Special Issue "Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ivan Stoikov
Website
Guest Editor
A.M. Butlerov Chemistry Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: silica nanoparticles; surface modification; multifunctional nanoparticles and colloids; self-assembled organic nanoparticles; oligolactic and polylactic acid nanomaterials; organic and hybrid organic–inorganic nanosized materials; supramolecular polymers; biosensors
Dr. Pavel Padnya
Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
A.M. Butlerov Chemistry Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: organic chemistry; supramolecular chemistry; synthesis; macrocycle; host-guest; self-assembly; ionic liquids; lactides; nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro/nanoparticles (M&NPs) have attracted researchers’ interest due to their unique chemical and physical properties. Recent advances in the synthesis of M&NPs (metallic, metal oxide, silica, polymeric, lipid-based, supramolecular, colloidal, and carbon-based M&NPs) have offered exciting opportunities for many applications, such as catalysis, plasmonics, sensors, magnetism, drug delivery, and nanomedicine. The use of self-assembly for the synthesis or modification of M&NPs provides unlimited possibilities for designing nanomaterials with desired properties.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application”, aims at collecting articles or reviews that highlight synthesis, modification, properties, and applications in various areas related to M&NPs. We would like to invite scientists of diverse backgrounds (material science, organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and biology) to contribute their works to this Special Issue.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • The synthesis and application of micro/nanoparticles based on self-assembly
  • Micro/nanoparticles surface functionalization
  • Micro/nanoparticles interaction with biomolecules
  • Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic micro/nanoparticles
  • The role of micro/nanoparticles in molecular recognition
  • The studies of the biological activity and toxicity of micro/nanoparticles

Prof. Dr. Ivan Stoikov
Dr. Pavel Padnya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Microparticles
  • Self-assembly
  • Plasmonic nanoparticles
  • Biosensors
  • Molecular recognition
  • Bio applications
  • Optical property
  • Catalyst
  • Antibacterial

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Towards Polymeric Nanoparticles with Multiple Magnetic Patches
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010147 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fabricating future materials by self-assembly of nano-building blocks programmed to generate specific lattices is among the most challenging goals of nanotechnology and has led to the recent concept of patchy particles. We report here a simple strategy to fabricate polystyrene nanoparticles with several [...] Read more.
Fabricating future materials by self-assembly of nano-building blocks programmed to generate specific lattices is among the most challenging goals of nanotechnology and has led to the recent concept of patchy particles. We report here a simple strategy to fabricate polystyrene nanoparticles with several silica patches based on the solvent-induced self-assembly of silica/polystyrene monopods. The latter are obtained with morphological yields as high as 99% by seed-growth emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of 100 nm silica seeds previously modified with an optimal surface density of methacryloxymethyl groups. In addition, we fabricate “magnetic” silica seeds by silica encapsulation of preformed maghemite supraparticles. The polystyrene pod, i.e., surface nodule, serves as a sticky point when the monopods are incubated in a bad/good solvent mixture for polystyrene, e.g., ethanol/tetrahydrofuran mixtures. After self-assembly, mixtures of particles with two, three, four silica or magnetic silica patches are mainly obtained. The influence of experimental parameters such as the ethanol/tetrahydrofuran volume ratio, monopod concentration and incubation time is studied. Further developments would consist of obtaining pure batches by centrifugal sorting and optimizing the relative position of the patches in conventional repulsion figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
2D Monomolecular Nanosheets Based on Thiacalixarene Derivatives: Synthesis, Solid State Self-Assembly and Crystal Polymorphism
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122505 - 14 Dec 2020
Abstract
Synthetic organic 2D materials are attracting careful attention of researchers due to their excellent functionality in various applications, including storage batteries, catalysis, thermoelectricity, advanced electronics, superconductors, optoelectronics, etc. In this work, thiacalix[4]arene derivatives functionalized by geranyl fragments at the lower rim in cone [...] Read more.
