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Special Issue "Phenolic Compounds from Plants: Chemistry, Analysis and Biological Activity"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Federica Pellati

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; extraction, isolation, and structure characterization; bioactive natural compounds; pharmaceutical analysis
Guest Editor
Prof. Laura Mercolini

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; method validation; microsampling, sample treatment
Guest Editor
Prof. Roccaldo Sardella

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid chromatography; enantioselective liquid chromatography; mechanisms of molecular recognition; medicinal chemistry; (bio)pharmaceutical analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phenolic compounds from plants are known to possess a wide range of impressive biological activities; accordingly, they can be applied to the prevention of many diseases and to health maintenance. Due to their importance in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical fields, this Special Issue aims at gathering the most recent contributions in relation to their chemistry, extraction, and analytical techniques, as well as their biological activities. The elucidation of the molecular basis of phenolic bioactivities by means of both well-established and advanced bio-analytical techniques is also greatly encouraged.

Dr. Federica Pellati
Prof. Laura Mercolini
Prof. Roccaldo Sardella
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phenolics
  • chemistry
  • extraction
  • analysis
  • biological activity
  • molecular recognition mechanisms

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Multiple Bioactive Constituents in the Flower and the Caulis of Lonicera japonica Based on UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101936
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF) and Lonicerae japonicae caulis (LJC) are derived from different parts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), and have been used as herbal remedies to treat various diseases for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. However, little attention has been [...] Read more.
Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF) and Lonicerae japonicae caulis (LJC) are derived from different parts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), and have been used as herbal remedies to treat various diseases for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. However, little attention has been paid to illustrating the differences in efficacy from the perspective of phytochemistry. In the present study, a simultaneous determination of 47 bioactive constituents, including 12 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, six iridoids, 13 amino acids and four nucleosides in 44 batches of LJF and LJC samples from different habitats and commercial herbs was established based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS). Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and t-test were then performed to classify and reveal the differential compositions of LJF and LJC according to the content of the tested constituents. The results demonstrated that the types and contents of chemical components (e.g., isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, quinic acid, secologanic acid, luteoloside, loganin, secoxyloganin, morroniside and L-isoleucine) were significantly different, which may lead to the classification and the differences in efficacy of LJF and LJC. Our findings not only provide a basis for the comprehensive evaluation and intrinsic quality control of LJF and LJC, but also pave the way for discovering the material basis contributing to the different properties and efficacies of the two medicinal materials at the phytochemical level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Diversity in the Accessions of Setaria italica L. Based on Phytochemical and Morphological Traits and ISSR Markers
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081486
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity, phenolic compound composition, and biological activity of Setaria italica L. collected from different parts of South Korea. Antioxidant potential of seeds was estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and antimicrobial activity was [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity, phenolic compound composition, and biological activity of Setaria italica L. collected from different parts of South Korea. Antioxidant potential of seeds was estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and antimicrobial activity was determined by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Eight phenolic acids and 3 flavonoids were identified and quantified, among which myricetin and salicylic acid were the most dominant phytochemical compounds detected in the majority of accessions. The antioxidant potential of the leaf extracts of all the accessions was significantly higher (ranging from 32.33 ± 1.53 µg mL−1 in SI-03 to 87.87 ± 1.63 µg mL−1) in SI-10 than that of the root, stem, or seeds. Among the 15 accessions, methanolic extracts of the SI-15 accession strongly suppressed the growth of Escherichia coli (250 µg mL−1). Accessions SI-14 and SI-15 showed positive antimicrobial activity against all gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, extracts of all accessions were more sensitive towards E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with MICs ranging from 250 to 1000 µg mL−1. Three phenolic acids, namely chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, naringin, hesperetin, and myricetin, were found to be moderately positively correlated with antioxidant activities. A wide range of diversity was observed in morphological traits, namely plant height (99.33 to 201.33 cm), culm length (67.10 to 160.00 cm), spike length (12.80 to 24.00 cm), 1000 seeds weight 1.44 to 2.91 g), bloom beginning (93.67 to 128.00 days), and full bloom (99.67 to 135 days). A dendogram generated from unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on the morphological traits and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker data revealed three major groups. However, no clear correlation between these two different approaches was found. The average Shannon’s information index value (I) was 0.492, and it ranged from 0 to 0.693. The average expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.335, and it ranged from 0 to 0.499. The substantial variation in the morphological traits, bioactive properties, and genetic diversity among the accessions may provide useful information for breeding programs attempting to obtain S. italica with improved bioactive properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Micropropagation of Chaenomeles japonica: A Step towards Production of Polyphenol-rich Extracts Showing Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071314
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
A protocol for C. japonica micropropagation with a confirmation of genome size stability of the in vitro-propagated plantlets was developed. The highest number of shoots multiplied in vitro was obtained on Murashige & Skoog medium (MS) with 1.0 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine plus [...] Read more.
