalization and also proving to be completely biocompatible, as no cell death was observed. Using a NIR laser, SERS signals could be detected even from inside cells, proving the applicability of this nanosystem as a biocompatible SERS probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Histamine Dihydrochloride at Low Concentrations Using Raman Spectroscopy Enhanced by Gold Nanostars Colloids
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020211
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we report a fast and easy method to detect histamine dihydrochloride using gold nanostars in colloidal aqueous solution as a highly active SERS platform with potential applications in biomedicine and food science. This colloid was characterized with SEM and UV–Vis [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report a fast and easy method to detect histamine dihydrochloride using gold nanostars in colloidal aqueous solution as a highly active SERS platform with potential applications in biomedicine and food science. This colloid was characterized with SEM and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Also, numerical calculations were performed to estimate the plasmonic resonance and electric field amplification of the gold nanoparticles to compare the difference between nanospheres and nanostars. Finally, aqueous solutions of histamine dihydrochloride were prepared in a wide range of concentrations and the colloid was added to carry out SERS. We found SERS amplified the Raman signal of histamine by an enhancement factor of 1.0 × 10 7 , demonstrating the capability of the method to detect low concentrations of this amine molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Polydopamine Modified Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Multifunctional Nanocarrier for Targeted Prostate Cancer Treatment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020138
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Polydopamine (pDA)-modified iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles (IONPs) are developed and designed as nanovectors of drugs. Reactive quinone of pDA enhances the binding efficiency of various biomolecules for targeted delivery. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG), an abundant thiol species in the cytoplasm, was immobilized on the [...] Read more.
Polydopamine (pDA)-modified iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles (IONPs) are developed and designed as nanovectors of drugs. Reactive quinone of pDA enhances the binding efficiency of various biomolecules for targeted delivery. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG), an abundant thiol species in the cytoplasm, was immobilized on the pDA-IONP surface. It serves as a cellular trigger to release the drug from the nanoparticles providing an efficient platform for the drug delivery system. Additionally, GSSG on the surface was further modified to form S-nitrosoglutathione that can act as nitric oxide (NO) donors. These NPs were fully characterized using a transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopies. Doxorubicin (DOX) and docetaxel (DTX) are two anticancer drugs, which were loaded onto nanoparticles with respective loading efficiencies of 243 and 223 µmol/g of IONPs, calculated using TGA measurements. DOX release study, using UV-vis spectroscopy, showed a pH responsive behavior, making the elaborated nanocarrier a potential drug delivery system. (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and apoptosis assays were performed on PC3 cell lines to evaluate the efficiency of the developed nanocarriers. These nanoparticles thus can prove their worth in cancer treatment on account of their easy access to the site and release of drug in response to changes to internal parameters such as pH, chemicals, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Colloidal Lignin Particles as Adhesives for Soft Materials
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121001
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Lignin has interesting functionalities to be exploited in adhesives for medicine, foods and textiles. Nanoparticles (NPs) < 100 nm coated with poly (L-lysine), PL and poly(L-glutamic acid) PGA were prepared from the laccase treated lignin to coat nanocellulose fibrils [...] Read more.
