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Special Issue "Extraction of Bioactive Molecules from Food By-Products and Their Utilization as Functional Ingredients"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Matteo Mario Scampicchio
Website
Guest Editor
Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
Interests: functional ingredients; antioxidants; lipid oxidation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The food supply chain deploys enough food to feed the world. However, one in every nine people suffers from hunger. Hunger is driven by complex problems like war, natural disasters, and poverty. Since a third of food produced is lost along the supply chain, food wastage plays a significant role in using up the planet's food resources.

To face with this concern, the exploitation and valorisation of food by-products becomes crucial. Biomolecules, like antioxidants, fibers, or proteins, can be extracted from food by-products, like peels, stems, seeds, husks, bran, sludges, juices, or pomaces, by different “green” extraction technologies, like supercritical fluids, ultrasound, pulsed electric field, or enzyme-assisted extraction, and, finally, turned into functional ingredients for many applications, such as food supplements, adjuvants in food processing or medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations, and ingredients for pet foods.

On this scenario, this Special issue will try to focus on interdisciplinary research, which incorporates concepts from many different fields, including microbiology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry, with the final aim to provide solutions for the extraction of bioactives from food by-products, and their utilization as functional ingredients.

Inclusive examples of popular topics expected in this Special Issue are

  1. The application of “green” or emerging technologies for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food by-products;
  2. Use of bioactive compounds as
    • antioxidant ingredients
    • nutraceuticals supplements
    • compounds with pharmacological or antimicrobial activity
    • additives for retarding lipid oxidations
    • additives for limiting the heat-induced degradation reactions;
  3. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of the food metabolome using advanced analytical equipment and chemometric tools, with the aim to demonstrate the functional properties of food by-products.