A protocol for C. japonica micropropagation with a confirmation of genome size stability of the in vitro-propagated plantlets was developed. The highest number of shoots multiplied in vitro was obtained on Murashige & Skoog medium (MS) with 1.0 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine plus 1.0 mg L−1 indole-3-acetic acid. The highest number of roots was observed for the shoots on MS with 15 g L−1 sucrose plus 1.0 mg L−1 indole-3-acetic acid. The acclimatization rate was significantly high. The qualitative HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts. The extracts from both shoot cultures and the leaves from field-grown plants revealed antioxidant activity and they exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity. The conducted research confirmed the regeneration potential of genetically-stable plants of C. japonica under in vitro conditions, the ability of the plantlets to produce polyphenols as those present in field-grown plants, as well as their antioxidant potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic Profiling of the Desiccation-Tolerant Medicinal Shrub Myrothamnus flabellifolia Indicates Phenolic Variability Across Its Natural Habitat: Implications for Tea and Cosmetics Production
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071240
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
The leaves and twigs of the desiccation-tolerant medicinal shrub Myrothamnus flabellifolia are harvested for use in traditional and commercial teas and cosmetics due to their phenolic properties. The antioxidant and pharmacological value of this plant has been widely confirmed; however, previous studies typically [...] Read more.
The leaves and twigs of the desiccation-tolerant medicinal shrub Myrothamnus flabellifolia are harvested for use in traditional and commercial teas and cosmetics due to their phenolic properties. The antioxidant and pharmacological value of this plant has been widely confirmed; however, previous studies typically based their findings on material collected from a single region. The existence of phenolic variability between plants from different geographical regions experiencing different rainfall regimes has thus not been sufficiently evaluated. Furthermore, the anthocyanins present in this plant have not been assessed. The present study thus used an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry approach to profile phenolics in M. flabellifolia material collected from three climatically distinct (high, moderate, and low rainfall) regions representing the western, southern, and eastern extent of the species range in southern Africa. Forty-one putative phenolic compounds, primarily flavonoids, were detected, nine of which are anthocyanins. Several of these compounds are previously unknown from M. flabellifolia. Using multivariate statistics, samples from different regions could be distinguished by their phenolic profiles, supporting the existence of regional phenolic variability. This study indicates that significant phenolic variability exists across the range of M. flabellifolia, which should inform both commercial and traditional cultivation and harvesting strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Behavior of Phenolic Compounds and Steviol Glycosides of Sonicated Strawberry Juice Sweetened with Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071202
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the influence of stevia addition and sonication processing parameters on the phenolic content and profile as well as the steviol glycosides of strawberry juice-based samples was investigated. For this purpose, three matrices—control samples of strawberry juices without green stevia powder [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of stevia addition and sonication processing parameters on the phenolic content and profile as well as the steviol glycosides of strawberry juice-based samples was investigated. For this purpose, three matrices—control samples of strawberry juices without green stevia powder (CS), strawberry juices with green stevia powder (JGSP), and sonicated juices with green stevia powder (SJGSP)—were prepared. For sonication purposes, different conditions regarding probe diameters (7 mm and 22 mm), amplitudes (50%, 75%, and 100%), and time (15 min, 20 min, and 25 min) were tested. The results that were obtained upon the measurement of the total phenolic content, total flavonoids, steviol glycosides, and antioxidant capacity showed significant differences according to the matrices evaluated, obtaining overall higher values in the samples with stevia added. Moreover, when sonication was evaluated, it was found that a higher amplitude (100%), a larger probe diameter (22 mm), and a longer sonication period (25 min) led to higher values. Flavones such as luteolin and apigenin were identified and quantified in JGSP and SJGSP, while they were not found in CS. Besides these phenolic compounds, kaempferol, quercetin, pyrogallic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and 4-methoxybenzoic acid were also identified and quantified. Similarly to the total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacity, an increased amount of these compounds was found in SJGSP, especially after using the most intense sonication conditions. Therefore, the use of sonication together with stevia added could be a useful tool to preserve strawberry juices, increasing at the same time the sweetness and the antioxidant value of the beverages. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Phenylalkanoid Glycosides (Non-Salicinoids) from Wood Chips of Salix triandra × dasyclados Hybrid Willow
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061152
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Salix triandra (almond leaved willow) is an established crop, grown in coppicing regimes for basket-making materials. It is known as a source of non-salicinoid phenolic glycosides, such as triandrin and salidroside. A spontaneous natural hybrid of S. triandra and S. dasyclados was subjected [...] Read more.
