Special Issue "Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 20379

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ivan Stoikov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
A.M. Butlerov Chemistry Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: silica nanoparticles; surface modification; multifunctional nanoparticles and colloids; self-assembled organic nanoparticles; oligolactic and polylactic acid nanomaterials; organic and hybrid organic–inorganic nanosized materials; supramolecular polymers; biosensors
Dr. Pavel Padnya
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
A.M. Butlerov Chemistry Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: organic chemistry; supramolecular chemistry; synthesis; macrocycle; host-guest; self-assembly; ionic liquids; lactides; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro/nanoparticles (M&NPs) have attracted researchers’ interest due to their unique chemical and physical properties. Recent advances in the synthesis of M&NPs (metallic, metal oxide, silica, polymeric, lipid-based, supramolecular, colloidal, and carbon-based M&NPs) have offered exciting opportunities for many applications, such as catalysis, plasmonics, sensors, magnetism, drug delivery, and nanomedicine. The use of self-assembly for the synthesis or modification of M&NPs provides unlimited possibilities for designing nanomaterials with desired properties.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application”, aims at collecting articles or reviews that highlight synthesis, modification, properties, and applications in various areas related to M&NPs. We would like to invite scientists of diverse backgrounds (material science, organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and biology) to contribute their works to this Special Issue.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • The synthesis and application of micro/nanoparticles based on self-assembly
  • Micro/nanoparticles surface functionalization
  • Micro/nanoparticles interaction with biomolecules
  • Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic micro/nanoparticles
  • The role of micro/nanoparticles in molecular recognition
  • The studies of the biological activity and toxicity of micro/nanoparticles

Prof. Dr. Ivan Stoikov
Dr. Pavel Padnya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Microparticles
  • Self-assembly
  • Plasmonic nanoparticles
  • Biosensors
  • Molecular recognition
  • Bio applications
  • Optical property
  • Catalyst
  • Antibacterial

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030430 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
The modern world throws down an increasing number of challenges to humanity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)

Research

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Article
Physical–Chemical Exfoliation of n-Alkylamine Derivatives of Layered Perovskite-like Oxide H2K0.5Bi2.5Ti4O13 into Nanosheets
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102708 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
In the present work, we report the results on exfoliation and coating formation of inorganic–organic hybrids based on the layered perovskite-like bismuth titanate H2K0.5Bi2.5Ti4O13·H2O that could be prepared by a simple [...] Read more.
In the present work, we report the results on exfoliation and coating formation of inorganic–organic hybrids based on the layered perovskite-like bismuth titanate H2K0.5Bi2.5Ti4O13·H2O that could be prepared by a simple ion exchange reaction from a Ruddlesden–Popper phase K2.5Bi2.5Ti4O13. The inorganic–organic hybrids were synthesized by intercalation reactions. Exfoliation into nanosheets was performed for the starting hydrated protonated titanate and for the derivatives intercalated by n-alkylamines to study the influence of preliminary intercalation on exfoliation efficiency. The selected precursors were exfoliated in aqueous solutions of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide using facile stirring and ultrasonication. The suspensions of nanosheets obtained were characterized using UV–vis spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and gravimetry. Nanosheets were coated on preliminarily polyethyleneimine-covered Si substrates using a self-assembly procedure and studied using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
Effect of the Heating Rate to Prevent the Generation of Iron Oxides during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiFePO4
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092412 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have gained much interest in recent years because of the increasing energy demand and the relentless progression of climate change. About 30% of the manufacturing cost for LIBs is spent on cathode materials, and its level of development is lower [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have gained much interest in recent years because of the increasing energy demand and the relentless progression of climate change. About 30% of the manufacturing cost for LIBs is spent on cathode materials, and its level of development is lower than the negative electrode, separator diaphragm and electrolyte, therefore becoming the “controlling step”. Numerous cathodic materials have been employed, LiFePO4 being the most relevant one mainly because of its excellent performance, as well as its rated capacity (170 mA·h·g−1) and practical operating voltage (3.5 V vs. Li+/Li). Nevertheless, producing micro and nanoparticles with high purity levels, avoiding the formation of iron oxides, and reducing the operating cost are still some of the aspects still to be improved. In this work, we have applied two heating rates (slow and fast) to the same hydrothermal synthesis process with the main objective of obtaining, without any reducing agents, the purest possible LiFePO4 in the shortest time and with the lowest proportion of magnetite impurities. The reagents initially used were: FeSO4, H3PO4, and LiOH, and a crucial phenomenon has been observed in the temperature range between 130 and 150 °C, being verified with various techniques such as XRD and SEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
Towards Universal Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems: Pillar[5]arenes Synthesis and Self-Assembly into Nanocontainers with Tetrazole Polymers
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040947 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
In this work, we have proposed a novel universal stimulus-sensitive nanosized polymer system based on decasubstituted macrocyclic structures—pillar[5]arenes and tetrazole-containing polymers. Decasubstituted pillar[5]arenes containing a large, good leaving tosylate, and phthalimide groups were first synthesized and characterized. Pillar[5]arenes containing primary and tertiary amino [...] Read more.
