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Open AccessArticle

Quercetin Synergistically Inhibit EBV-Associated Gastric Carcinoma with Ganoderma lucidum Extracts

1
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy and Innovative Drug Center, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
3
Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong 27709, Korea
4
Department of Medical Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong 27709, Korea
5
Department of Oncology/Hematology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Cancer Research Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Gary D. Stoner
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3834; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213834
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
Mycotherapy has been shown to improve the overall response rate during cancer treatment and reduce some chemotherapy-related adverse events. Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional mushroom used for pharmaceutical purposes. G. lucidum extracts (GLE) showed potential antitumor activities against several cancers. These tumor inhibitory effects of GLE were attributed to the suppression of the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is defined as the monoclonal proliferation of carcinoma cells with latent EBV infection. The inhibitory effects of GLE against EBVaGC are questionable. The aim of this study was to investigate GLE as potential antitumor agents and a counterpart of quercetin (QCT) for the cotreatment in suppressing EBVaGC development. Therefore, this study conducted antitumor assays using a EBVaGC xenograft mice model and found that GLE could suppress tumor development. These inhibitory effects were significantly augmented by the low concentration of the quercetin (QCT) cotreatment in the xenograft mice. The addition of GLE in low concentrations synergistically reinforced QCT-induced apoptosis and EBV lytic reactivation. GLE contains various polysaccharides and triterpenes, such as ganoderic acid. Interestingly, the addition of ganoderic acid A (GAA) could produce similar bioactive effects like GLE in QCT-mediated antitumor activity. The GAA addition in low concentrations synergistically reinforced QCT-induced apoptosis and EBV lytic reactivation. GAA was sufficiently effective as much as GLE. Therefore, our results suggested that QCT-supplemented GLE could be a potential food adjunct for the prevention of EBVaGC development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quercetin; Ganoderma lucidum extracts; EBV-associated gastric carcinoma; Ganoderic acid A Quercetin; Ganoderma lucidum extracts; EBV-associated gastric carcinoma; Ganoderic acid A
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Huh, S.; Lee, S.; Choi, S.J.; Wu, Z.; Cho, J.-H.; Kim, L.; Shin, Y.S.; Kang, B.W.; Kim, J.G.; Liu, K.; Cho, H.; Kang, H. Quercetin Synergistically Inhibit EBV-Associated Gastric Carcinoma with Ganoderma lucidum Extracts. Molecules 2019, 24, 3834.

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