Prof. Matteo Scampicchio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioactive compounds
  • Food by-products
  • Functional ingredients
  • Green extraction technologies
  • Antioxidants
  • Lipid oxidations
  • Antimicrobial activity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Effect of Picea abies Extracts on E. coli Growth
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224053 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effect of essential oils extracted from wood residues of Picea abies on the growth of Escherichia coli. The essential oils were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, leading to a yield of 3.4 ± 0.5% (w [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effect of essential oils extracted from wood residues of Picea abies on the growth of Escherichia coli. The essential oils were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, leading to a yield of 3.4 ± 0.5% (w/w) in 120 min. The antimicrobial effect was tested at 37 °C by isothermal calorimetry. The heat-flow (dq/dt vs. time) was integrated to give a fractional reaction curve (α vs. time). Such curves were fitted by a modified Gompertz function to give the lag-time (λ) and the maximum growth rate (µmax) parameters. The results showed that λ was linearly correlated with E. coli concentration (λ = 1.4 h/log (CFU/mL), R2 = 0.997), whereas µmax was invariant. Moreover, the overall heat was nearly constant to all the dilutions of E. coli. Instead, when the essential oil was added (with concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mg/L) to a culture of E. coli (104 CFU/mL), the lag-time increased from 14.1 to 33.7 h, and the overall heat decreased from 2120 to 2.37 J. The results obtained by the plate count technique were linear with the lag-time (λ), where (λ = −7.3 × log (CFU/mL) + 38.3, R2 = 0.9878). This suggested a lower capacity of E. coli to metabolize the substrate in the presence of the essential oils. The results obtained in this study promote the use of essential oils from wood residues and their use as antimicrobial products. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Separation, Identification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Lotus Seed Epicarp
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 4007; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24214007 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lotus seed epicarp, the main by-product of lotus seed processing, is abundant in polyphenols. In this study, polyphenols in lotus seed epicarp were separated by Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography to yield Fraction-I (F-I), Fraction-II (F-II), and Fraction-III (F-III). The polyphenol compounds in [...] Read more.
Lotus seed epicarp, the main by-product of lotus seed processing, is abundant in polyphenols. In this study, polyphenols in lotus seed epicarp were separated by Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography to yield Fraction-I (F-I), Fraction-II (F-II), and Fraction-III (F-III). The polyphenol compounds in the three fractions were identified by UPLC-MI-TOF-MS. Six kinds of polyphenol compounds including cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin trimer, and phlorizin were identified in F-I, and prodelphinidin dimer B, procyanidin dimer, and quercetin hexoside isomer were found in F-II. However, there was only procyanidin dimer identified in F-III. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the three fractions were also investigated. We found F-I, F-II, and F-III had strong potential antioxidant activities in the order of F-III > F-II > F-I. Our results suggested that polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp might be suitable for use as a potential food additive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Compounds and Stability of a Typical Italian Bakery Products “Taralli” Enriched with Fermented Olive Paste
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183258 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Olive paste (OP) is a novel by-product of olive mill industry composed of water, olive pulp, and skin. Due to its richness in bioactive compounds, OP exploitation for human consumption has recently been proposed. Starter driven fermented OP is characterized by a well-balanced [...] Read more.
Olive paste (OP) is a novel by-product of olive mill industry composed of water, olive pulp, and skin. Due to its richness in bioactive compounds, OP exploitation for human consumption has recently been proposed. Starter driven fermented OP is characterized by a well-balanced lipid profile, rich in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a very good oxidative stability due to the high concentration of fat-soluble antioxidants. These characteristics make OP particularly suitable as a functional ingredient for food/feed industry, as well as for the formulation of nutraceutical products. New types of taralli were produced by adding 20% of fermented OP from black olives (cv Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) to the dough. The levels of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, triterpenic acids, tocochromanols, and carotenoids), as well as the fatty acid profile, were monitored during 180 days of storage and compared with control taralli produced with the same flour without OP supplementation. Taralli enriched with fermented OP showed significantly higher levels of bioactive compounds than conventional ones. Furthermore, enriched taralli maintained a low amount of saturated fatty acids and high levels of polyphenols, triterpenic acids, tocochromanols, and carotenoids, compared to the initial value, up to about 90 days in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proximate Composition and Nutritional Profile of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Heads and Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus Pelamis) Heads
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3189; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173189 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to evaluate the application potential of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads; proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, carnosine, and anserine contents were analyzed in this study. Rainbow trout heads showed significantly [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the application potential of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads; proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, carnosine, and anserine contents were analyzed in this study. Rainbow trout heads showed significantly higher protein (29.31 g/100 g FW, FW is abbreviation of fresh weight) and lipid (6.03 g/100 g FW) contents than skipjack tuna heads (18.47 g/100 g FW protein and 4.83 g/100 g FW lipid) (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads exhibited similar amino acid composition. Essential amino acids constituted more than 40% of total amino acids in both rainbow trout head and skipjack tuna head. The fatty acid profile was different between rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads. Rainbow trout heads mainly contained 38.64% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and 38.57% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), whereas skipjack tuna heads mainly contained 54.46% saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Skipjack tuna heads contained 4563 mg/kg FW anserine and 1761 mg/kg FW carnosine, which were both significantly higher than those of rainbow trout heads (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads may be used as materials for recycling high-quality protein. Meanwhile, rainbow trout heads can be used to extract oil with high contents of unsaturated fatty acids, while skipjack tuna heads may be a source for obtaining carnosine and anserine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reclamation of Fishery Processing Waste: A Mini-Review
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122234 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Seafood such as fish, shellfish, and squid are a unique source of nutrients. However, many marine processing byproducts, such as viscera, shells, heads, and bones, are discarded, even though they are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. Based on emerging evidence [...] Read more.
Seafood such as fish, shellfish, and squid are a unique source of nutrients. However, many marine processing byproducts, such as viscera, shells, heads, and bones, are discarded, even though they are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. Based on emerging evidence of their potential health benefits, these components show significant promise as functional food ingredients. Fish waste components contain significant levels of high-quality protein, which represents a source for biofunctional peptide mining. The chitin contained in shrimp shells, crab shells, and squid pens may also be of value. The components produced by bioconversion are reported to have antioxidative, antimicrobial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and anticoagulant activities. This review provides an overview of the extraordinary potential of processing fish and chitin-containing seafood byproducts via chemical procedures, enzymatic and fermentation technologies, and chemical modifications, as well as their applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Seed Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of Pine Nut from Five Populations of P. cembroides from the States of Hidalgo and Chihuahua, Mexico