Salix triandra (almond leaved willow) is an established crop, grown in coppicing regimes for basket-making materials. It is known as a source of non-salicinoid phenolic glycosides, such as triandrin and salidroside. A spontaneous natural hybrid of S. triandra and S. dasyclados was subjected to metabolite profiling by high resolution LC-MS, and 22 phenolic glycosides, including 18 that are new to the Salicaceae, were identified. Structures were determined by HPLC isolation and NMR methods. The hybridisation process has introduced novel chemistry into the Salix phenolic glycoside palette, in particular, the ability to generate disaccharide conjugates where the glycosyl group is further extended by a range of sugars, including apiose, rhamnose, xylose, and arabinose. Also of note is the appearance of chavicol derivatives, also not previously seen in Salix spp. The work demonstrates the plasticity of the phenolic glycoside biosynthetic pathway, and the potential to improve established crops such as S. triandra and S. dasyclados, via high-value metabolites, for both basketry and bioenergy markets. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Onion (Allium cepa L.) Skin: A Rich Resource of Biomolecules for the Sustainable Production of Colored Biofunctional Textiles
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030634
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The aqueous extract of dry onion skin waste from the ‘Dorata di Parma’ cultivar was tested as a new source of biomolecules for the production of colored and biofunctional wool yarns, through environmentally friendly dyeing procedures. Specific attention was paid to the antioxidant [...] Read more.
The aqueous extract of dry onion skin waste from the ‘Dorata di Parma’ cultivar was tested as a new source of biomolecules for the production of colored and biofunctional wool yarns, through environmentally friendly dyeing procedures. Specific attention was paid to the antioxidant and UV protection properties of the resulting textiles. On the basis of spectrophotometric and mass spectrometry analyses, the obtained deep red-brown color was assigned to quercetin and its glycoside derivatives. The Folin–Ciocalteu method revealed good phenol uptakes on the wool fiber (higher than 27% for the textile after the first dyeing cycle), with respect to the original total content estimated in the water extract (78.50 ± 2.49 mg equivalent gallic acid/g onion skin). The manufactured materials showed remarkable antioxidant activity and ability to protect human skin against lipid peroxidation following UV radiation: 7.65 ± 1.43 (FRAP assay) and 13.60 (ORAC assay) mg equivalent trolox/g textile; lipid peroxidation inhibition up to 89.37%. This photoprotective and antioxidant activity were therefore ascribed to the polyphenol pool contained in the outer dried gold skins of onion. It is worth noting that citofluorimetric analysis demonstrated that the aqueous extract does not have a significative influence on cell viability, neither is capable of inducing a proapoptotic effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Maclura tricuspidata Fruit Extracts at Different Maturity Stages
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030567
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Maclura tricuspidata fruit contains various bioactive compounds and has traditionally been used in folk medicine and as valuable food material in Korea. The composition and contents of bioactive compounds in the fruit can be influenced by its maturity stages. In this study, total [...] Read more.
Maclura tricuspidata fruit contains various bioactive compounds and has traditionally been used in folk medicine and as valuable food material in Korea. The composition and contents of bioactive compounds in the fruit can be influenced by its maturity stages. In this study, total phenol, total flavonoid, individual polyphenolic compounds, total carotenoids and antioxidant activities at four maturity stages of the fruit were determined. Polyphenolic compounds were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) and HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic compounds identified in this study, five parishin derivatives (gastrodin, parishin A, B, C, E) were positively identified for the first time in this plant. These compounds were also validated and quantified using authentic standards. Parishin A was the most abundant component, followed by chlorogenic acid, gastrodin, eriodictyol glucoside, parishin C, parishin E and parishin B. The contents of all the polyphenolic compounds were higher at the immature and premature stages than at fully mature and overmature stages, while total carotenoid was found to be higher in the mature and overmature stages. Overall antioxidant activities by three different assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) decreased as maturation progressed. Antioxidant properties of the fruit extract are suggested to be attributed to the polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ripe and Raw Pu-Erh Tea: LC-MS Profiling, Antioxidant Capacity and Enzyme Inhibition Activities of Aqueous and Hydro-Alcoholic Extracts
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030473
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Herein, we reported a detailed profiling of soluble components of two fermented varieties of Chinese green tea, namely raw and ripe pu-erh. The identification and quantification of the main components was carried out by means of mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy, after chromatographic [...] Read more.