In this work, we have proposed a novel universal stimulus-sensitive nanosized polymer system based on decasubstituted macrocyclic structures—pillar[5]arenes and tetrazole-containing polymers. Decasubstituted pillar[5]arenes containing a large, good leaving tosylate, and phthalimide groups were first synthesized and characterized. Pillar[5]arenes containing primary and tertiary amino groups, capable of interacting with tetrazole-containing polymers, were obtained with high yield by removing the tosylate and phthalimide protection. According to the fluorescence spectroscopy data, a dramatic fluorescence enhancement in the pillar[5]arene/fluorescein/polymer system was observed with decreasing pH from neutral (pH = 7) to acidic (pH = 5). This indicates the destruction of associates and the release of the dye at a pH close to 5. The presented results open a broad range of opportunities for the development of new universal stimulus-sensitive drug delivery systems containing macrocycles and nontoxic tetrazole-based polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
Towards Polymeric Nanoparticles with Multiple Magnetic Patches
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010147 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Fabricating future materials by self-assembly of nano-building blocks programmed to generate specific lattices is among the most challenging goals of nanotechnology and has led to the recent concept of patchy particles. We report here a simple strategy to fabricate polystyrene nanoparticles with several [...] Read more.
Fabricating future materials by self-assembly of nano-building blocks programmed to generate specific lattices is among the most challenging goals of nanotechnology and has led to the recent concept of patchy particles. We report here a simple strategy to fabricate polystyrene nanoparticles with several silica patches based on the solvent-induced self-assembly of silica/polystyrene monopods. The latter are obtained with morphological yields as high as 99% by seed-growth emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of 100 nm silica seeds previously modified with an optimal surface density of methacryloxymethyl groups. In addition, we fabricate “magnetic” silica seeds by silica encapsulation of preformed maghemite supraparticles. The polystyrene pod, i.e., surface nodule, serves as a sticky point when the monopods are incubated in a bad/good solvent mixture for polystyrene, e.g., ethanol/tetrahydrofuran mixtures. After self-assembly, mixtures of particles with two, three, four silica or magnetic silica patches are mainly obtained. The influence of experimental parameters such as the ethanol/tetrahydrofuran volume ratio, monopod concentration and incubation time is studied. Further developments would consist of obtaining pure batches by centrifugal sorting and optimizing the relative position of the patches in conventional repulsion figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
2D Monomolecular Nanosheets Based on Thiacalixarene Derivatives: Synthesis, Solid State Self-Assembly and Crystal Polymorphism
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122505 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Synthetic organic 2D materials are attracting careful attention of researchers due to their excellent functionality in various applications, including storage batteries, catalysis, thermoelectricity, advanced electronics, superconductors, optoelectronics, etc. In this work, thiacalix[4]arene derivatives functionalized by geranyl fragments at the lower rim in cone [...] Read more.
