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Special Issue "Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Massimiliano Fenice
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
Interests: microbiology; microbial biotechnology; marine microbiology; biological water and wastewater treatment; metagenomic and metagenetic analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin is a very abundant natural polysaccharide. This linear homopolymer of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine and its deacetylated form chitosan have peculiar biological and physiochemical properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bioactivity. Chitin and, principally, chitosan are still the subjects of a lot of research activities that lead to interesting applications in agriculture, biotechnology, and medical sciences. The investigation of these polysaccharides and related enzyme activities involves a number of scientists that gather in International Societies and actively participate in various international conferences and workshops. A very large number of basic and application works have been carried out in the last decades to depict the structure and the potentiality of these bio-polymers. Nevertheless, the number of new studies devoted to these topics is still high, indicating a constant vivid interest regarding chitin and chitosan science.

The Special Issue “Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science” aims to supply a broad platform for the diffusion of the most recent studies regarding chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes. Main topics of the Issue will be the chemistry and biochemistry of chitin and chitosan; the production and applications of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives; the bio-synthesis and bio-degradation of chitin and chitosan; and chitinolytic organisms and their applications. In this context, all high-quality contributions, by basic or applied scientists, describing new aspects of chitin and chitosan science are welcome, together with review papers resuming the “state of the art” of a specific part of this science.

Prof. Massimiliano Fenice
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin
  • chitosan
  • chitin derivatives
  • chitin and chitosan degrading enzymes
  • chitinolytic organisms

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061805 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Chitin is among the most abundant natural polysaccharides [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Obtaining and Characterization of the PLA/Chitosan Foams with Antimicrobial Properties Achieved by the Emulsification Combined with the Dissolution of Chitosan by CO2 Saturation
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244532 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
A new method of obtaining functional foam material has been proposed. The materials were created by mixing the poly lactic acid (PLA) solution in chloroform, chitosan (CS) dissolved in water saturated with CO2 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and freeze-dried for removal of [...] Read more.
A new method of obtaining functional foam material has been proposed. The materials were created by mixing the poly lactic acid (PLA) solution in chloroform, chitosan (CS) dissolved in water saturated with CO2 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and freeze-dried for removal of the solvents. The composite foams were characterized for their structural (SEM, FT-IR, density, porosity), thermal (DSC), functional (hardness, elasticity, swelling capacity, solubility), and biological (antimicrobial and cytotoxic) properties. Chitosan in the composites was a component for obtaining their foamed form with 7.4 to 22.7 times lower density compared to the neat PLA and high porosity also confirmed by the SEM. The foams had a hardness in the range of 70–440 kPa. The FT-IR analysis confirmed no new chemical bonds between the sponge ingredients. Other results showed low sorption capacity (2.5–7.2 g/g) and solubility of materials (less than 0.2%). The obtained foams had the lower Tg value and improved ability of crystallization compared to neat PLA. The addition of chitosan provides the bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Biocompatibility studies have shown that the materials obtained are not cytotoxic to the L929 cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual Insecticidal Effects of Adenanthera pavonina Kunitz-Type Inhibitor on Plodia interpunctella is Mediated by Digestive Enzymes Inhibition and Chitin-Binding Properties
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4344; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234344 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is one of the most damaging pests of stored products. We investigated the insecticidal properties of ApKTI, a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds, against P. interpunctella larvae through bioassays with artificial diet. ApKTI-fed larvae showed [...] Read more.
