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Special Issue "Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Gary D. Stoner
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Montana State University, MT, USA
Interests: cancer chemoprevention, chemical carcinogenesis, berries, isothiocyanates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue focuses on the identification and use of selected naturally-occurring foodstuffs, and of compounds in these foods, for use in the prevention of cancer. The relative merits of using whole foods versus individual compounds within these foods for cancer prevention are discussed. Where available, the results are presented from both preclinical studies and clinical trials of these foodstuffs and their compounds. These results include toxicity assessments, pharmacokinetic studies of compound bioavailability, and mechanisms of inhibition of both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of cancer development. Future directions for the use of both whole foods and individual compounds for the more effective chemoprevention of specific cancer types are discussed.

Prof. Gary D. Stoner
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cancer chemoprevention
  • Whole foods
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Toxicity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Cancer initiation and promotion/progression
  • Preclinical and clinical studies

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Citral on 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells via Induction of Apoptosis and Downregulation of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3241; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183241 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females globally. The tumorigenic activities of cancer cells such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and differentiation have contributed to relapse and eventual mortality in breast cancer. Thus, [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females globally. The tumorigenic activities of cancer cells such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and differentiation have contributed to relapse and eventual mortality in breast cancer. Thus, current drug discovery research is focused on targeting breast cancer cells with ALDH activity and their capacity to form secondary tumors. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates), has been previously reported to have a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo effect of citral in targeting ALDH activity of breast cancer cells. BALB/c mice were challenged with 4T1 breast cancer cells followed by daily oral feeding of 50 mg/kg citral or distilled water for two weeks. The population of ALDH+ tumor cells and their capacity to form secondary tumors in both untreated and citral treated 4T1 challenged mice were assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in normal mice, respectively. Citral treatment reduced the size and number of cells with ALDH+ activity of the tumors in 4T1-challenged BALB/c mice. Moreover, citral-treated mice were also observed with smaller tumor size and delayed tumorigenicity after reimplantation of the primary tumor cells into normal mice. These findings support the antitumor effect of citral in targeting ALDH+ cells and tumor recurrence in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharides Inhibit 1-Methyl-2-Nitro-1-Nitrosoguanidine Induced Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Cancer in Rats through Regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Altering Serum Endogenous Metabolites
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142660 - 23 Jul 2019
Abstract
Dendrobium officinale is a herb in traditional Chinese medicine where D. officinale polysaccharides (DOP) are the main active ingredient. This study aimed at evaluating DOP efficiency at inhibiting 1-Methyl-2-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) in rats through the Wnt/b-catenin pathway [...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale is a herb in traditional Chinese medicine where D. officinale polysaccharides (DOP) are the main active ingredient. This study aimed at evaluating DOP efficiency at inhibiting 1-Methyl-2-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) in rats through the Wnt/b-catenin pathway and analyzing the variations of serum endogenous metabolites. PLGC was established in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by administering 150 μg/mL MNNG in drinking water for 7 months and giving 0.1 mL of 10% NaCl once weekly during the initial 20 weeks. Treatment with DOP inhibited the progress of PLGC through decreasing the expression of β-catenin by immunohistochemical analysis. The futher study indicated DOP downregulated gene expression of Wnt2β, Gsk3β, PCNA, CyclinD1, and β-catenin, as well as protein expression of Wnt2β, PCNA, and β-catenin. On the other hand, there were nine endogenous metabolites identified after the DOP treatment. Among these, the most significant one is betaine because of its strong antioxidant activity, leading to an anti-tumor effect. DOP can inhibit MNNG-induced PLGC models via regulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway and by changing endogenous metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Defatted Sticky Rice Bran Extracts on the Early Stages of Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112142 - 06 Jun 2019
Abstract
Use of natural products is one strategy to lessen cancer incidence. Rice bran, especially from colored rice, contains high antioxidant activity. Cancer chemopreventive effects of hydrophilic purple rice bran extract (PRBE) and white rice bran extract (WRBE) on carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in [...] Read more.