Synthetic organic 2D materials are attracting careful attention of researchers due to their excellent functionality in various applications, including storage batteries, catalysis, thermoelectricity, advanced electronics, superconductors, optoelectronics, etc. In this work, thiacalix[4]arene derivatives functionalized by geranyl fragments at the lower rim in cone and 1,3-alternate conformations, that are capable of controlled self-assembly in a 2D nanostructures were synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of 2D monomolecular-layer nanosheets from synthesized thiacalix[4]arenes, the distance between which depends on the stereoisomer used. It was established by DSC, FSC, and PXRD methods that the obtained macrocycles are capable of forming different crystalline polymorphs, moreover dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is contributing to the formation of a more stable polymorph for cone stereoisomer. The obtained crystalline 2D materials based on synthesized thiacalix[4]arenes can find application in material science and medicine for the development of modern pharmaceuticals and new generation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Rh Nanoparticles with Different Morphologies-as Potential XFCT Nanoprobes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112129 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
Morphologically controllable synthesis of Rh nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved by the use of additives during polyol synthesis. The effect of salts and surfactant additives including PVP, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, CTAB, CTAC, and potassium bromide on Rh NPs morphology was investigated. When PVP [...] Read more.
Morphologically controllable synthesis of Rh nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved by the use of additives during polyol synthesis. The effect of salts and surfactant additives including PVP, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, CTAB, CTAC, and potassium bromide on Rh NPs morphology was investigated. When PVP was used as the only additive, trigonal NPs were obtained. Additives containing Br ions (CTAB and KBr) resulted in NPs with a cubic morphology, while those with carboxyl groups (sodium citrate and acetate) formed spheroid NPs. The use of Cl ions (CTAC) resulted in a mixture of polygon morphologies. Cytotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated on macrophages and ovarian cancer cell lines. Membrane integrity and cellular activity are both influenced to a similar extent, for both the cell lines, with respect to the morphology of Rh NPs. The cells exposed to trigonal Rh NPs showed the highest viability, among the NP series. Particles with a mixed polygon morphology had the highest cytotoxic impact, followed by cubic and spherical NPs. The Rh NPs were further demonstrated as contrast agents for X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) in a small-animal imaging setting. This work provides a detailed route for the synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of Rh NPs as viable contrast agents for XFCT bio-imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Communication
Development of Novel Heparin/Protamine Nanoparticles Useful for Delivery of Exogenous Proteins In Vitro and In Vivo
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081584 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
We previously reported that heparin/protamine particles (LHPPs) produced as nanoparticles through simple mixing of raw materials exhibit sustained protein release and can be retained in cells. In the present study, we modified LHPPs without employing any organic synthetic approach. The resulting LHPPs were [...] Read more.
We previously reported that heparin/protamine particles (LHPPs) produced as nanoparticles through simple mixing of raw materials exhibit sustained protein release and can be retained in cells. In the present study, we modified LHPPs without employing any organic synthetic approach. The resulting LHPPs were re-named as improved LHPPs (i-LHPPs) and have the ability to retain cell-penetrating peptides (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ) based on electrostatic interactions. We examined whether i-LHPPs can introduce exogenous proteins (i.e., lacZ protein encoding bacterial β-galactosidase) into cultured cells in vitro, or into murine hepatocytes in vivo through intravenous injection to anesthetized mice. We found an accumulation of the transferred protein in both in vitro cultured cells and in vivo hepatocytes. To the best of our knowledge, reports of successful in vivo delivery to hepatocytes are rare. The i-LHPP-based protein delivery technique will be useful for in vivo functional genetic modification of mouse hepatocytes using Cas9 protein-mediated genome editing targeting specific genes, leading to the creation of hepatic disease animal models for research that aims to treat liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
New Amphiphilic Imidazolium/Benzimidazolium Calix[4]arene Derivatives: Synthesis, Aggregation Behavior and Decoration of DPPC Vesicles for Suzuki Coupling in Aqueous Media
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061143 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
In this study, new types of amphiphilic calix[4]arene derivatives bearing N-alkyl/aryl imidazolium/benzimidazolium fragments were designed and synthesized by two step transformation: Regioselective Blanc chloromethylation of distal-di-O-butyl calix[4]arene and subsequent interaction with N-Substituted imidazole/benzimidazole. Critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values were estimated using [...] Read more.