The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is one of the most damaging pests of stored products. We investigated the insecticidal properties of ApKTI, a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds, against P. interpunctella larvae through bioassays with artificial diet. ApKTI-fed larvae showed reduction of up to 88% on larval weight and 75% in survival. Trypsin enzymes extracted from P. interpunctella larvae were inhibited by ApKTI, which also demonstrated capacity to bind to chitin. Kinetic studies revealed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism of ApKTI for trypsin, which were further corroborated by molecular docking studies. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ApKTI exhibits a hydrophobic pocket near the reactive site loop probably involved in chitin interactions. Taken together, these data suggested that the insecticidal activity of ApKTI for P. interpunctella larvae involves a dual and promiscuous mechanisms biding to two completely different targets. Both processes might impair the P. interpunctella larval digestive process, leading to larvae death before reaching the pupal stage. Further studies are encouraged using ApKTI as a biotechnological tool to control insect pests in field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Development-Disrupting Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Novaluron, Reprogramming the Chitin Degradation Mechanism of Red Palm Weevils
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4304; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234304 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Disruption in chitin regulation by using chitin synthesis inhibitor (novaluron) was investigated to gain insights into the biological activity of chitinase in red palm weevils, an invasive pest of date palms in the Middle East. Impact of novaluron against ninth instar red palm [...] Read more.
Disruption in chitin regulation by using chitin synthesis inhibitor (novaluron) was investigated to gain insights into the biological activity of chitinase in red palm weevils, an invasive pest of date palms in the Middle East. Impact of novaluron against ninth instar red palm weevil larvae was examined by dose-mortality response bioassays, nutritional indices, and expression patterns of chitinase genes characterized in this study. Laboratory bioassays revealed dose-dependent mortality response of ninth-instar red palm weevil larvae with LD50 of 14.77 ppm of novaluron. Dietary growth analysis performed using different doses of novaluron (30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 ppm) exhibited very high reduction in their indexes such as Efficacy of Conversion of Digested Food (82.38%) and Efficacy of Conversion of Ingested Food (74.27%), compared with control treatment. Transcriptomic analysis of red palm weevil larvae characterized numerous genes involved in chitin degradation including chitinase, chitinase-3-like protein 2, chitinase domain-containing protein 1, Endochitinase-like, chitinase 3, and chitin binding peritrophin-a domain. However, quantitative expression patterns of these genes in response to novaluron-fed larvae revealed tissue-specific time-dependent expression patterns. We recorded overexpression of all genes from mid-gut tissues. Growth retarding, chitin remodeling and larvicidal potential suggest novaluron as a promising alternate for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Removal of Copper Ion from Wastewater Using a Stable Chitosan Gel Material
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4205; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234205 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Gel adsorption is an efficient method for the removal of metal ion. In the present study, a functional chitosan gel material (FCG) was synthesized successfully, and its structure was detected by different physicochemical techniques. The as-prepared FCG was stable in acid and alkaline [...] Read more.
Gel adsorption is an efficient method for the removal of metal ion. In the present study, a functional chitosan gel material (FCG) was synthesized successfully, and its structure was detected by different physicochemical techniques. The as-prepared FCG was stable in acid and alkaline media. The as-prepared material showed excellent adsorption properties for the capture of Cu2+ ion from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacity for the FCG was 76.4 mg/g for Cu2+ ion (293 K). The kinetic adsorption data fits the Langmuir isotherm, and experimental isotherm data follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, suggesting that it is a monolayer and the rate-limiting step is the physical adsorption. The separation factor (RL) for Langmuir and the 1/n value for Freundlich isotherm show that the Cu2+ ion is favorably adsorbed by FCG. The negative values of enthalpy (ΔH°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) indicate that the adsorption process are exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of FCG before and after adsorption further reveal that the mechanism of Cu2+ ion adsorption. Further desorption and reuse experiments show that FCG still retains 96% of the original adsorption following the fifth adsorption–desorption cycle. All these results indicate that FCG is a promising recyclable adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ion from aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Spider Chitin: An Ultrafast Microwave-Assisted Method for Chitin Isolation from Caribena versicolor Spider Molt Cuticle
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203736 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Chitin, as a fundamental polysaccharide in invertebrate skeletons, continues to be actively investigated, especially with respect to new sources and the development of effective methods for its extraction. Recent attention has been focused on marine crustaceans and sponges; however, the potential of spiders [...] Read more.
