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Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Oropharyngeal Candida glabrata Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Clinical Strains of Bacteria and Fungi

1
Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
2
Department of Epidemic Disease Research, Institutes of Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 31441 Dammam, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Medical Laboratories, College of applied Medical sciences, Qassim University, Qassim 51431, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Applied Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080586
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

The objective of the present study was one step extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using supernatant of Candida glabrata isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal potential against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The mycosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by color visualization, ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra revealed the binding and stabilization of nanoparticles with protein. The TEM analysis showed that nanoparticles were well dispersed and predominantly spherical in shape within the size range of 2–15 nm. The antibacterial and antifungal potential of AgNPs were characterized by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/ minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and well diffusion methods. The MBC and MFC were found in the range of 62.5–250 μg/mL and 125–500 μg/mL, which revealed that bacterial strains were more susceptible to AgNPs than fungal strains. These differences in bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of the AgNPs were due to the differences in the cell structure and organization of bacteria and yeast cells. The interaction of AgNPs with C. albicans analyzed by TEM showed the penetration of nanoparticles inside the Candida cells, which led the formation of “pits” and “pores” that result from the rupturing of the cell wall and membrane. Further, TEM analysis showed that Candida cells treated with AgNPs were highly deformed and the cells had shrunken to a greater extent because of their interaction with the fungal cell wall and membrane, which disrupted the structure of the cell membrane and inhibited the normal budding process due to the destruction and loss of membrane integrity and formation of pores that may led to the cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; extracellular; mycosynthesis; MIC; MBC; MFC; membrane integrity; TEM; FTIR Candida glabrata; extracellular; mycosynthesis; MIC; MBC; MFC; membrane integrity; TEM; FTIR
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Jalal, M.; Ansari, M.A.; Alzohairy, M.A.; Ali, S.G.; Khan, H.M.; Almatroudi, A.; Raees, K. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Oropharyngeal Candida glabrata Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Clinical Strains of Bacteria and Fungi. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 586.

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