In this study, new types of amphiphilic calix[4]arene derivatives bearing N-alkyl/aryl imidazolium/benzimidazolium fragments were designed and synthesized by two step transformation: Regioselective Blanc chloromethylation of distal-di-O-butyl calix[4]arene and subsequent interaction with N-Substituted imidazole/benzimidazole. Critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values were estimated using pyrene fluorescent probe. Obtained macrocycles were found to form submicron particles with electrokinetic potential +44–+57 mV in aqueous solution. For the first time it was found that amphiphilic calixarene causes the fast transformation of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles into unilamellar ones and leads to the ordering of the lipid in membranes at the molar calixarene/DPPC ratio more than 0.07. In situ complexes of calixarene aggregates with Pd(OAc)2 were found to be active in Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 1-bromo-4-nitrobenzene with phenylboronic acid in water. It was shown that bulky N-substituents of heterocycle decrease the catalytic activity of the aggregates. These result can be assigned to the inhibition effect of Pd(II) complex in situ formation by bulky substituents located on the aggregate surface. Embedding of the most active palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex with methylimidazolium headgroups into DPPC vesicles enhances its catalytic activity in Suzuki–Miyaura coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Article
Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on the Copolymer of Proflavine and Azure B for Doxorubicin Determination
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050924 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
A DNA sensor has been developed for the determination of doxorubicin by consecutive electropolymerization of an equimolar mixture of Azure B and proflavine and adsorption of native DNA from salmon sperm on a polymer film. Electrochemical investigation showed a difference in the behavior [...] Read more.
A DNA sensor has been developed for the determination of doxorubicin by consecutive electropolymerization of an equimolar mixture of Azure B and proflavine and adsorption of native DNA from salmon sperm on a polymer film. Electrochemical investigation showed a difference in the behavior of individual drugs polymerized and their mixture. The use of the copolymer offered some advantages, i.e., a higher roughness of the surface, a wider range of the pH sensitivity of the response, a denser and more robust film, etc. The formation of the polymer film and its redox properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the doxorubicin determination, its solution was mixed with DNA and applied on the polymer surface. After that, charge transfer resistance was assessed in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− as the redox probe. Its value regularly grew with the doxorubicin concentration in the range from 0.03 to 10 nM (limit of detection 0.01 nM). The DNA sensor was tested on the doxorubicin preparations and spiked samples mimicking blood serum. The recovery was found to be 98–106%. The DNA sensor developed can find application for the determination of drug residues in blood and for the pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Review

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Review
From Impure to Purified Silver Nanoparticles: Advances and Timeline in Separation Methods
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123407 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
AgNPs have exceptional characteristics that depend on their size and shape. Over the past years, there has been an exponential increase in applications of nanoparticles (NPs), especially the silver ones (AgNPs), in several areas, such as, for example, electronics; environmental, pharmaceutical, and toxicological [...] Read more.
AgNPs have exceptional characteristics that depend on their size and shape. Over the past years, there has been an exponential increase in applications of nanoparticles (NPs), especially the silver ones (AgNPs), in several areas, such as, for example, electronics; environmental, pharmaceutical, and toxicological applications; theragnostics; and medical treatments, among others. This growing use has led to a greater exposure of humans to AgNPs and a higher risk to human health and the environment. This risk becomes more aggravated when the AgNPs are used without purification or separation from the synthesis medium, in which the hazardous synthesis precursors remain unseparated from the NPs and constitute a severe risk for unnecessary environmental contamination. This review examines the situation of the available separation methods of AgNPs from crude suspensions or real samples. Different separation techniques are reviewed, and relevant data are discussed, with a focus on the sustainability and efficiency of AgNPs separation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Review
Biopolymer-Based Multilayer Capsules and Beads Made via Templating: Advantages, Hurdles and Perspectives
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102502 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
One of the undeniable trends in modern bioengineering and nanotechnology is the use of various biomolecules, primarily of a polymeric nature, for the design and formulation of novel functional materials for controlled and targeted drug delivery, bioimaging and theranostics, tissue engineering, and other [...] Read more.