Chitin, as a fundamental polysaccharide in invertebrate skeletons, continues to be actively investigated, especially with respect to new sources and the development of effective methods for its extraction. Recent attention has been focused on marine crustaceans and sponges; however, the potential of spiders (order Araneae) as an alternative source of tubular chitin has been overlooked. In this work, we focused our attention on chitin from up to 12 cm-large Theraphosidae spiders, popularly known as tarantulas or bird-eating spiders. These organisms “lose” large quantities of cuticles during their molting cycle. Here, we present for the first time a highly effective method for the isolation of chitin from Caribena versicolor spider molt cuticle, as well as its identification and characterization using modern analytical methods. We suggest that the tube-like molt cuticle of this spider can serve as a naturally prefabricated and renewable source of tubular chitin with high potential for application in technology and biomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Reaction Conditions on the Chemical Structure of N,O-Acylated Chitosan Derivatives
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173047 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
The structure of acylated chitosan derivatives strongly determines the properties of obtained products, influencing their hydrodynamic properties and thereby their solubility or self-assembly susceptibility. In the present work, the significance of slight changes in acylation conditions on the structure and properties of the [...] Read more.
The structure of acylated chitosan derivatives strongly determines the properties of obtained products, influencing their hydrodynamic properties and thereby their solubility or self-assembly susceptibility. In the present work, the significance of slight changes in acylation conditions on the structure and properties of the products is discussed. A series of chitosan-acylated derivatives was synthesized by varying reaction conditions in a two-step process. As reaction media, two diluted acid solutions—i.e., acetic acid and hydrochloric acid)—and two coupling systems—i.e., 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N–hydroxysulfosuccinimide (EDC/NHS)—were used. The chemical structure of the derivatives was studied in detail by means of two spectroscopic methods, namely infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in order to analyze the preference of the systems towards N- or O-acylation reactions, depending on the synthesis conditions used. The results obtained from advanced 1H-13C HMQC spectra emphasized the challenge of achieving a selective acylation reaction path. Additionally, the study of the molecular weight and solution behavior of the derivatives revealed that even slight changes in their chemical structure have an important influence on their final properties. Therefore, an exact knowledge of the obtained structure of derivatives is essential to achieve reaction reproducibility and to target the application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Chitosan-Based Bioactive Hemostatic Agents with Antibacterial Properties—Synthesis and Characterization
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142629 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Massive blood loss is responsible for numerous causes of death. Hemorrhage may occur on the battlefield, at home or during surgery. Commercially available biomaterials may be insufficient to deal with excessive bleeding. Therefore novel, highly efficient hemostatic agents must be developed. The aim [...] Read more.
Massive blood loss is responsible for numerous causes of death. Hemorrhage may occur on the battlefield, at home or during surgery. Commercially available biomaterials may be insufficient to deal with excessive bleeding. Therefore novel, highly efficient hemostatic agents must be developed. The aim of the following research was to obtain a new type of biocompatible chitosan-based hemostatic agents with increased hemostatic properties. The biomaterials were obtained in a quick and efficient manner under microwave radiation using l-aspartic and l-glutamic acid as crosslinking agents with no use of acetic acid. Ready products were investigated over their chemical structure by FT-IR method which confirmed a crosslinking process through the formation of amide bonds. Their high porosity above 90% and low density (below 0.08 g/cm3) were confirmed. The aerogels were also studied over their water vapor permeability and antioxidant activity. Prepared biomaterials were biodegradable in the presence of human lysozyme. All of the samples had excellent hemostatic properties in contact with human blood due to the platelet activation confirmed by blood clotting tests. The SEM microphotographs showed the adherence of blood cells to the biomaterials’ surface. Moreover, they were biocompatible with human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The biomaterials also had superior antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The obtained results showed that proposed chitosan-based hemostatic agents have great potential as a hemostatic product and may be applied under sterile, as well as contaminated conditions, by both medicals and individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater via Arsenate Removal Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132464 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
In the present research, treatment of contaminated groundwater via adsorption of As(V) with an initial concentration of 50.99 µg/L using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) was investigated. The effect of adsorbent mass (0.001 to 2.0 g), temperature (298 to 328 K), and contact time (1 [...] Read more.