Use of natural products is one strategy to lessen cancer incidence. Rice bran, especially from colored rice, contains high antioxidant activity. Cancer chemopreventive effects of hydrophilic purple rice bran extract (PRBE) and white rice bran extract (WRBE) on carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in livers of rats were investigated. A 15-week administration of PRBE and WRBE did not induce hepatic glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci formation as the biomarker of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PRBE and WRBE at 500 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased number and size of GST-P positive foci in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated rats. The number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes were also reduced in preneoplastic lesions in both PRBE and WRBE fed DEN-treated rats. Notably, the inhibitory effect on GST-P positive foci formation induced by DEN during the initiation stage was found only in rats treated by PRBE for five weeks. Furthermore, PRBE attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involving genes including TNF-α, iNOS, and NF-κB. PBRE contained a higher number of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds and vitamin E. PRBE might protect DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats via attenuation of cellular inflammation and cell proliferation. Anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, as well as vitamin E, might play a role in cancer chemopreventive activity in rice bran extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Imaging Flow Cytometric Analysis of Stilbene-Dependent Apoptosis in Drug Resistant Human Leukemic Cell Lines
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101896 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: The natural compounds have been researched extensively as an alternative to the conventional chemotherapy and radiation. Stilbene derivatives appear as a group of therapeutics which deserves special attention. The present study was designed to analyze the effects of stilbene derivatives on drug [...] Read more.
Background: The natural compounds have been researched extensively as an alternative to the conventional chemotherapy and radiation. Stilbene derivatives appear as a group of therapeutics which deserves special attention. The present study was designed to analyze the effects of stilbene derivatives on drug resistant human leukemic cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the apoptotic effect of stilbene derivatives in various concentrations on leukemic cells (LC) with and without resistant phenotype. Methods: Human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines (HL60, HL60/MX1, HL60/MX2) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines (CEM/C1, CCRF-CEM) were studied. T-resveratrol, piceatannol, rhaponticin, deoxyrhaponticin, pterostilbene were used to stimulate apoptosis. Mitoxantrone (MIT) was applied to induce drug resistance. Results: t-Resveratrol (RES), deoxyrhaponticin (D-RHAP), rhaponticin (RHAP), pterostilbene (PTER), and piceatannol (PIC) influenced viability and induced apoptosis in all investigated cell lines. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that RES, PIC, RHAP, D-RHAP, and PTER are essential therapeutic compounds with anticancer activity exhibited by induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells with and without resistant phenotype. Stilbene-induced apoptosis in HL60/MX1, HL60/MX2, CEM/C1, and CCRF-CEM leukemia cell lines have been presented in very few studies so far and our research is an important contribution to the investigation of these substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) Hull Extract and Active Compounds Inhibit Proliferation of Primary Human Leiomyoma Cells and Protect against Sexual Hormone-Induced Mice Smooth Muscle Hyperproliferation
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081556 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Uterine leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign neoplasms of the uterus and have a high incidence rate in women of reproductive age. Hysterectomy or myomectomy is the initial treatment, but fibroids will recur if the patient is still exposed to similar risk [...] Read more.
Uterine leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign neoplasms of the uterus and have a high incidence rate in women of reproductive age. Hysterectomy or myomectomy is the initial treatment, but fibroids will recur if the patient is still exposed to similar risk factors. Therefore, developing new therapeutic strategies are urgently necessary. In this study, the anti-proliferation effects of each fraction of adlay seeds were evaluated in uterine leiomyomas, and we identified the potential phytochemical compounds. We found that the ethyl acetate fraction of adlay hull (AHE-ea) appeared to be highly efficient in the anti-proliferation of rat uterine leiomyoma ELT3 cells and primary human uterine leiomyoma (hUL) cells. The proliferation of primary human normal uterine smooth muscle (UtSMC) and normal uterine myometrial (hUM) cells were also suppressed by AHE-ea. Two phytosterols, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, were identified from AHE-ea fraction. Mice treated with AHE-ea and stigmasterol alone demonstrated reduced diethylstilbestrol/medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate (DES/MPA)-induced uterine myometrial hyperplasia, which is the critical step for the development of leiomyoma. Taken together, our results suggest that the AHE-ea fraction could be considered as a natural plant-based medicine in the prevention or treatment of uterine leiomyoma growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Broccoli or Sulforaphane: Is It the Source or Dose That Matters?