One of the undeniable trends in modern bioengineering and nanotechnology is the use of various biomolecules, primarily of a polymeric nature, for the design and formulation of novel functional materials for controlled and targeted drug delivery, bioimaging and theranostics, tissue engineering, and other bioapplications. Biocompatibility, biodegradability, the possibility of replicating natural cellular microenvironments, and the minimal toxicity typical of biogenic polymers are features that have secured a growing interest in them as the building blocks for biomaterials of the fourth generation. Many recent studies showed the promise of the hard-templating approach for the fabrication of nano- and microparticles utilizing biopolymers. This review covers these studies, bringing together up-to-date knowledge on biopolymer-based multilayer capsules and beads, critically assessing the progress made in this field of research, and outlining the current challenges and perspectives of these architectures. According to the classification of the templates, the review sequentially considers biopolymer structures templated on non-porous particles, porous particles, and crystal drugs. Opportunities for the functionalization of biopolymer-based capsules to tailor them toward specific bioapplications is highlighted in a separate section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Review
Nanostructured Ceria: Biomolecular Templates and (Bio)applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092259 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Ceria (CeO2) nanostructures are well-known in catalysis for energy and environmental preservation and remediation. Recently, they have also been gaining momentum for biological applications in virtue of their unique redox properties that make them antioxidant or pro-oxidant, depending on the experimental [...] Read more.
Ceria (CeO2) nanostructures are well-known in catalysis for energy and environmental preservation and remediation. Recently, they have also been gaining momentum for biological applications in virtue of their unique redox properties that make them antioxidant or pro-oxidant, depending on the experimental conditions and ceria nanomorphology. In particular, interest has grown in the use of biotemplates to exert control over ceria morphology and reactivity. However, only a handful of reports exist on the use of specific biomolecules to template ceria nucleation and growth into defined nanostructures. This review focusses on the latest advancements in the area of biomolecular templates for ceria nanostructures and existing opportunities for their (bio)applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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Review
Antiviral Potential of Nanoparticles—Can Nanoparticles Fight Against Coronaviruses?
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091645 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 90 | Viewed by 5348
Abstract
Infectious diseases account for more than 20% of global mortality and viruses are responsible for about one-third of these deaths. Highly infectious viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are emerging more frequently [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases account for more than 20% of global mortality and viruses are responsible for about one-third of these deaths. Highly infectious viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are emerging more frequently and their worldwide spread poses a serious threat to human health and the global economy. The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of 27 July 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 16 million people and led to the death of more than 652,434 individuals as on 27 July 2020 while also causing significant economic losses. To date, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat COVID-19. Hence, it is necessary to accelerate the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to help mitigate this pandemic. Non-Conventional antiviral agents must also be considered and exploited. In this regard, nanoparticles can be used as antiviral agents for the treatment of various viral infections. The use of nanoparticles provides an interesting opportunity for the development of novel antiviral therapies with a low probability of developing drug resistance compared to conventional chemical-based antiviral therapies. In this review, we first discuss viral mechanisms of entry into host cells and then we detail the major and important types of nanomaterials that could be used as antiviral agents. These nanomaterials include silver, gold, quantum dots, organic nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers and polymers. Further, we consider antiviral mechanisms, the effects of nanoparticles on coronaviruses and therapeutic approaches of nanoparticles. Finally, we provide our perspective on the future of nanoparticles in the fight against viral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
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