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Special Issue "Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Patricia Regal

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition, and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food safety; analytical chemistry; growth promoters; steroids; hormones; veterinary drugs; mycotoxins; chromatography; mass spectrometry; profiling; omics; metabolomics; bioinformatics; molecularly imprinted polymers; food-borne pathogens
Guest Editor
Dr. Carlos M. Franco

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition, and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food safety; analytical chemistry; food microbiological quality; antimicrobial resistant bacteria; food-borne pathogens; transcriptomics; genotyping; chromatography; mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the face of actual increasing demand for food worldwide, small farms are slowly disappearing, only to be replaced by large commercial farms and intensive productive systems. In this context, the rational use of veterinary drugs in stockfarming has greatly contributed to achieving current high production rates of food of animal origin, along with considerable profits. Veterinary drugs are pharmacologically active substances that may be administered to animals in order to maintain and/or to restore an optimal health status, or for zootechnical purposes. Their major applications in farm animals include: treatment of infection, pain relief, control of inflammation, immunity modulation, tranquilization and/or sedation, parasitic control, fertility management, or growth promotion, amongst others. Strictly, veterinary drugs can also be administered to sports, companion, or wild animals, but this application is not as important as in animal husbandry in terms of food safety—at least not directly.

The use of veterinary drugs in food-producing animals has the potential to generate residues in their edible products (meat, milk, eggs, and honey), and in this sense the administration of these compounds must be controlled and monitored, as residues may pose a health hazard for the consumer. Accordingly, maximum residue limits in different animal-derived products are frequently established by regulatory agencies for permitted drugs. In the case of banned compounds, such as growth promoters in EU, a zero-tolerance policy is applied. In order to measure the low residue levels that are usually found in food and animal matrices, highly selective, sensitive, and accurate methodology is required. Analytical methods for veterinary residue analysis have evolved greatly in the last decades, in parallel to the large number of drugs existing on the veterinary market. On the basis of this , multi-residue/multi-class methods have grown exponentially, including also profiling approaches and the determination of unknowns (omics) for the indirect detection of drug administration.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature on modern solutions for monitoring veterinary drugs in food, including the determination of permitted and banned drugs, but also other borderline compounds such as natural hormones and pro-hormones. Contributions must reflect the state-of-the-art on the topic, and analytical methods must be properly validated according to official guidelines. The final goal of this compilation of scientific papers is to serve as inspiration and source of knowledge for future analysts and residue laboratories worldwide. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Multi-analyte, multi-residue, and/or multi-class analytical methods in food and/or animal matrices (food safety and control in vivo)
  • Novel “omics” technologies (metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, lipidomics...)
  • Profiling and similar indirect approaches
  • Trends in screening solutions
  • Reviews of literature on modern solutions

Dr. Patricia Regal
Dr. Carlos M. Franco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • veterinary drug
  • growth promoter
  • steroids
  • analytical method
  • chromatography
  • mass spectrometry
  • food safety
  • omics
  • profiling
  • multi-residue
  • multi-class
  • multi-analyte

