2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "2D and Carbon Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 31877

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Institute of Microelectronics & Department of Electronic Engineering, Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
Interests: oxide thin-film transistors; advanced memory; biosensors; phototransistors; thin films; optical sensors; wide bandgap semiconductor; low-dimensional semiconductors; semiconductor devices; high-k dielectric materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on “2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications”. In 2004, Geim et al. successfully used tape to separate the graphite layer, that is, the mechanical exfoliation method was used to separate graphene, which opened up the world of two-dimensional materials. Graphene is an atomically thin film, and its structure is carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal honeycomb shape. Its advantages include near-transparency, no light absorption, and good flexibility. In terms of electrical properties, it has extremely high electron mobility and extremely low resistivity. However, the conduction band and valence band are symmetrical to the Dirac point. The intersection of the conduction band and the valence band is exactly the Fermi surface, which makes graphene a zero-gap material. Therefore, graphene is defined as a semimetallic material. Generally, graphene has many advantages in electrical properties because of its special band structure, but it also limits the application of logic switching circuits. Subsequently, in order to solve the limitations of graphene in applications, scientists began to find alternative two-dimensional materials, such as hexagonal boron nitride, black phosphorus, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The molecular formula of transition metal dichalcogenides in two-dimensional materials is MX2 ((M = Mo, W, Re, V, Nb), (X = S, Se, Te)), including MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2, and so on. These have excellent performance in optical, electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which makes them particularly attractive. For example, MoS2 has an adjustable energy gap. Monolayer MoS2 has a direct bandgap with 1.8 eV. In other words, MoS2 solves the shortcomings of graphene, which makes two-dimensional materials applicable to optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, WS2 is an excellent high-temperature thermoelectric material. Moreover, the edge-sites of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 show excellent catalytic and electrochemical activities. After discovering the above advantages, more and more scientists began to invest in research on two-dimensional materials, which has also made it a new generation of electronic and optical devices in the future. This Special Issue of the journal Nanomaterials on “2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications” aims to cover recent advances in two-dimensional application technologies.

Dr. Sheng-Po Chang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Design, synthesis, and fabrication of 2D semiconducting materials
  • New Theory and modeling of 2D semiconducting materials
  • Electronic, optical, magnetic, and other properties of novel 2D semiconducting materials
  • Application and hetero-integration of 2D semiconducting materials
  • Electronic, optoelectronic and other devices of 2D semiconducting materials
  • 2D nanomaterials for energy application

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4677 KiB  
Article
Electronic and Spintronic Properties of Armchair MoSi2N4 Nanoribbons Doped by 3D Transition Metals
by Xiao-Qian Su and Xue-Feng Wang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13040676 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Structural and physical properties of armchair MoSi2N4 nanoribbons substitutionally doped by 3d transition metals (TM) at Mo sites are investigated using the density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function method. TM doping can convert the nonmagnetic direct semiconductor [...] Read more.
Structural and physical properties of armchair MoSi2N4 nanoribbons substitutionally doped by 3d transition metals (TM) at Mo sites are investigated using the density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function method. TM doping can convert the nonmagnetic direct semiconductor into device materials of a broad variety, including indirect semiconductors, half semiconductors, metals, and half metals. Furthermore the 100% spin filtering behavior in spin-up and spin-down half metals, a negative differential resistance with peak-to-valley ratio over 140 and a rectification effect with ratio over 130 are predicted, as well as semiconductor behavior with high spin polarization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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10 pages, 2935 KiB  
Article
Improved Electrical Properties of EHD Jet-Patterned MoS2 Thin-Film Transistors with Printed Ag Electrodes on a High-k Dielectric
by Thi Thu Thuy Can and Woon-Seop Choi
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13010194 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing is known as a versatile method to print a wide viscosity range of materials that are impossible to print by conventional inkjet printing. Hence, with the understanding of the benefits of EHD jet printing, solution-based MoS2 and a [...] Read more.