Herein, we reported a detailed profiling of soluble components of two fermented varieties of Chinese green tea, namely raw and ripe pu-erh. The identification and quantification of the main components was carried out by means of mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy, after chromatographic separation. The antioxidant capacity towards different radical species, the anti-microbial and the enzyme inhibition activities of the extracts were then correlated to their main constituents. Despite a superimposable qualitative composition, a similar caffeine content, and similar enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial activities, raw pu-erh tea extract had a better antioxidant capacity owing to its higher polyphenol content. However, the activity of raw pu-erh tea seems not to justify its higher production costs and ripe variety appears to be a valid and low-cost alternative for the preparation of products with antioxidant or antimicrobial properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Protocatechuic Acid Sulfates
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020307
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; PCA) is a phenolic acid present in plants as a secondary metabolite and is also produced in the human organism as a metabolite from the degradation of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota, particularly of flavonoids. However, PCA, like most [...] Read more.
Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; PCA) is a phenolic acid present in plants as a secondary metabolite and is also produced in the human organism as a metabolite from the degradation of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota, particularly of flavonoids. However, PCA, like most polyphenols, is biotransformed in the human body to different conjugates as sulfates, which are found circulating in blood and could be involved in the bioactivity of the original compound. This paper describes a simple process for the preparation of PCA monosulfates with satisfactory yields. Two compounds were obtained that were identified as PCA-3-sulfate and PCA-4-sulfate by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Differential MS fragmentation behavior and UV spectra were observed for each compound, which could be used for their identification in samples of unknown composition. The described procedure can be used for the preparation of these polyphenol metabolites in view of their use in in vivo and in vitro studies, as well as standards for their analysis in biological fluids, to contribute to the elucidation of biological effects of dietary polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Purified Hydroalcoholic Extracts from Seven Mexican Persea americana Cultivars
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010173
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Persea americana (avocado) is a fruit consumed worldwide; however, since avocado leaves are apparently a natural ingredient that can be used as a traditional medicine, they can be a potential source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of [...] Read more.
Persea americana (avocado) is a fruit consumed worldwide; however, since avocado leaves are apparently a natural ingredient that can be used as a traditional medicine, they can be a potential source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of seven Mexican avocado leaf extracts by DPPH, ABTS•+, and lipid peroxidation (LPO), and to identify the compound profile by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry/electron spray ionization. The highest free radical-scavenging activity was observed for Platano Delgado and Criollo 6 avocado cultivars havin IC50 values of 271.86 ± 13.69 and 269.56 ± 6.53 for DPPH and ABTS•+ radicals, respectively, while the best result for lipid oxidation inhibition was registered in Criollo 6 cultivar extract. In this study forty-one compounds were detected in avocado leaves of the the seven cultivars analyzed, and of these compounds, eighteen phenolics were identified for first time in such plant material. The present study demonstrated that Mexican cultivars of Persea americana possess diverse polyphenolic compounds with strong antioxidant activity, which might be useful in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Polyoxygenated Flavonol Gossypetin-3-O-β-d-Robinobioside from Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) D. Dietr. and In Vivo Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Ulcer Activities of the Leaf Methanol Extract
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010138
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
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Abstract
A hitherto unknown polyoxygenated flavonol robinobioside (gossypetin-3-O-β-d-robinobioside) was isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia gilliesii along with thirteen known phenolic secondary metabolites. The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and mass [...] Read more.