In the present research, treatment of contaminated groundwater via adsorption of As(V) with an initial concentration of 50.99 µg/L using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) was investigated. The effect of adsorbent mass (0.001 to 2.0 g), temperature (298 to 328 K), and contact time (1 to 180 min) on the removal efficiency was examined. Adsorption data was evaluated using isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. Isotherm study showed that the Langmuir (R2 > 0.9899; χ2 ≤ 0.91; RMSE ≤ 4.87) model best correlates with the experimental data. Kinetics studies revealed that pseudo-second order equation adequately describes the experimental data (R2 ≥ 0.9951; χ2 ≤ 0.8.33; RMSE ≤ 4.31) where equilibrium was attained after 60 min. Thermodynamics study shows that the As(V) adsorption is non-spontaneous (ΔG0 ≥ 0) and endothermic (ΔH0 = 8.31 J/mol) that would result in an increase in randomness (ΔS0 = 29.10 kJ/mol•K) within the CCB-solution interface. FT-IR analysis reveals that hydroxyl and amino groups are involved in the adsorption of As(V) from groundwater. Results of the present research serve as a tool to determine whether CCB is an environmentally safe and cost effective material that could be utilized in a permeable reactive barrier system for the remediation of As(V) from contaminated groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Gallic Acid-Chitosan Conjugate Inhibits the Formation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112074 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
It has recently been shown that chitosan (Chit) induces the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, which are mainly responsible for the appearance of kidney stones, and this might limit the use of Chit in vivo. Here, Chit was conjugated with gallic acid [...] Read more.
It has recently been shown that chitosan (Chit) induces the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, which are mainly responsible for the appearance of kidney stones, and this might limit the use of Chit in vivo. Here, Chit was conjugated with gallic acid (Chit-Gal) to decrease the formation of CaOx crystal. This conjugation was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analyses. Chit-Gal contains 10.2 ± 1.5 mg GA per g of Chit. Compared to the control group, Chit increased the number of crystals by six-fold, mainly in the number of monohydrated CaOx crystals, which are the most harmful CaOx crystals. In addition, Chit increased the zeta potential (ζ) of CaOx crystals by three-fold, indicating that Chit was associated with the crystals. These alterations were abolished when Chit-gal was used in these tests. As oxidative stress is related to renal calculus formation, Chit and Chit-Gal were also evaluated as antioxidants using total antioxidant Capacity (TAC), reducing power, ferrous chelation, and copper chelation tests. Chit-gal was more efficient antioxidant agent in TAC (2 times), in ferrous chelation (90 times), and in reducing Power (5 times) than Chit. Overall, Chit-gal has higher antioxidant activity than Chit, does not induce the formation of CaOx crystals. Thus, Chit-Gal has potential to be used as a chit substitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Corrosion Resistance and Antibacterial Property of Electrodeposited Zn–Ni–Chitosan Coatings
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101974 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Microbial corrosion is a universal phenomenon in salt water media such as seawater and wastewater environments. As a kind of efficient protective metal coating for steel, the damage of the Zn–Ni alloy coating was found to be accelerated under microbial corrosive conditions. To [...] Read more.
Microbial corrosion is a universal phenomenon in salt water media such as seawater and wastewater environments. As a kind of efficient protective metal coating for steel, the damage of the Zn–Ni alloy coating was found to be accelerated under microbial corrosive conditions. To solve this problem, chitosan, which is considered a natural product with high antibacterial efficiency, was added to Zn–Ni electrolytes as a functional ingredient of electrodeposited Zn–Ni–chitosan coatings. It was found that the addition of chitosan significantly and negatively shifted the electrodeposition potentials and influenced the Ni contents, the phase composition, and the surface morphologies. By exposing the coatings in a sulfate-reducing bacteria medium, the microbial corrosion resistance was investigated. The results showed that compared to the Zn–Ni alloy coating, Zn–Ni–chitosan coatings showed obvious inhibiting effects on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the corrosion rates of these coatings were mitigated to some degree. Further research on the coatings immersed in an Escherichia coli-suspended phosphate buffer saline medium showed that the bacteria attachment on the coating surface was effectively reduced, which indicated enhanced antibacterial properties. As a result, the Zn–Ni–chitosan coatings showed remarkably enhanced anticorrosive and antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
High Production of Chitinolytic Activity in Halophilic Conditions by a New Marine Strain of Clonostachys rosea
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101880 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Twenty-eight fungal strains have been isolated from different natural marine substrates and plate screened for their production of chitinolytic activity. The two apparent best producers, Trichoderma lixii IG127 and Clonostachys rosea IG119, were screened in shaken cultures in media containing 1% colloidal chitin, [...] Read more.