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing is known as a versatile method to print a wide viscosity range of materials that are impossible to print by conventional inkjet printing. Hence, with the understanding of the benefits of EHD jet printing, solution-based MoS2 and a high-viscosity Ag paste were EHD jet-printed for electronic applications in this work. In particular, printed MoS2 TFTs with a patterned Ag source and drain were successfully fabricated with low-k silica (SiO2) and high-k alumina (Al2O3) gate dielectrics, respectively. Eventually, the devices based on Al2O3 exhibited much better electrical properties compared to the ones based on SiO2. Interestingly, an improvement of around one order of magnitude in hysteresis was achieved for devices after changing the gate insulator from SiO2 to Al2O3. In effect, the results of this work for the printed MoS2 and the printed Ag source and drains for TFTs demonstrate a new approach for jet printing in the fabrication of electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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11 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
Time-Dependent Charge Carrier Transport with Hall Effect in Organic Semiconductors for Langevin and Non-Langevin Systems
by Seema Morab, Manickam Minakshi Sundaram and Almantas Pivrikas
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244414 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The time-dependent charge carrier transport and recombination processes in low-mobility organic semiconductor diodes are obtained through numerical simulations using the finite element method (FEM). The application of a Lorentz force across the diode alters the charge transport process leading to the Hall effect. [...] Read more.
The time-dependent charge carrier transport and recombination processes in low-mobility organic semiconductor diodes are obtained through numerical simulations using the finite element method (FEM). The application of a Lorentz force across the diode alters the charge transport process leading to the Hall effect. In this contribution, the Hall effect parameters, such as the Hall voltage and charge carrier concentration with varying magnetic fields, are computed for both Langevin and non-Langevin type recombination processes. The results indicate the charge carrier concentration within the diode for the Langevin system is about seven and fourteen times less while the maximum amount of extracted charge is nearly five and ten times less than that in the non-Langevin system of 0.01 and 0.001, respectively. The Hall voltage values obtained for the steady-state case are similar to the non-Langevin system of ββL=0.01. However, the values obtained for the Langevin and non-Langevin systems of ββL=1 and 0.001 exhibit anomalies. The implications of these findings advance the understanding of the charge transport and Hall effect measurements in organic semiconductors that underpins the device’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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9 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
A Room Temperature ZnO-NPs/MEMS Ammonia Gas Sensor
by Ting-Jen Hsueh and Ruei-Yan Ding
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193287 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
This study uses ultrasonic grinding to grind ZnO powder to 10–20-nanometer nanoparticles (NPs), and these are integrated with a MEMS structure to form a ZnO-NPs/MEMS gas sensor. Measuring 1 ppm NH3 gas and operating at room temperature, the sensor response for the [...] Read more.
This study uses ultrasonic grinding to grind ZnO powder to 10–20-nanometer nanoparticles (NPs), and these are integrated with a MEMS structure to form a ZnO-NPs/MEMS gas sensor. Measuring 1 ppm NH3 gas and operating at room temperature, the sensor response for the ZnO-NPs/MEMS gas sensor is around 39.7%, but the origin-ZnO powder/MEMS gas sensor is fairly unresponsive. For seven consecutive cycles, the ZnO-NPs/MEMS gas sensor has an average sensor response of about 40% and an inaccuracy of <±2%. In the selectivity of the gas, the ZnO-NPs/MEMS gas sensor has a higher response to NH3 than to CO, CO2, H2, or SO2 gases because ZnO nanoparticles have a greater surface area and more surface defects, so they adsorb more oxygen molecules and water molecules. These react with NH3 gas to increase the sensor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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10 pages, 6271 KiB  
Article
High Linearity Synaptic Devices Using Ar Plasma Treatment on HfO2 Thin Film with Non-Identical Pulse Waveforms
by Ke-Jing Lee, Yu-Chuan Weng, Li-Wen Wang, Hsin-Ni Lin, Parthasarathi Pal, Sheng-Yuan Chu, Darsen Lu and Yeong-Her Wang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(18), 3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12183252 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
We enhanced the device uniformity for reliable memory performances by increasing the device surface roughness by exposing the HfO2 thin film surface to argon (Ar) plasma. The results showed significant improvements in electrical and synaptic properties, including memory window, linearity, pattern recognition [...] Read more.