Lignin has interesting functionalities to be exploited in adhesives for medicine, foods and textiles. Nanoparticles (NPs) < 100 nm coated with poly (L-lysine), PL and poly(L-glutamic acid) PGA were prepared from the laccase treated lignin to coat nanocellulose fibrils (CNF) with heat. NPs ca. 300 nm were prepared, β-casein coated and cross-linked with transglutaminase (Tgase) to agglutinate chamois. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize polymerized lignin, while zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to ensure coating of colloidal lignin particles (CLPs). Protein adsorption on lignin was studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was exploited to examine interactions between different polymers and to image NPs with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tensile testing showed, when using CLPs for the adhesion, the stress improved ca. 10 and strain ca. 6 times compared to unmodified Kraft. For the β-casein NPs, the values were 20 and 8, respectively, and for the β-casein coated CLPs between these two cases. When NPs were dispersed in adhesive formulation, the increased Young’s moduli confirmed significant improvement in the stiffness of the joints over the adhesive alone. Exploitation of lignin in nanoparticulate morphology is a potential method to prepare bionanomaterials for advanced applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Alginate/Chitosan Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of Curcumin into Human Breast Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110907
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
Curcumin is a promising anti-cancer drug, but its applications in cancer therapy are limited, due to its poor solubility, short half-life and low bioavailability. In this study, curcumin loaded magnetic alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated to improve the bioavailability, uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity of [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a promising anti-cancer drug, but its applications in cancer therapy are limited, due to its poor solubility, short half-life and low bioavailability. In this study, curcumin loaded magnetic alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated to improve the bioavailability, uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity of curcumin to Human Caucasian Breast Adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231). Alginate and chitosan were deposited on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles based on their electrostatic properties. The nanoparticle size ranged from 120–200 nm, within the optimum range for drug delivery. Controllable and sustained release of curcumin was obtained by altering the number of chitosan and alginate layers on the nanoparticles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy results showed that targeted delivery of curcumin with the aid of a magnetic field was achieved. The fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay indicated that MDA-MB-231 cells treated with curcumin loaded nanoparticles had a 3–6 fold uptake efficiency to those treated with free curcumin. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the curcumin loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231 cells than HDF cells. The sustained release profiles, enhanced uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity to cancer cells, as well as directed targeting make MACPs promising candidates for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Probing Internalization Effects and Biocompatibility of Ultrasmall Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 NP in U251 Glioblastoma Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110867
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
The synthesis of ultrasmall UiO-66 nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 25 nm, determined by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopies analysis, is reported. The NPs were stabilized in water by dialyzing the NP from the DMF used for the synthesis. DLS [...] Read more.
The synthesis of ultrasmall UiO-66 nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 25 nm, determined by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopies analysis, is reported. The NPs were stabilized in water by dialyzing the NP from the DMF used for the synthesis. DLS measurements confirmed the presence of particles of 100 nm, which are spherical aggregates of smaller particles of 20–30 nm size. The NP have a BET surface area of 700 m2/g with an external surface area of 300 m2/g. UiO-66_N (UiO-66 nanoparticles) were loaded with acridine orange as fluorescent probe. UV-vis spectroscopy analysis revealed no acridine loss after 48 h of agitation in simulated body fluid. The biocompatibility of UiO-66_N was evaluated in human glioblastoma (GBM) cell line U251, the most malignant (IV grade of WHO classification) among brain tumors. In U251 cells, UiO-66_N are inert since they do not alter the cell cycle, the viability, migration properties, and the expression of kinases involved in cancer cell growth. The internalization process was evident after a few hours of incubation. After 24 h, [email protected] (UiO-66_N loaded with acridine orange) were detectable around the nuclei of the cells. These data suggest that small UiO-66 are biocompatible NP and could represent a potential carrier for drug delivery in glioblastoma therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Homologous Gold Nanoparticles and Nanoclusters Composites with Enhanced Surface Raman Scattering and Metal Fluorescence for Cancer Imaging
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100819
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
A large number of deaths from cancer can be attributed to the lack of effective early-stage diagnostic techniques. Thus, accurate and effective early diagnosis is a major research goal worldwide. With the unique phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), plasmonic nanomaterials have [...] Read more.
A large number of deaths from cancer can be attributed to the lack of effective early-stage diagnostic techniques. Thus, accurate and effective early diagnosis is a major research goal worldwide. With the unique phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), plasmonic nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF). Both SERS and MEF are ultra-sensitive methods for the detection and identification of early tumor at molecular level. To combine the merits of the fast and accurate imaging of MEF and the stable and clear imaging of SERS, we propose a novel dual functional imaging nanoprobe based on gold nanoparticles and gold nanocluster composites (denoted AuNPC-RGD). The gold nanoparticles are used as LSPR substrates to realized enhancement of Raman or fluorescence signal, while the gold nanoclusters serve as a fluorophore for MEF imaging, and exhibit better biocompatibility and stability. Furthermore, target molecule of cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) is incorporated into the composite to improve delivery efficiency, selectivity and imaging accuracy. These integrated properties endow AuNPC-RGD composites with outstanding biocompatibility and excellent imaging abilities, which could be used to achieve accurate and effective diagnosis for early cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructured Dihydroartemisinin Plus Epirubicin Liposomes Enhance Treatment Efficacy of Breast Cancer by Inducing Autophagy and Apoptosis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100804
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
The heterogeneity of breast cancer and the development of drug resistance are the relapse reasons of disease after chemotherapy. To address this issue, a combined therapeutic strategy was developed by building the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes. Investigations were performed on human breast [...] Read more.