Synthetic organic 2D materials are attracting careful attention of researchers due to their excellent functionality in various applications, including storage batteries, catalysis, thermoelectricity, advanced electronics, superconductors, optoelectronics, etc. In this work, thiacalix[4]arene derivatives functionalized by geranyl fragments at the lower rim in cone and 1,3-alternate conformations, that are capable of controlled self-assembly in a 2D nanostructures were synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of 2D monomolecular-layer nanosheets from synthesized thiacalix[4]arenes, the distance between which depends on the stereoisomer used. It was established by DSC, FSC, and PXRD methods that the obtained macrocycles are capable of forming different crystalline polymorphs, moreover dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is contributing to the formation of a more stable polymorph for cone stereoisomer. The obtained crystalline 2D materials based on synthesized thiacalix[4]arenes can find application in material science and medicine for the development of modern pharmaceuticals and new generation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Rh Nanoparticles with Different Morphologies-as Potential XFCT Nanoprobes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112129 - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
Morphologically controllable synthesis of Rh nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved by the use of additives during polyol synthesis. The effect of salts and surfactant additives including PVP, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, CTAB, CTAC, and potassium bromide on Rh NPs morphology was investigated. When PVP [...] Read more.
Morphologically controllable synthesis of Rh nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved by the use of additives during polyol synthesis. The effect of salts and surfactant additives including PVP, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, CTAB, CTAC, and potassium bromide on Rh NPs morphology was investigated. When PVP was used as the only additive, trigonal NPs were obtained. Additives containing Br ions (CTAB and KBr) resulted in NPs with a cubic morphology, while those with carboxyl groups (sodium citrate and acetate) formed spheroid NPs. The use of Cl ions (CTAC) resulted in a mixture of polygon morphologies. Cytotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated on macrophages and ovarian cancer cell lines. Membrane integrity and cellular activity are both influenced to a similar extent, for both the cell lines, with respect to the morphology of Rh NPs. The cells exposed to trigonal Rh NPs showed the highest viability, among the NP series. Particles with a mixed polygon morphology had the highest cytotoxic impact, followed by cubic and spherical NPs. The Rh NPs were further demonstrated as contrast agents for X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) in a small-animal imaging setting. This work provides a detailed route for the synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of Rh NPs as viable contrast agents for XFCT bio-imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Open AccessCommunication
Development of Novel Heparin/Protamine Nanoparticles Useful for Delivery of Exogenous Proteins In Vitro and In Vivo
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081584 - 12 Aug 2020
Abstract
We previously reported that heparin/protamine particles (LHPPs) produced as nanoparticles through simple mixing of raw materials exhibit sustained protein release and can be retained in cells. In the present study, we modified LHPPs without employing any organic synthetic approach. The resulting LHPPs were [...] Read more.
We previously reported that heparin/protamine particles (LHPPs) produced as nanoparticles through simple mixing of raw materials exhibit sustained protein release and can be retained in cells. In the present study, we modified LHPPs without employing any organic synthetic approach. The resulting LHPPs were re-named as improved LHPPs (i-LHPPs) and have the ability to retain cell-penetrating peptides (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ) based on electrostatic interactions. We examined whether i-LHPPs can introduce exogenous proteins (i.e., lacZ protein encoding bacterial β-galactosidase) into cultured cells in vitro, or into murine hepatocytes in vivo through intravenous injection to anesthetized mice. We found an accumulation of the transferred protein in both in vitro cultured cells and in vivo hepatocytes. To the best of our knowledge, reports of successful in vivo delivery to hepatocytes are rare. The i-LHPP-based protein delivery technique will be useful for in vivo functional genetic modification of mouse hepatocytes using Cas9 protein-mediated genome editing targeting specific genes, leading to the creation of hepatic disease animal models for research that aims to treat liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
New Amphiphilic Imidazolium/Benzimidazolium Calix[4]arene Derivatives: Synthesis, Aggregation Behavior and Decoration of DPPC Vesicles for Suzuki Coupling in Aqueous Media
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061143 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, new types of amphiphilic calix[4]arene derivatives bearing N-alkyl/aryl imidazolium/benzimidazolium fragments were designed and synthesized by two step transformation: Regioselective Blanc chloromethylation of distal-di-O-butyl calix[4]arene and subsequent interaction with N-Substituted imidazole/benzimidazole. Critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values were estimated using [...] Read more.