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112057 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the seed characteristics and nutritional composition of five pine nut P. cembroides samples from two Mexican states. Morphometry, proximal composition, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity were determined. Samples differed in several morphometric trails, but important [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the seed characteristics and nutritional composition of five pine nut P. cembroides samples from two Mexican states. Morphometry, proximal composition, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity were determined. Samples differed in several morphometric trails, but important differences were documented between SMCH and JCZH samples from Hidalgo State. JCZH and FMH had the highest contents of water, lipids, protein, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity, while CMCC population from Chihuahua State had presented the highest content of ash and carbohydrates. Morphometry and chemical composition data were subjected to clustering analysis. This analysis showed that SMCH and LFCH from Hidalgo State were well separated from the JCZH and FMH populations from Hidalgo State, which showed a strong similarity between them, while the CMCC from Chihuahua State was the most distant population. Principal components analysis showed that the variables that strongly contributed to PC1 were the antioxidant activity determined by FRAP assay, flavonoids, and water content. These data have provided biochemical markers that could help to establish phylogenetic associations between populations, and also to reveal potentially account as an alternative source for dietary nutrition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Antioxidant/Hypolipidemic Relationship of Sideritis hyssopifolia in an Experimental Animal Model
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112049 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
Many publications have described the potential cardioprotective action of different medicinal plants, relating this effect with blood lipid levels. However, these publications do not justify the right amount of plant administered, which can vary greatly. Sideritis hyssopifolia is a little woody plant endemic [...] Read more.
Many publications have described the potential cardioprotective action of different medicinal plants, relating this effect with blood lipid levels. However, these publications do not justify the right amount of plant administered, which can vary greatly. Sideritis hyssopifolia is a little woody plant endemic to western and southwestern Europe. We have quantified its antioxidant activity, which can be used as an indicator of its cardioprotective action. This study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of Sideritis hyssopifolia to design a feed whose hypolipidemic effects are proven in cholesterol-fed New Zealand rabbits. Antioxidant action was assessed in infusions, which were prepared with 1 or 3 g of plant in 200 mL of water by using an ABTS assay and expressed as Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (AEAC). Aqueous infusions with infusion times of 10 min and prepared with 3 g plant exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Sideritis hyssopifolia showed an intermediate antioxidant capacity for the concentrations and times of the infusion tested. According to our results, we suggest incorporating 2.36 g of S. hyssopifolia every 150 g of rabbit feeding stuff (15.73 g/kg). This chow decreased cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in cholesterol-fed rabbits, as well as the atherogenic index. This reduction was similar to that obtained with simvastatin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Aging Activities of Porcine By-Product Collagen Hydrolysates Produced by Commercial Proteases: Effect of Hydrolysis and Ultrafiltration
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061104 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
To investigate methods for improving the processing of porcine waste, porcine skin was hydrolyzed using different commercially available proteases (Alcalase, Flavorzyme, Neutrase, Bromeline, Protamex, and Papain) under several optimal conditions. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the collagen hydrolysates (CHs) were fractionated by molecular weight (3 [...] Read more.
To investigate methods for improving the processing of porcine waste, porcine skin was hydrolyzed using different commercially available proteases (Alcalase, Flavorzyme, Neutrase, Bromeline, Protamex, and Papain) under several optimal conditions. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the collagen hydrolysates (CHs) were fractionated by molecular weight (3 kDa) via membrane ultrafiltration. The CHs were analyzed for physical properties (pH, protein recovery, free amino group content, molecular weight distribution, and amino composition) as well as for functional properties (antioxidant activities and anti-aging activities). Among the CHs, CHs hydrolyzed by Alcalase (CH-Alcalase) exhibited the highest degree of hydrolysis compared to other CHs. Both “CH-Alcalase” and “CH-Alcalase < 3 kDa” fractions showed a considerably high antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition activity. Therefore, resulting bioactives have potential for development as antioxidants and anti-aging ingredients in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, from animal by-products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Fiber from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Soybean (Glycine max) Husk Byproducts as Baking Additives: Functional and Nutritional Properties
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050991 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dietary fiber extracted from soybean and chickpea husks was used in the formulation of white bread. Treatments at different concentrations of dietary fiber (DF): bread + 0.15%, 0.3%, 1.5%, 2% soybean dietary fiber (SDF); bread + 0.15%, 0.3%, 1.5%, 2% chickpea dietary fiber [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber extracted from soybean and chickpea husks was used in the formulation of white bread. Treatments at different concentrations of dietary fiber (DF): bread + 0.15%, 0.3%, 1.5%, 2% soybean dietary fiber (SDF); bread + 0.15%, 0.3%, 1.5%, 2% chickpea dietary fiber (CDF), and a control treatment (Bread 0% DF) were used initially. However, the treatments that showed the greatest improvement effects were: bread + 2% SDF and bread + 2% CDF. The functionality and the nutritional contribution in the treatments were evaluated during four days of storage. The weight loss on the third day of storage was 30% higher in the control treatment than the products with 2% SDF and 2% CDF, while for the evaluation of firmness, the control obtained a hardness of 86 N, and treatments with 2% SDF and 2% CDF 60 N and 45 N, respectively. The presence of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity was evident, mainly in the 2% SDF treatment, which had a total phenolic content of 1036, while in the Bread 0% DF it was 232 mgEAC/kg. The antioxidant activity for 2% SDF by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) was 1096, 2567, and 1800 µmolTE/kg, respectively. Dietary fiber addition favored the reduction of weight loss and firmness of white bread during storage. In addition, color was not affected and the content calcium, phenolics, as well as antioxidant capacity were slightly improved. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
Chia Seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.): An Overview—Phytochemical Profile, Isolation Methods, and Application
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010011 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a small seed that comes from an annual herbaceous plant, Salvia hispanica L. In recent years, usage of Chia seeds has tremendously grown due to their high nutritional and medicinal values. Chia was cultivated by Mesopotamian cultures, [...] Read more.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a small seed that comes from an annual herbaceous plant, Salvia hispanica L. In recent years, usage of Chia seeds has tremendously grown due to their high nutritional and medicinal values. Chia was cultivated by Mesopotamian cultures, but then disappeared for centuries until the middle of the 20th century, when it was rediscovered. Chia seeds contain healthy ω-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, proteins, vitamins, and some minerals. Besides this, the seeds are an excellent source of polyphenols and antioxidants, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and others. Today, chia has been analyzed in different areas of research. Researches around the world have been investigating the benefits of chia seeds in the medicinal, pharmaceutical, and food industry. Chia oil is today one of the most valuable oils on the market. Different extraction methods have been used to produce the oil. In the present study, an extensive overview of the chemical composition, nutritional properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, along with extraction methods used to produce chia oil, will be discussed. Full article
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