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193593 - 06 Oct 2019
Abstract
There is robust epidemiological evidence for the beneficial effects of broccoli consumption on health, many of them clearly mediated by the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Present in the plant as its precursor, glucoraphanin, sulforaphane is formed through the actions of myrosinase, a β-thioglucosidase present in [...] Read more.
There is robust epidemiological evidence for the beneficial effects of broccoli consumption on health, many of them clearly mediated by the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Present in the plant as its precursor, glucoraphanin, sulforaphane is formed through the actions of myrosinase, a β-thioglucosidase present in either the plant tissue or the mammalian microbiome. Since first isolated from broccoli and demonstrated to have cancer chemoprotective properties in rats in the early 1990s, over 3000 publications have described its efficacy in rodent disease models, underlying mechanisms of action or, to date, over 50 clinical trials examining pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease mitigation. This review evaluates the current state of knowledge regarding the relationships between formulation (e.g., plants, sprouts, beverages, supplements), bioavailability and efficacy, and the doses of glucoraphanin and/or sulforaphane that have been used in pre-clinical and clinical studies. We pay special attention to the challenges for better integration of animal model and clinical studies, particularly with regard to selection of dose and route of administration. More effort is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms of action and to develop and validate biomarkers of pharmacodynamic action in humans. A sobering lesson is that changes in approach will be required to implement a public health paradigm for dispensing benefit across all spectrums of the global population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessReview
Gingers and Their Purified Components as Cancer Chemopreventative Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162859 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
Chemoprevention by ingested substituents is the process through which nutraceuticals and/or their bioactive components antagonize carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis is the course of action whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This latter action involves several steps, starting with initiation and followed [...] Read more.
Chemoprevention by ingested substituents is the process through which nutraceuticals and/or their bioactive components antagonize carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis is the course of action whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This latter action involves several steps, starting with initiation and followed by promotion and progression. Driving these stages is continued oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn, causes a myriad of aberrant gene expressions and mutations within the transforming cell population and abnormal gene expressions by the cells within the surrounding lesion. Chemoprevention of cancer with bioreactive foods or their extracted/purified components occurs primarily via normalizing these inappropriate gene activities. Various foods/agents have been shown to affect different gene expressions. In this review, we discuss how the chemoprevention activities of gingers antagonize cancer development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Red Beetroot and Betalains as Cancer Chemopreventative Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081602 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carcinogenesis is the process whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This action involves several steps starting with initiation and followed by promotion and progression. Driving these stages are oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn encompasses a myriad of [...] Read more.
Carcinogenesis is the process whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This action involves several steps starting with initiation and followed by promotion and progression. Driving these stages are oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn encompasses a myriad of aberrant gene expressions, both within the transforming cell population and the cells within the surrounding lesion. Chemoprevention of cancer with bioreactive foods or their extracted/purified components occurs via normalizing these inappropriate gene activities. Various foods/agents have been shown to affect different gene expressions. In this review, we discuss whereby the chemoprevention activities of the red beetroot itself may disrupt carcinogenesis and the activities of the water-soluble betalains extracted from the plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessReview
Free Accessible Databases as a Source of Information about Food Components and Other Compounds with Anticancer Activity–Brief Review
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040789 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diet is considered to be a significant factor in cancer prevention and therapy. Many food components reveal anticancer activity. The increasing number of experiments concerning the anticancer potential of chemical compounds, including food components, is a challenge for data searching. Specialized databases provide [...] Read more.
Diet is considered to be a significant factor in cancer prevention and therapy. Many food components reveal anticancer activity. The increasing number of experiments concerning the anticancer potential of chemical compounds, including food components, is a challenge for data searching. Specialized databases provide an opportunity to overcome this problem. Data concerning the anticancer activity of chemical compounds may be found in general databases of chemical compounds and databases of drugs, including specialized resources concerning anticancer compounds, databases of food components, and databases of individual groups of compounds, such as polyphenols or peptides. This brief review summarizes the state of knowledge of chemical databases containing information concerning natural anticancer compounds (e.g., from food). Additionally, the information about text- and structure-based search options and links between particular internet resources is provided in this paper. Examples of the application of databases in food and nutrition sciences are also presented with special attention to compounds that are interesting from the point of view of dietary cancer prevention. Simple examples of potential database search possibilities are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
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