The heterogeneity of breast cancer and the development of drug resistance are the relapse reasons of disease after chemotherapy. To address this issue, a combined therapeutic strategy was developed by building the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes. Investigations were performed on human breast cancer cells in vitro and xenografts in nude mice. The results indicated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly enhance the efficacy of epirubicin in killing different breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that the combined use of dihydroartemisinin with epirubicin could efficiently inhibit the activity of Bcl-2, facilitate release of Beclin 1, and further activate Bax. Besides, Bax activated apoptosis which led to the type I programmed death of breast cancer cells while Beclin 1 initiated the excessive autophagy that resulted in the type II programmed death of breast cancer cells. In addition, the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes prolonged circulation of drugs, and were beneficial for simultaneously delivering drugs into breast cancer tissues. Hence, the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes could provide a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Biocompatible Nanocomposite Implant with Silver Nanoparticles for Otology—In Vivo Evaluation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100764
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate of biocompatibility of polymeric implants modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Middle ear prostheses (otoimplants) made of the (poly)acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and ABS modified with silver nanoparticles were prepared through extrusion and injection moulding process. [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate of biocompatibility of polymeric implants modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Middle ear prostheses (otoimplants) made of the (poly)acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and ABS modified with silver nanoparticles were prepared through extrusion and injection moulding process. The obtained prostheses were characterized by SEM-EDX, micro-CT and mechanical tests, confirming their proper shape, good AgNPs homogenization and mechanical parameters stability. The biocompatibility of the implants was evaluated in vivo on rats, after 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks of implantation. The tissue-healing process and cytotoxicity of the implants were evaluated on the basis of microscopic observations of the materials morphology after histochemical staining with cytochrome c oxidase (OCC) and acid phosphatase (AP), as well as via micro-tomography (ex vivo). The in vivo studies confirmed biocompatibility of the implants in the surrounding tissue environment. Both the pure ABS and nanosilver-modified ABS implants exhibited a distinct decrease in the area of granulation tissue which was replaced with the regenerating muscle tissue. Moreover, a slightly smaller area of granulation tissue was observed in the surroundings of the silver-doped prosthesis than in the case of pure ABS prosthesis. The kinetics of silver ions releasing from implants was investigated by ICP-MS spectrometry. The measurement confirmed that concentration of the silver ions increased within the implant’s immersion period. Our results showed that middle ear implant with the nanoscale modification is biocompatible and might be used in ossicular reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Ag-Film Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using DNA Molecular Switch for Ultra-Sensitive Mercury Ions Detection
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080596
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Heavy metal pollution has long been the focus of attention because of its serious threat to human health and the environment. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great potential for metal detection owing to many advantages, including, requiring fewer samples, its minimal [...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution has long been the focus of attention because of its serious threat to human health and the environment. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great potential for metal detection owing to many advantages, including, requiring fewer samples, its minimal damage to specimen, and its high sensitivity. In this work, we proposed a simple and distinctive method, based on SERS, using facile silver film (Ag-film) combined with a DNA molecular switch, which allowed for the highly specific detection of heavy metal mercury ions (Hg2+). When in the presence of Hg2+ ions, the signals from Raman probes attach to single-stranded DNA, which will be dramatically enhanced due to the specific structural change of DNA strands—resulting from the interaction between Hg2+ ions and DNA bases. This SERS sensor could achieve an ultralow limit of detection (1.35 × 10−15 M) for Hg2+ detection. In addition, we applied this SERS sensor to detect Hg2+ in real blood samples. The results suggested that this SERS platform could be a promising alternative tool for Hg2+ detection in clinical, environmental, and food inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Oropharyngeal Candida glabrata Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Clinical Strains of Bacteria and Fungi
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080586
