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Special Issue "New Trends in Production and Applications of Metal Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Licia Uccelli

University of Ferrara, Dpt. of Morphology, Surgical and Experimental Medicine, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: radiopharmaceuticals science and technology; preclinical evaluation and translation into clinical application; nuclear medicine; molecular imaging
Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandra Boschi

University of Ferrara, Dpt. of Morphology, Surgical and Experimental Medicine, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: inorganic chemistry; radiopharmaceuticals; nuclear imaging; radiochemistry; radiometals production
Guest Editor
Dr. Petra Martini

Legnaro National Laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL), Viale dell'Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) ITALY and University of Ferrara, Dpt. of Morphology, Surgical and Experimental Medicine, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: radioisotopes cyclotron-production; nuclear medicine; radiometals separation; synthesis module automation; radiopharmaceuticals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nuclear Medicine is one of the most important imaging modalities and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of many critical diseases. The success of nuclear medicine in clinics has been intimately linked to the availability of new radionuclides and the discovery of new radiopharmaceuticals. The field of radiopharmaceuticals is constantly evolving thanks to the great contribution of specialists coming from different disciplines, such as radiochemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, nuclear medicine, physics, etc. In particular, the use of radiometals has experienced a great increase as a result of the development of radionuclides production technologies. Their employment in all Nuclear Medicine branch (SPECT/PET diagnostic, therapy and theranostics) is regulated by their physical characteristics, such as half-life, radiation emission energy and type (γ, β+, β-, auger, α), availability and chemical ability to coordinate with ligands.

The actual trend in the nuclear medicine research field is the use of radiometals for PET and SPECT, such as 68Ga, 64Cu, 89Zr, 44Sc, 86Y, 52Mn, 99mTc, etc., for therapy, such as 177Lu, 90Y ,89Sr, 223Ra, 225Ac, etc., and for theranostics, such as 67Cu, 47Sc, theranostics pairs, etc.

You are cordially invited to contribute to this Special Issue “New Trends in Production and Applications of Metal Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine” with original articles, as well as reviews and short communications. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Radiometals production: methods and technology
  • Radiometals separation: methods and technology
  • Radiopharmaceuticals synthesis automation: methods and technology
  • Theranostics radiopharmaceuticals
  • Multimodality imaging radiopharmaceuticals
  • Innovative radio-probes for nuclear imaging or therapy
  • Individualized Dosimetry for Theranostics

For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on the website.

Dr. Licia Uccelli
Dr. Alessandra Boschi
Dr. Petra Martini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nuclear Medicine
  • PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals
  • Theranostics tracers
  • Radionuclides therapy
  • Radionuclides imaging
  • Multimodality approaches
  • Dosimetry
  • Personalized medicine
  • Automation technology
  • Production technology
  • Separation technology
  • Labelling techniques