A hitherto unknown polyoxygenated flavonol robinobioside (gossypetin-3-O-β-d-robinobioside) was isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia gilliesii along with thirteen known phenolic secondary metabolites. The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The extract reduced the level of liver damage in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. A decrease of the liver biomarkers—aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and an increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels—were observed similar to the liver protecting drug silymarin. In addition, the extract showed promising activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and protected their stomachs against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in a concentration dependent fashion. The observed activities could be attributed to the high content of antioxidant polyphenols. Our results suggest that the C. gilliesii has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress, and liver and stomach injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Purified Red Cabbage Anthocyanins: Improvement in HPLC Separation and Protective Effect against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010124
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the chemical profiles and antioxidant activities of red cabbage anthocyanin (RCA)-enriched extract are evaluated. The effects of column temperature on the HPLC resolution of the RCAs are studied. The HPLC resolutions became better as the column temperature increased from 20 [...] Read more.
In this study, the chemical profiles and antioxidant activities of red cabbage anthocyanin (RCA)-enriched extract are evaluated. The effects of column temperature on the HPLC resolution of the RCAs are studied. The HPLC resolutions became better as the column temperature increased from 20 °C–45 °C. An optimized HPLC condition was achieved at 45 °C and used for the quantification and qualification of the RCAs. The anthocyanins in the enriched powder are all derivatives of cyanidin (268 ± 2 μg/mg), mainly with 19% nonacylated, 51% monoacylated, and 31% diacylated structures with ferulic, sinapic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids characterized by HPLC-MS. The RCA extracts markedly reduced intracellular oxidative stress production by H2O2 on HepG2 cells and consequently ameliorated cell apoptosis and improved viability. The analytical method and cellular antioxidant activity demonstration of the RCAs will greatly facilitate their functional applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Bovine Serum Albumin-Flavonoid Interaction on the Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Flavonoids: New Evidence from Electrochemical Quantification
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Interaction between dietary flavonoids and albumins plays an important role in the bioavailability and bioactivity of flavonoids. Therefore, the influence of this interaction on the antioxidant activity of flavonoid has attracted much interest. In this study, a ceric reducing/antioxidant capacity assay (CRAC) was [...] Read more.
Interaction between dietary flavonoids and albumins plays an important role in the bioavailability and bioactivity of flavonoids. Therefore, the influence of this interaction on the antioxidant activity of flavonoid has attracted much interest. In this study, a ceric reducing/antioxidant capacity assay (CRAC) was employed to investigate the effects of albumin-flavonoid interaction on the antioxidant activity of seven common flavonoids. The results obtained from the CRAC assay were also compared separately with the results from the spectrophotometric methods including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All the flavonoids show a decreasing in the antioxidant activity detected by CRAC assay, indicting a “masking effect” of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-flavonoid interaction. However, the results from DPPH and FRAP assays were conflicting, which may be attributed to the influence of solvent systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Four New Depsides Isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Their Significant Nerve-Protective Activities
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3274; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123274
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
By investigating of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is one of the most widely used Chinese herbs, we used phytochemical methods successfully to obtain twelve depsides: four depsides (14) that were previously undescribed, along with eight known [...] Read more.
By investigating of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is one of the most widely used Chinese herbs, we used phytochemical methods successfully to obtain twelve depsides: four depsides (14) that were previously undescribed, along with eight known ones (512). Their structure characteristics were assessed by HR-ESIMS, CD, NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC) data analyses. These four newly isolated compounds (14), as well as the other eight compounds (512), show extraordinary protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in HS-SY5Y cells. Among them, depside 4 and depside 6 displayed more obviously protective effects than others. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from the Bark of Woody Vascular Plants and Their Potential Biological Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061182
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Polyphenols are one of the largest and most widespread groups of secondary metabolites in the plants world. These compounds are of particular interest due to their occurrence and the properties they possess. The main sources of phenolic compounds are fruits and vegetables, but [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are one of the largest and most widespread groups of secondary metabolites in the plants world. These compounds are of particular interest due to their occurrence and the properties they possess. The main sources of phenolic compounds are fruits and vegetables, but lately, more and more studies refer to woody vascular plants, especially to bark, as an important source of phenolic compounds with a potential biological effect. This study aims to bring together information on the phenolic compounds present in the bark of woody vascular plants by discussing extraction methods, the chemical composition of the extracts and potential biological effects. The literature data used in this paper were collected via PubMed (2004–2019). Search terms were: bark, rhytidome, woody vascular plant, polyphenols, phenolic compounds, biologic activity, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumoral. This paper intends to highlight the fact that the polyphenolic extracts obtained from the bark of woody vascular plants represent sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial properties, etc. Future research directions should be directed towards identification and isolation of bioactive compounds. Consequently, biologically active compounds obtained from the bark of woody plants could be exploited on an industrial scale. Full article
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Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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