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the present study was one step extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using supernatant of Candida glabrata isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal potential against human pathogenic bacteria and [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was one step extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using supernatant of Candida glabrata isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal potential against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The mycosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by color visualization, ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra revealed the binding and stabilization of nanoparticles with protein. The TEM analysis showed that nanoparticles were well dispersed and predominantly spherical in shape within the size range of 2–15 nm. The antibacterial and antifungal potential of AgNPs were characterized by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/ minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and well diffusion methods. The MBC and MFC were found in the range of 62.5–250 μg/mL and 125–500 μg/mL, which revealed that bacterial strains were more susceptible to AgNPs than fungal strains. These differences in bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of the AgNPs were due to the differences in the cell structure and organization of bacteria and yeast cells. The interaction of AgNPs with C. albicans analyzed by TEM showed the penetration of nanoparticles inside the Candida cells, which led the formation of “pits” and “pores” that result from the rupturing of the cell wall and membrane. Further, TEM analysis showed that Candida cells treated with AgNPs were highly deformed and the cells had shrunken to a greater extent because of their interaction with the fungal cell wall and membrane, which disrupted the structure of the cell membrane and inhibited the normal budding process due to the destruction and loss of membrane integrity and formation of pores that may led to the cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Coating Dependent In Vitro Biocompatibility of New Fe-Si Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070495
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles offer multiple utilization possibilities in biomedicine. In this context, the interaction with cellular structures and their biological effects need to be understood and controlled for clinical safety. New magnetic nanoparticles containing metallic/carbidic iron and elemental silicon phases were synthesized by laser [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles offer multiple utilization possibilities in biomedicine. In this context, the interaction with cellular structures and their biological effects need to be understood and controlled for clinical safety. New magnetic nanoparticles containing metallic/carbidic iron and elemental silicon phases were synthesized by laser pyrolysis using Fe(CO)5 vapors and SiH4 gas as Fe and Si precursors, then passivated and coated with biocompatible agents, such as l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). The resulting magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, EDS, and TEM techniques. To evaluate their biocompatibility, doses ranging from 0–200 µg/mL hybrid Fe-Si nanoparticles were exposed to Caco2 cells for 24 and 72 h. Doses below 50 μg/mL of both l-DOPA and CMC-Na-coated Fe-Si nanoparticles induced no significant changes of cellular viability or membrane integrity. The cellular internalization of nanoparticles was dependent on their dispersion in culture medium and caused some changes of F-actin filaments organization after 72 h. However, reactive oxygen species were generated after exposure to 25 and 50 μg/mL of both Fe-Si nanoparticles types, inducing the increase of intracellular glutathione level and activation of transcription factor Nrf2. At nanoparticles doses below 50 μg/mL, Caco2 cells were able to counteract the oxidative stress by activating the cellular protection mechanisms. We concluded that in vitro biological responses to coated hybrid Fe-Si nanoparticles depended on particle synthesis conditions, surface coating, doses and incubation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the PEG Density in the PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Drug Carrier for Curcumin and Mitoxantrone
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070486
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polyethylene glycolated (PEGylated)curcumin-grafted-chitosan (PCC) conjugates were synthesized with three PEG/chitosan feed molar ratios (1/5, 1/7.5, and 1/10), namely PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3. Chemical structures of these conjugates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). [...] Read more.
Polyethylene glycolated (PEGylated)curcumin-grafted-chitosan (PCC) conjugates were synthesized with three PEG/chitosan feed molar ratios (1/5, 1/7.5, and 1/10), namely PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3. Chemical structures of these conjugates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The degrees of substitution (DS) of PEG were 0.75%, 0.45% and 0.33%, respectively, for PCC1, PCC2 and PCC3by 1H NMR analysis. Self-assembled PCC nanoparticles (NPs) were spherical as observed in transmission electron microscope images. Mitoxantrone (MTO)-loaded PCC NPs were prepared to analyze the particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity. The MTO-loaded PCC3 NP (DS = 0.33%) possessed the smallest size (~183.1 nm), highest zeta potential (~+34.0 mV) and the largest loading capacity of curcumin (CUR, ~16.1%) and MTO (~8.30%). The release results showed that MTO-loaded PCC3 NP demonstrated the lowest percentage of MTO release and increased as pH decreased, but the CUR release could only be detected at pH 4.0. In the cytotoxicity study, MTO-loaded PCC3 NP displayed the highest cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and the best synergistic effect among the tested NPs. Our results suggest that the DS of PEG has impacts on the structures and functions of PCC NPs: the smaller DS of PEG was associated with the smaller size, the higher zeta potential, the slower drug release, and the higher cytotoxicity of NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Plasma and Nanomaterials: Fabrication and Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010098
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Application of plasma medicine has been actively explored during last several years. Treating every type of cancer remains a difficult task for medical personnel due to the wide variety of cancer cell selectivity. Research in advanced plasma physics has led to the development [...] Read more.