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Radiobiological Characterization of 64CuCl2 as a Simple Tool for Prostate Cancer Theranostics
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112944
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
64CuCl2 has recently been proposed as a promising agent for prostate cancer (PCa) theranostics, based on preclinical studies in cellular and animal models, and on the increasing number of human studies documenting its use for PCa diagnosis. Nevertheless, the use of
[...] Read more.
64CuCl2 has recently been proposed as a promising agent for prostate cancer (PCa) theranostics, based on preclinical studies in cellular and animal models, and on the increasing number of human studies documenting its use for PCa diagnosis. Nevertheless, the use of 64CuCl2 raises important radiobiological questions that have yet to be addressed. In this work, using a panel of PCa cell lines in comparison with a non-tumoral prostate cell line, we combined cytogenetic approaches with radiocytotoxicity assays to obtain significant insights into the cellular consequences of exposure to 64CuCl2. PCa cells were found to exhibit increased 64CuCl2 uptake, which could not be attributed to increased expression of the main copper cellular importer, hCtr1, as had been previously suggested. Early DNA damage and genomic instability were also higher in PCa cells, with the tumoral cell lines exhibiting deficient DNA-damage repair upon exposure to 64CuCl2. This was corroborated by the observation that 64CuCl2 was more cytotoxic in PCa cells than in non-tumoral cells. Overall, we showed for the first time that PCa cells had a higher sensitivity to 64CuCl2 than healthy cells, supporting the idea that this compound deserved to be further evaluated as a theranostic agent in PCa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 66Ga: A Novelty or a Valuable Preclinical Screening Tool for the Design of Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals?
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102575
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Emerging interest in extending the plasma half-life of small molecule radioligands warrants a consideration of the appropriate radionuclide for PET imaging at longer time points (>8 h). Among candidate positron-emitting radionuclides, 66Ga (t1/2 = 9.5 h, β+ = 57%) has suitable
[...] Read more.
Emerging interest in extending the plasma half-life of small molecule radioligands warrants a consideration of the appropriate radionuclide for PET imaging at longer time points (>8 h). Among candidate positron-emitting radionuclides, 66Ga (t1/2 = 9.5 h, β+ = 57%) has suitable nuclear and chemical properties for the labeling and PET imaging of radioligands of this profile. We investigated the value of 66Ga to preclinical screening and the evaluation of albumin-binding PSMA-targeting small molecules. 66Ga was produced by irradiation of a natZn target. 66Ga3+ ions were separated from Zn2+ ions by an optimized UTEVA anion exchange column that retained 99.99987% of Zn2+ ions and allowed 90.2 ± 2.8% recovery of 66Ga3+. Three ligands were radiolabeled in 46.4 ± 20.5%; radiochemical yield and >90% radiochemical purity. Molar activity was 632 ± 380 MBq/µmol. Uptake in the tumor and kidneys at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h p.i. was determined by µPET/CT imaging and more completely predicted the distribution kinetics than uptake of the [68Ga]Ga-labeled ligands did. Although there are multiple challenges to the use of 66Ga for clinical PET imaging, it can be a valuable research tool for ligand screening and preclinical imaging beyond 24 h. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Early Evaluation of Copper Radioisotope Production at ISOLPHARM
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102437
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
PDF Full-text (8133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The ISOLPHARM (ISOL technique for radioPHARMaceuticals) project is dedicated to the development of high purity radiopharmaceuticals exploiting the radionuclides producible with the future Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National
[...] Read more.
The ISOLPHARM (ISOL technique for radioPHARMaceuticals) project is dedicated to the development of high purity radiopharmaceuticals exploiting the radionuclides producible with the future Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL). At SPES, a proton beam (up to 70 MeV) extracted from a cyclotron will directly impinge a primary target, where the produced isotopes are released thanks to the high working temperatures (2000 °C), ionized, extracted and accelerated, and finally, after mass separation, only the desired nuclei are collected on a secondary target, free from isotopic contaminants that decrease their specific activity. A case study for such project is the evaluation of the feasibility of the ISOL production of 64Cu and 67Cu using a zirconium germanide target, currently under development. The producible activities of 64Cu and 67Cu were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, whereas dedicated off-line tests with stable beams were performed at LNL to evaluate the capability to ionize and recover isotopically pure copper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 14 MeV Neutrons for 99Mo/99mTc Production: Experiments, Simulations and Perspectives
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081872
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: the gamma-emitting radionuclide Technetium-99m (99mTc) is still the workhorse of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as it is used worldwide for the diagnosis of a variety of phatological conditions. 99mTc is obtained from 99Mo/99mTc generators
[...] Read more.
Background: the gamma-emitting radionuclide Technetium-99m (99mTc) is still the workhorse of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as it is used worldwide for the diagnosis of a variety of phatological conditions. 99mTc is obtained from 99Mo/99mTc generators as pertechnetate ion, which is the ubiquitous starting material for the preparation of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. 99Mo in such generators is currently produced in nuclear fission reactors as a by-product of 235U fission. Here we investigated an alternative route for the production of 99Mo by irradiating a natural metallic molybdenum powder using a 14-MeV accelerator-driven neutron source. Methods: after irradiation, an efficient isolation and purification of the final 99mTc-pertechnetate was carried out by means of solvent extraction. Monte Carlo simulations allowed reliable predictions of 99Mo production rates for a newly designed 14-MeV neutron source (New Sorgentina Fusion Source). Results: in traceable metrological conditions, a level of radionuclidic purity consistent with accepted pharmaceutical quality standards, was achieved. Conclusions: we showed that this source, featuring a nominal neutron emission rate of about 1015 s−1, may potentially supply an appreciable fraction of the current 99Mo global demand. This study highlights that a robust and viable solution, alternative to nuclear fission reactors, can be accomplished to secure the long-term supply of 99Mo. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: Dosimetry of 177Lu-PSMA 617 after Mannitol infusion and Glutammate candies administration: a strategy to reduce adsorbed dose to kidneys and parotid galands
Author: Anna Sarnelli
Affiliation: Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Italy 
 
Author: Elisabeth Eppard
Affiliation: Bonn Medical School, Germany
 
Author: Yann Seimbille
Affiliation:
Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands
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