In this study, new types of amphiphilic calix[4]arene derivatives bearing N-alkyl/aryl imidazolium/benzimidazolium fragments were designed and synthesized by two step transformation: Regioselective Blanc chloromethylation of distal-di-O-butyl calix[4]arene and subsequent interaction with N-Substituted imidazole/benzimidazole. Critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values were estimated using pyrene fluorescent probe. Obtained macrocycles were found to form submicron particles with electrokinetic potential +44–+57 mV in aqueous solution. For the first time it was found that amphiphilic calixarene causes the fast transformation of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles into unilamellar ones and leads to the ordering of the lipid in membranes at the molar calixarene/DPPC ratio more than 0.07. In situ complexes of calixarene aggregates with Pd(OAc)2 were found to be active in Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 1-bromo-4-nitrobenzene with phenylboronic acid in water. It was shown that bulky N-substituents of heterocycle decrease the catalytic activity of the aggregates. These result can be assigned to the inhibition effect of Pd(II) complex in situ formation by bulky substituents located on the aggregate surface. Embedding of the most active palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex with methylimidazolium headgroups into DPPC vesicles enhances its catalytic activity in Suzuki–Miyaura coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on the Copolymer of Proflavine and Azure B for Doxorubicin Determination
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050924 - 10 May 2020
Abstract
A DNA sensor has been developed for the determination of doxorubicin by consecutive electropolymerization of an equimolar mixture of Azure B and proflavine and adsorption of native DNA from salmon sperm on a polymer film. Electrochemical investigation showed a difference in the behavior [...] Read more.
A DNA sensor has been developed for the determination of doxorubicin by consecutive electropolymerization of an equimolar mixture of Azure B and proflavine and adsorption of native DNA from salmon sperm on a polymer film. Electrochemical investigation showed a difference in the behavior of individual drugs polymerized and their mixture. The use of the copolymer offered some advantages, i.e., a higher roughness of the surface, a wider range of the pH sensitivity of the response, a denser and more robust film, etc. The formation of the polymer film and its redox properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the doxorubicin determination, its solution was mixed with DNA and applied on the polymer surface. After that, charge transfer resistance was assessed in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− as the redox probe. Its value regularly grew with the doxorubicin concentration in the range from 0.03 to 10 nM (limit of detection 0.01 nM). The DNA sensor was tested on the doxorubicin preparations and spiked samples mimicking blood serum. The recovery was found to be 98–106%. The DNA sensor developed can find application for the determination of drug residues in blood and for the pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antiviral Potential of Nanoparticles—Can Nanoparticles Fight Against Coronaviruses?
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091645 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Infectious diseases account for more than 20% of global mortality and viruses are responsible for about one-third of these deaths. Highly infectious viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are emerging more frequently [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases account for more than 20% of global mortality and viruses are responsible for about one-third of these deaths. Highly infectious viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are emerging more frequently and their worldwide spread poses a serious threat to human health and the global economy. The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of 27 July 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 16 million people and led to the death of more than 652,434 individuals as on 27 July 2020 while also causing significant economic losses. To date, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat COVID-19. Hence, it is necessary to accelerate the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to help mitigate this pandemic. Non-Conventional antiviral agents must also be considered and exploited. In this regard, nanoparticles can be used as antiviral agents for the treatment of various viral infections. The use of nanoparticles provides an interesting opportunity for the development of novel antiviral therapies with a low probability of developing drug resistance compared to conventional chemical-based antiviral therapies. In this review, we first discuss viral mechanisms of entry into host cells and then we detail the major and important types of nanomaterials that could be used as antiviral agents. These nanomaterials include silver, gold, quantum dots, organic nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers and polymers. Further, we consider antiviral mechanisms, the effects of nanoparticles on coronaviruses and therapeutic approaches of nanoparticles. Finally, we provide our perspective on the future of nanoparticles in the fight against viral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Electrochemical DNA sensor based on copolymer of proflavine and Azure B for doxorubicin determination