Twenty-eight fungal strains have been isolated from different natural marine substrates and plate screened for their production of chitinolytic activity. The two apparent best producers, Trichoderma lixii IG127 and Clonostachys rosea IG119, were screened in shaken cultures in media containing 1% colloidal chitin, 1% yeast nitrogen base and 38‰ NaCl, for their ability to produce chitinolytic enzymes under halophilic conditions. In addition, they were tested for optimal growth conditions with respect to pH, salinity and temperature. The Trichoderma strain appeared to be a slight halotolerant fungus, while C. rosea IG119 clearly showed to be a halophilic marine fungus, its optimal growth conditions being very coherent for life in the marine environment (i.e., pH 8.0, salinity 38‰). Due to its high and relatively fast activity (258 U/L after 192 h of growth) accompanied by its halophilic behaviour (growth from 0 to 160‰ of salinity), C. rosea was selected for further studies. In view of possible industrial applications, its medium for chitinolytic enzyme production was optimized by Response Surface Methodology using 1% colloidal chitin and different concentrations of corn step liquor and yeast nitrogen base (0–0.5%). Time course of growth under optimized condition showed that maximum activity (394 U/L) was recorded after 120 h on medium containing Corn Steep Liquor 0.47% and Yeast Nitrogen Base 0.37%. Maximum of productivity (3.3 U/Lh) was recorded at the same incubation time. This was the first study that demonstrated high chitinolytic activity in a marine strain of C. rosea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Linking Chitosan into Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose for the Preparation of Neem Oil Coating for Postharvest Storage of Pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus)
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020219 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The market trend for pitaya is increasing, although the preservation of the quality of this fruit after the harvest is challenging due to microbial decay, dehydration, and oxidation. In this work, the application of antimicrobial chitosan-based coatings achieved successful postharvest preservation of pitaya [...] Read more.
The market trend for pitaya is increasing, although the preservation of the quality of this fruit after the harvest is challenging due to microbial decay, dehydration, and oxidation. In this work, the application of antimicrobial chitosan-based coatings achieved successful postharvest preservation of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) during storage at 10 ± 2 °C with a relative humidity of 80 ± 5%. The solution of cross-linked chitosan with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose with entrapped Neem oil (16 g·L−1) displayed the best postharvest fruit characteristics. The reduction of physiological weight loss and fungal contamination, with an increased redness index and release of azadirachtin from the microencapsulated oil, resulted in up to a 15 day shelf life for this fruit. This postharvest procedure has the potential to increase commercial exploitation of fresh pitaya, owing to its good taste and high content of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Demethoxycurcumin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticle Downregulates DNA Repair Pathway to Improve Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123217 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), through a self-assembled amphiphilic carbomethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) nanomatrix has been successfully developed and used as a therapeutic approach to inhibit cisplatin-induced drug resistance by suppressing excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). Previously, DMC significantly inhibited [...] Read more.
Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), through a self-assembled amphiphilic carbomethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) nanomatrix has been successfully developed and used as a therapeutic approach to inhibit cisplatin-induced drug resistance by suppressing excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). Previously, DMC significantly inhibited on-target cisplatin resistance protein, ERCC1, via PI3K-Akt-snail pathways in NSCLC. However, low water solubility and bioavailability of DMC causes systemic elimination and prevents its clinical application. To increase its bioavailability and targeting capacity toward cancer cells, a DMC-polyvinylpyrrolidone core phase was prepared, followed by encapsulating in a CHC shell to form a DMC-loaded core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles (DMC-CHC NPs). We aimed to understand whether DMC-CHC NPs efficiently potentiate cisplatin-induced apoptosis through downregulation of ERCC1 in NSCLC. DMC-CHC NPs displayed good cellular uptake efficiency. Dissolved in water, DMC-CHC NPs showed comparable cytotoxic potency with free DMC (dissolved in DMSO). A sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay indicated that DMC-CHC NPs significantly increased cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by highly efficient intracellular delivery of the encapsulated DMC. A combination of DMC-CHC NPs and cisplatin significantly inhibited on-target cisplatin resistance protein, ERCC1, via the PI3K-Akt pathway. Also, this combination treatment markedly increased the post-target cisplatin resistance pathway including bax, and cytochrome c expressions. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a main role of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, was also highly inhibited by the combination treatment. The results suggested that enhancement of the cytotoxicity to cisplatin via administration of DMC-CHC NPs was mediated by down-regulation of the expression of TP, and ERCC1, regulated via the PI3K-Akt pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Glycol Chitosan: A Water-Soluble Polymer for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234371 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Glycol chitosan (GC), a water-soluble chitosan derivative with hydrophilic ethylene glycol branches, has both hydrophobic segments for the encapsulation of various drugs and reactive functional groups for facile chemical modifications. Over the past two decades, a variety of molecules have been physically encapsulated [...] Read more.
Glycol chitosan (GC), a water-soluble chitosan derivative with hydrophilic ethylene glycol branches, has both hydrophobic segments for the encapsulation of various drugs and reactive functional groups for facile chemical modifications. Over the past two decades, a variety of molecules have been physically encapsulated within or chemically conjugated with GC and its derivatives to construct a wide range of functional biomaterials. This review summarizes the recent advances of GC-based materials in cell surface labeling, multimodal tumor imaging, and encapsulation and delivery of drugs (including chemotherapeutics, photosensitizers, nucleic acids, and antimicrobial agents) for combating cancers and microbial infections. Besides, different strategies for GC modifications are also highlighted with the aim to shed light on how to endow GC and its derivatives with desirable properties for therapeutic purposes. In addition, we discuss both the promises and challenges of the GC-derived biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Open AccessReview
Chitinases as Food Allergens
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112087 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Food allergies originate from adverse immune reactions to some food components. Ingestion of food allergens can cause effects of varying severity, from mild itching to severe anaphylaxis reactions. Currently there are no clues to predict the allergenic potency of a molecule, nor are [...] Read more.
Food allergies originate from adverse immune reactions to some food components. Ingestion of food allergens can cause effects of varying severity, from mild itching to severe anaphylaxis reactions. Currently there are no clues to predict the allergenic potency of a molecule, nor are cures for food allergies available. Cutting-edge research on allergens is aimed at increasing information on their diffusion and understanding structure-allergenicity relationships. In this context, purified recombinant allergens are valuable tools for advances in the diagnostic and immunotherapeutic fields. Chitinases are a group of allergens often found in plant fruits, but also identified in edible insects. They are classified into different families and classes for which structural analyses and identification of epitopes have been only partially carried out. Moreover, also their presence in common allergen databases is not complete. In this review we provide a summary of the identified food allergenic chitinases, their main structural characteristics, and a clear division in the different classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Other

Open AccessBrief Report
Can we make Chitosan by Enzymatic Deacetylation of Chitin?
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213862 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Chitin, an insoluble linear polymer of β-1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc; A), can be converted to chitosan, a soluble heteropolymer of GlcNAc and d-glucosamine (GlcN; D) residues, by partial deacetylation. In nature, deacetylation of chitin is catalyzed by enzymes called chitin [...] Read more.
Chitin, an insoluble linear polymer of β-1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc; A), can be converted to chitosan, a soluble heteropolymer of GlcNAc and d-glucosamine (GlcN; D) residues, by partial deacetylation. In nature, deacetylation of chitin is catalyzed by enzymes called chitin deacetylases (CDA) and it has been proposed that CDAs could be used to produce chitosan. In this work, we show that CDAs can remove up to approximately 10% of N-acetyl groups from two different (α and β) chitin nanofibers, but cannot produce chitosan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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