We enhanced the device uniformity for reliable memory performances by increasing the device surface roughness by exposing the HfO2 thin film surface to argon (Ar) plasma. The results showed significant improvements in electrical and synaptic properties, including memory window, linearity, pattern recognition accuracy, and synaptic weight modulations. Furthermore, we proposed a non-identical pulse waveform for further improvement in linearity accuracy. From the simulation results, the Ar plasma processing device using the designed waveform as the input signals significantly improved the off-chip training and inference accuracy, achieving 96.3% training accuracy and 97.1% inference accuracy in only 10 training cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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16 pages, 11755 KiB  
Article
A Novel Two-Stage Heat Treatment with Medium-Temperature Aging Influence on Microstructure, Al3(Sc, Zr) Nanoprecipitation, and Application Properties, Enhancing Selective Laser Melting of Al–Mg–Sc–Zr Alloy
by Jun-Ren Zhao, Liang-Yan Lee, Kai-Chieh Chang and Fei-Yi Hung
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122078 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy fabricated through selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing alloy with promising industrial potential. In this study, as-printed specimens were subjected to either single-stage or two-stage heat treatment processes to investigate the effect of temperature from room temperature to high [...] Read more.
Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy fabricated through selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing alloy with promising industrial potential. In this study, as-printed specimens were subjected to either single-stage or two-stage heat treatment processes to investigate the effect of temperature from room temperature to high temperature on the specimens’ tensile and fatigue properties to establish a reliable reference for aerospace applications. The tensile test results indicated that the heat treatment contributed to determine the properties of the nanoprecipitate Al3(Sc, Zr) with a strengthening phase, improving tensile strength. Moreover, the dynamics strain aging (DSA) effect vanished as temperature increased. It is noteworthy that the nanoprecipitation was distributed at the boundary of the melting pool after single-stage heat treatment with the highest tensile properties in all tests. In addition, the microstructure observed after the two-stage heat treatment indicated a melting pool interface decomposition, and the nanoprecipitation was homogeneously scattered over the Al matrix, increasing strength and further delaying fatigue crack transmission. Those features build a high-fatigue-resistance foundation. TEM analysis also confirmed the promotion of Sc thermal diffusion and an Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitation transformation mechanism under two-stage heat treatment, corresponding to aforementioned inferences. The SLM Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy with two-stage heat treatment brings about balance between tensile properties and fatigue resistance, providing new insight into additive manufacturing with Al alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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10 pages, 3959 KiB  
Article
The Image Identification Application with HfO2-Based Replaceable 1T1R Neural Networks
by Jinfu Lin, Hongxia Liu, Shulong Wang, Dong Wang and Lei Wu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071075 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
This paper mainly studies the hardware implementation of a fully connected neural network based on the 1T1R (one-transistor-one-resistor) array and its application in handwritten digital image recognition. The 1T1R arrays are prepared by connecting the memristor and nMOSFET in series, and a single-layer [...] Read more.
This paper mainly studies the hardware implementation of a fully connected neural network based on the 1T1R (one-transistor-one-resistor) array and its application in handwritten digital image recognition. The 1T1R arrays are prepared by connecting the memristor and nMOSFET in series, and a single-layer and a double-layer fully connected neural network are established. The recognition accuracy of 8 × 8 handwritten digital images reaches 95.19%. By randomly replacing the devices with failed devices, it is found that the stuck-off devices have little effect on the accuracy of the network, but the stuck-on devices will cause a sharp reduction of accuracy. By using the measured conductivity adjustment range and precision data of the memristor, the relationship between the recognition accuracy of the network and the number of hidden neurons is simulated. The simulation results match the experimental results. Compared with the neural network based on the precision of 32-bit floating point, the difference is lower than 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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9 pages, 4546 KiB  
Article
Bright CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Improved Stability by In-Situ Zn-Doping
by Yong-Tang Zeng, Zhan-Rong Li, Sheng-Po Chang, Arjun Ansay, Zi-Hao Wang and Chun-Yuan Huang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050759 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
In this study, facile synthesis, characterization, and stability tests of highly luminescent Zn-doped CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) were demonstrated. The doping procedure was performed via partial replacement of PbBr2 with ZnBr2 in the precursor solution. Via Zn-doping, the photoluminescence quantum [...] Read more.