Application of plasma medicine has been actively explored during last several years. Treating every type of cancer remains a difficult task for medical personnel due to the wide variety of cancer cell selectivity. Research in advanced plasma physics has led to the development of different types of non-thermal plasma devices, such as plasma jets, and dielectric barrier discharges. Non-thermal plasma generates many charged particles and reactive species when brought into contact with biological samples. The main constituents include reactive nitrogen species, reactive oxygen species, and plasma ultra-violets. These species can be applied to synthesize biologically important nanomaterials or can be used with nanomaterials for various kinds of biomedical applications to improve human health. This review reports recent updates on plasma-based synthesis of biologically important nanomaterials and synergy of plasma with nanomaterials for various kind of biological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Antimicrobial Effects of Biogenic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121009
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest health challenges in the medical world. Though numerous antimicrobial drugs are commercially available, they often lack effectiveness against recently developed multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms. This results in high antibiotic dose administration and a need to develop [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest health challenges in the medical world. Though numerous antimicrobial drugs are commercially available, they often lack effectiveness against recently developed multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms. This results in high antibiotic dose administration and a need to develop new antibiotics, which in turn requires time, money, and labor investments. Recently, biogenic metallic nanoparticles have proven their effectiveness against MDR microorganisms, individually and in synergy with the current/conventional antibiotics. Importantly, biogenic nanoparticles are easy to produce, facile, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly in nature. In addition, biogenic nanoparticles are surrounded by capping layers, which provide them with biocompatibility and long-term stability. Moreover, these capping layers provide an active surface for interaction with biological components, facilitated by free active surface functional groups. These groups are available for modification, such as conjugation with antimicrobial drugs, genes, and peptides, in order to enhance their efficacy and delivery. This review summarizes the conventional antibiotic treatments and highlights the benefits of using nanoparticles in combating infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview Fluorescent Nanoparticles for the Guided Surgery of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080572
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complete surgical resection is the ideal cure for ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis, but remains challenging. Fluorescent guided surgery can be a promising approach for precise cytoreduction when appropriate fluorophore is used. In the presence paper, we review already developed near- and short-wave infrared fluorescent [...] Read more.
Complete surgical resection is the ideal cure for ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis, but remains challenging. Fluorescent guided surgery can be a promising approach for precise cytoreduction when appropriate fluorophore is used. In the presence paper, we review already developed near- and short-wave infrared fluorescent nanoparticles, which are currently under investigation for peritoneal carcinomatosis fluorescence imaging. We also highlight the main ways to improve the safety of nanoparticles, for fulfilling prerequisites of clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanocarriers for Drug and Gene Delivery
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070511
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2966 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to traditional cancer treatments, drug/gene delivery is an advanced, safe, and efficient method. Nanoparticles are widely used as nanocarriers in a drug/gene delivery system due to their long circulation time and low multi-drug resistance. In particular, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can [...] Read more.
Compared to traditional cancer treatments, drug/gene delivery is an advanced, safe, and efficient method. Nanoparticles are widely used as nanocarriers in a drug/gene delivery system due to their long circulation time and low multi-drug resistance. In particular, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can emit UV and visible light by near-infrared (NIR) upconversion demonstrated more efficient and safer drug/gene delivery. Because of the low penetration depth of UV and visible light, a photoinduced reaction such as photocleavage or photoisomerization has proven restrictive. However, NIR light has high tissue penetration depth and stimulates the photoinduced reaction through UV and visible emissions from lanthanide-doped UCNPs. This review discusses the optical properties of UCNPs that are useful in bioapplications and drug/gene delivery systems using the UCNPs as a photoreaction inducer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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