Authors: A. Porfireva1; G. Evtugyn1,2
Affiliation: 1 Chemistry Institute of Kazan Federal University; 2 Chemical Technology Institute of Ural Federal University
Abstract: Electrochemical polymerization has been applied for the assembling of the thin redox active film onto the glassy carbon electrode. The formation of the films was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The voltammograms showed reversible transfer of one electron with the pH depending rate constant. The resulting coating was compared with polyproflavine and poly(Azure B) in order to establish the stoichiometry of redox stages and contribution of certain monomers in the electrochemical behavior of the products. The electrode covered with the copolymer was applied for electrostatic assembling of the nano-sized DNA aggregates accumulated in open circuit mode on its surface. The close contact of the DNA nanoaggregates and underlying film made it possible to detect weak specific interactions with DNA. As an example, intercalation of the native DNA with anthracycline preparation, Doxorubicin, was monitored using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The limit of detection below 0.1 nM has been obtained and possibility for direct monitoring of blood serum and urine was shown using artificial spiked samples

Title: Magnetic nanoparticles for data storage
Authors: Tomasz Blachowicz, Andrea Ehrmann
Affiliation: Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Minden, Germany
Abstract: Recent lithographic methods allow for preparing fine structures with a resolution far below 100 nm. Magnetic nanostructures can be used to store data, applying new concepts, such as the Racetrack memory, but also using special materials enabling skyrmion formation, special shapes to prepare quaternary storage devices which allow for storing two or even more bits per storage position, etc. Here we give an overview of recent development in the field of magnetic nanoparticles for data storage.

Title: Antiviral Potential of Nanoparticles: Can nanoparticles fight against coronaviruses?
Authors: Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
Affiliation: Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea
Abstract: Infectious diseases account for more than 20% of global mortality, and viruses are responsible for about one third of these deaths. Viral infections have recently emerged COVID-19 is not only as a health threat to people but it is very serious issues to death. It causes more than 81 million people are infected and hundreds of thousands of people were died. Coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS); severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have endangered human life, and especially the COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 outbreak not only dangerous to public health globally with enormous deaths and eventually leads to great economic loss. Hence, it is necessary to speed up the development of antiviral drug and/or vaccine that would help mitigate this pandemic. In this regard, nanoparticles can be used as antiviral agents for the treatment of variety of viral infections. The use of nanoparticles provides an interesting opportunity for the development of novel antiviral therapies with lower possibility to develop drug resistance as compared to conventional chemical based antivirals therapy. The present focuses on various aspects includes mechanism of entry of viruses into the host cells, use of major and important type of nanomaterials such as silver, gold, quantum dots, organic nanoparticles, lysosomes, dendrimers and polymers against various type of viral infections. Further we discussed antiviral mechanism, therapeutic approaches of nanoparticles and impact of nanoparticles on coronaviruses. Finally, we provide a conclusion and future perspective of nanoparticles.

Title: Heparin/Protamine Particle-Based Self-Assembling Protein as a Novel Protein Carrier In Vitro and In Vivo
Authors: Shingo Nakamura 1, Naoko Ando 1, Masayuki Ishihara 1, and Masahiro Sato 2
Affiliation: 1 Division of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical College Research Institute, Saitama 359-8513, Japan, 2 Section of Gene Expression Regulation, Frontier Science Research Center, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan.
Abstract: We previously reported that heparin/protamine particles (LHPPs), produced as nanoparticles through simple mixing of raw materials, exhibit protein-sustained release and have the ability to retain cells. In the present study, we modified LHPPs without employing any organic synthetic approach. The resulting LHPPs are re-named as improved LHPPs (i-LHPPs) and have the ability to retain cell-penetrating peptides based on electrostatic interactions. We examined whether i-LHPPs are able to introduce exogenous protein (i.e., lacZ protein encoding bacterial beta-galactosidase) into cultured cells in vitro, or into murine hepatocytes in vivo through intravenous injection of mice. We found accumulation of the transferred protein in both in vitro cultured cells and hepatocytes in vivo. To our knowledge, successful delivery towards hepatocytes in vivo is a few. The present i-LHPPs-based protein delivery technique will be useful for in vivo functional modification of mouse hepatocytes using Cas9 protein-mediated genome editing targeted to a specific gene, leading to creation of hepatic disease animal models or research aimed to treat hepatic diseases.

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