In this study, facile synthesis, characterization, and stability tests of highly luminescent Zn-doped CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) were demonstrated. The doping procedure was performed via partial replacement of PbBr2 with ZnBr2 in the precursor solution. Via Zn-doping, the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the NCs was increased from 41.3% to 82.9%, with a blue-shifted peak at 503.7 nm and narrower spectral width of 18.7 nm which was consistent with the highly uniform size distribution of NCs observed from the TEM image. In the water-resistance stability test, the doped NCs exhibited an extended period-over four days until complete decomposition, under the harsh circumstances of hexane-ethanol-water mixing solution. The Zn-doped NC film maintained its 94% photoluminescence (PL) intensity after undergoing a heating/cooling cycle, surpassing the un-doped NC film with only 67% PL remaining. Based on our demonstrations, the in-situ Zn-doping procedure for the synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs could be a promising strategy toward robust and PL-efficient nanomaterial to pave the way for realizing practical optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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17 pages, 9502 KiB  
Article
Al2O3 Particle Erosion Induced Phase Transformation: Structure, Mechanical Property, and Impact Toughness of an SLM Al-10Si-Mg Alloy
by Bo-Chin Huang and Fei-Yi Hung
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082131 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
This study investigated the microstructure, mechanical properties, impact toughness, and erosion characteristics of Al-10Si-Mg alloy specimens manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) method with or without subsequent T6 heat treatment. Furthermore, the erosion phase transformation behavior of the test specimens was analyzed, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the microstructure, mechanical properties, impact toughness, and erosion characteristics of Al-10Si-Mg alloy specimens manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) method with or without subsequent T6 heat treatment. Furthermore, the erosion phase transformation behavior of the test specimens was analyzed, and the effect of the degradation mechanism on the tensile mechanical properties and impact toughness of the SLM Al-10Si-Mg alloy specimens before and after particle erosion was compared. The experimental results indicated that the Al-10Si-Mg alloy subjected to T6 heat treatment has better erosion resistance than the as-fabricated material. The tensile strength and fracture toughness of both specimen groups decreased due to the formation of microcracks on the surface caused by particle erosion. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced silicon nanoparticle solid solution softens the Al matrix and improves the elongation of the SLM Al-10Si-Mg alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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10 pages, 3371 KiB  
Article
Low-Power OR Logic Ferroelectric In-Situ Transistor Based on a CuInP2S6/MoS2 Van Der Waals Heterojunction
by Kun Yang, Shulong Wang, Tao Han and Hongxia Liu
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081971 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3585
Abstract
Due to the limitations of thermodynamics, the Boltzmann distribution of electrons hinders the further reduction of the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, with the emergence of ferroelectric materials, this problem is expected to be solved. Herein, we demonstrate an OR logic ferroelectric [...] Read more.
Due to the limitations of thermodynamics, the Boltzmann distribution of electrons hinders the further reduction of the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, with the emergence of ferroelectric materials, this problem is expected to be solved. Herein, we demonstrate an OR logic ferroelectric in-situ transistor based on a CIPS/MoS2 Van der Waals heterojunction. Utilizing the electric field amplification of ferroelectric materials, the CIPS/MoS2 vdW ferroelectric transistor offers an average subthreshold swing (SS) of 52 mV/dec over three orders of magnitude, and a minimum SS of 40 mV/dec, which breaks the Boltzmann limit at room temperature. The dual-gated ferroelectric in-situ transistor exhibits excellent OR logic operation with a supply voltage of less than 1 V. The results indicate that the CIPS/MoS2 vdW ferroelectric transistor has great potential in ultra-low-power applications due to its in-situ construction, steep-slope subthreshold swing and low supply voltage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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Review

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30 pages, 9696 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Quantum Dots and Their Applications
by Konthoujam James Singh, Tanveer Ahmed, Prakalp Gautam, Annada Sankar Sadhu, Der-Hsien Lien, Shih-Chen Chen, Yu-Lun Chueh and Hao-Chung Kuo
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061549 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 8696
Abstract
Two-dimensional quantum dots have received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fascinating properties and widespread applications in sensors, batteries, white light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, etc. Atomically thin two-dimensional quantum dots derived from graphene, layered transition metal dichalcogenide, and phosphorene [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional quantum dots have received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fascinating properties and widespread applications in sensors, batteries, white light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, etc. Atomically thin two-dimensional quantum dots derived from graphene, layered transition metal dichalcogenide, and phosphorene have sparked researchers’ interest with their unique optical and electronic properties, such as a tunable energy bandgap, efficient electronic transport, and semiconducting characteristics. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis of the characteristics of two-dimensional quantum dots materials, their synthesis methods, and opportunities and challenges for novel device applications. This analysis will serve as a tipping point for learning about the recent breakthroughs in two-dimensional quantum dots and motivate more scientists and engineers to grasp two-dimensional quantum dots materials by incorporating them into a variety of electrical and optical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Semiconducting Materials for Device Applications)
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