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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effects of Defatted Sticky Rice Bran Extracts on the Early Stages of Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Research Affairs, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
3
Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, Thailand
4
Anticarcinogenesis and Apoptosis Research Cluster, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5
Functional Food Research Center for Well-being, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gary D. Stoner
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112142
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Chemoprevention)
Use of natural products is one strategy to lessen cancer incidence. Rice bran, especially from colored rice, contains high antioxidant activity. Cancer chemopreventive effects of hydrophilic purple rice bran extract (PRBE) and white rice bran extract (WRBE) on carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in livers of rats were investigated. A 15-week administration of PRBE and WRBE did not induce hepatic glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci formation as the biomarker of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PRBE and WRBE at 500 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased number and size of GST-P positive foci in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated rats. The number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes were also reduced in preneoplastic lesions in both PRBE and WRBE fed DEN-treated rats. Notably, the inhibitory effect on GST-P positive foci formation induced by DEN during the initiation stage was found only in rats treated by PRBE for five weeks. Furthermore, PRBE attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involving genes including TNF-α, iNOS, and NF-κB. PBRE contained a higher number of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds and vitamin E. PRBE might protect DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats via attenuation of cellular inflammation and cell proliferation. Anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, as well as vitamin E, might play a role in cancer chemopreventive activity in rice bran extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: diethynitrosamine; glutathione S-transferase placental form; rice bran; cancer chemoprevention; hepatocarcinogenesis diethynitrosamine; glutathione S-transferase placental form; rice bran; cancer chemoprevention; hepatocarcinogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dokkaew, A.; Punvittayagul, C.; Insuan, O.; Limtrakul (Dejkriengkraikul), P.; Wongpoomchai, R. Protective Effects of Defatted Sticky Rice Bran Extracts on the Early Stages of Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats. Molecules 2019, 24, 2142.

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