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Residue Depletion of Florfenicol and Florfenicol Amine in Broiler Chicken Claws and a Comparison of Their Concentrations in Edible Tissues Using LC–MS/MS
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092211
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial residues might persist in products and by-products destined for human or animal consumption. Studies exploring the depletion behavior of florfenicol residues in broiler chicken claws are scarce, even though claws can enter the food chain directly or indirectly. Hence, this study intended
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial residues might persist in products and by-products destined for human or animal consumption. Studies exploring the depletion behavior of florfenicol residues in broiler chicken claws are scarce, even though claws can enter the food chain directly or indirectly. Hence, this study intended to assess the concentrations of florfenicol (FF) and florfenicol amine (FFA)—its active metabolite—in chicken claws from birds that were treated with a therapeutic dose of florfenicol. Furthermore, concentrations of these analytes in this matrix were compared with their concentrations in edible tissues at each sampling point. A group of 70 broiler chickens were raised under controlled conditions and used to assess residue depletion. Sampling points were on days 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 after ceasing treatment, thus extending beyond the withdrawal period established for muscle tissue (30 days). Analytes were extracted using HPLC-grade water and acetone, and dichloromethane was used for the clean-up stage. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy detection (LC–MS/MS) was used to detect and quantify the analytes. The analytical methodology developed in this study was validated in-house and based on the recommendations described in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC from the European Union. Analyte concentrations were calculated by linear regression analysis of calibration curves that were fortified using an internal standard of chloramphenicol-d5 (CAF-d5). The depletion time of FF and FFA was set at 74 days in claws, based on a 95% confidence level and using the limit of detection (LOD) as the cut-off point. Our findings show that FF and FFA can be found in chicken claws at higher concentrations than in muscle and liver samples at each sampling point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Binding Interaction between Bovine Lactoferrin and Tetracycline Hydrochloride: Multi-Spectroscopic Analyses and Molecular Modeling
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081900
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the interaction between bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was researched by microscale thermophoresis (MST), multi-spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking techniques. Normal fluorescence results showed that TCH effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of bLf via static quenching. Moreover, MST
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the interaction between bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was researched by microscale thermophoresis (MST), multi-spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking techniques. Normal fluorescence results showed that TCH effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of bLf via static quenching. Moreover, MST confirmed that the combination force between bLf and TCH was very strong. Thermodynamic parameters and molecular docking further revealed that electrostatic forces, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding forces played vital roles in the interaction between bLf and TCH. The binding distance and energy transfer efficiency between TCH and bLf were 2.81 nm and 0.053, respectively. Moreover, the results of circular dichroism spectra (CD), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra, and molecular docking verified bLf indeed combined with TCH, and caused the changes of conformation of bLf. The influence of TCH on the functional changes of the protein was studied through the analysis of the change of the bLf surface hydrophobicity and research of the binding forces between bLf and iron ion. These results indicated that change in the structure and function of bLf were due to the interaction between bLf and TCH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Quick Multi-Class Determination of Residues of Antimicrobial Veterinary Drugs in Animal Muscle by LC-MS/MS
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071736
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
On the basis of the highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique, a generic extraction solvent and a sample dilution method was developed for the residue analysis of different polar veterinary drugs known as fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, and tiamulin in chicken
[...] Read more.
On the basis of the highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique, a generic extraction solvent and a sample dilution method was developed for the residue analysis of different polar veterinary drugs known as fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, and tiamulin in chicken muscle. The results showed that the matrix-matched calibration curves of all 10 compounds were in an effective linear relationship (r2 ≥ 0.997) in the range of 0.2–100 μg L−1. At three spiking levels of 2 (5), 50, and 100 μg kg−1, average recoveries of analytes were between 67.1% and 96.6% with relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day below 20%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification of the method were in the range of 0.3–2.0 μg kg−1 and 2.0–5.0 μg kg−1, respectively, which were significantly lower than their maximum residue limits. In addition, the intensity of the target analytes and its corresponding matrix effects were obviously related to the sample dilution times (matrix concentration). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the average content of almost any of the analytes in medicated chickens between this method and the method in the literature for determining analytes. Lastly, the proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of 10 common veterinary drugs in food animal muscle tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tracing Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Ab(Use) Through Gene Expression in Blood, Hair Follicles, and Milk Somatic Cells: A Matrix Comparison
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071708
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in dairy cattle is forbidden in the European Union. Due to the very low circulating concentration of rbST in treated animals, its direct detection is still a challenge. Therefore, the use of indirect methods to detect
[...] Read more.
The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in dairy cattle is forbidden in the European Union. Due to the very low circulating concentration of rbST in treated animals, its direct detection is still a challenge. Therefore, the use of indirect methods to detect the ab(use) of rbST in dairy cattle appears as a good alternative. In the past few years, gene expression demonstrated its utility in screening the use of illicit substances in both humans and animals. In this study, a comparison of three types of matrices (milk somatic cells, blood, and hair follicles) was carried out to evaluate their potential use for routine control of rbST using 15 gene-expression profiles. A total of six rbST-treated cows and three control cows were included in the study. A subcutaneous injection containing 500 mg of rbST was administered to the treated group. Samples of the three matrices were collected before rbST administration, and at three and nine days after treatment. The quality of RNA extracted was higher in the blood and hair-follicle samples than in the milk somatic cells. In the three matrices, there were significant differences in the expression of some genes, with milk somatic cells and blood presenting the the best matrices. On this note, the cyclin D1 (CCND1), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) genes showed potential as biomarkers of rbST treatment. Therefore, blood, somatic cells, and follicle hair should be considered as promising sources of RNA, and can be used in gene-expression assays to routinely control the illicit use of rbST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Chlortetracycline Residues, Antimicrobial Activity and Presence of Resistance Genes in Droppings of Experimentally Treated Broiler Chickens
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061264
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
Tetracyclines are important antimicrobial drugs for poultry farming that are actively excreted via feces and urine. Droppings are one of the main components in broiler bedding, which is commonly used as an organic fertilizer. Therefore, bedding becomes an unintended carrier of antimicrobial residues
[...] Read more.
Tetracyclines are important antimicrobial drugs for poultry farming that are actively excreted via feces and urine. Droppings are one of the main components in broiler bedding, which is commonly used as an organic fertilizer. Therefore, bedding becomes an unintended carrier of antimicrobial residues into the environment and may pose a highly significant threat to public health. For this depletion study, 60 broiler chickens were treated with 20% chlortetracycline (CTC) under therapeutic conditions. Concentrations of CTC and 4-epi-CTC were then determined in their droppings. Additionally, this work also aimed to detect the antimicrobial activity of these droppings and the phenotypic susceptibility to tetracycline in E. coli isolates, as well as the presence of tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G) resistance genes. CTC and 4-epi-CTC concentrations that were found ranged from 179.5 to 665.8 µg/kg. Based on these data, the depletion time for chicken droppings was calculated and set at 69 days. All samples presented antimicrobial activity, and a resistance to tetracyclines was found in bacterial strains that were isolated from these samples. Resistance genes tet(A) and tet(B) were also found in these samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
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