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Topical Collection "Bioactive Compounds"

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

Mountain Research Center, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food chemistry; bio-based ingredients; natural preservatives/colorants; functional foods; food processing
Former Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Nancy D. Turner

Director, TAMU Space Life Sciences Mentored Research Program, Nutrition & Food Science Department, Texas A&M University, 2253 TAMU, 214C Cater Mattil, College Station, TX 77843-2253, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nutrition, colon cancer, polyphenols, intestinal microbiota, apoptosis

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumers increasingly believe that foods contribute directly to their health and well-being. In this context, extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods, "Bioactive compounds", play a very significant role. Bioactive compounds are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health, including antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antiatherogenic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cytostatic, immunosuppressive properties, and hepatoprotective activities. Contributions for this issue, both in form of original research and review articles, may cover all aspects of bioactive compounds with proven activities in various biological screenings and pharmacological models, e.g. quantification, variability and efficacy of bioactive compounds; development of new protocols and methods based on chemical or biological systems for the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro bioactivity; clinical and nutritional trials focused on the bioactive properties of bioactive compounds synthesized or isolated; elucidation of bioactive compounds mechanisms; innovative techniques of bioactive compounds delivery and protocols for the extraction, isolation, structural characterization of new bioactive compounds will be welcomed, on condition that an adequate evaluation of their efficacy is provided. Papers regarding the development of pharmaceuticals from bioactive compounds will be also taken into consideration.

Dr. Nancy D. Turner
Dr. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • bioactivity
  • natural products
  • synthesised compounds
  • isolation techniques
  • structure elucidation
  • mechanism of action

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (336 papers)

2018

Jump to: 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle Daphnauranins C–E, Three New Antifeedants from Daphne aurantiaca Roots
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102429
Received: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Daphnauranins C–E (compounds 13), two sesquiterpenoids and one monoterpenoid were isolated from the roots of Daphne aurantiaca Diels. Daphnauranin C is a 9-O-13 etherified and hydroperoxy-substituted guaiane sesquiterpenoid, daphnauranin D is a guaiane sesquiterpenoid ketal, and daphnauranin E
[...] Read more.
Daphnauranins C–E (compounds 13), two sesquiterpenoids and one monoterpenoid were isolated from the roots of Daphne aurantiaca Diels. Daphnauranin C is a 9-O-13 etherified and hydroperoxy-substituted guaiane sesquiterpenoid, daphnauranin D is a guaiane sesquiterpenoid ketal, and daphnauranin E is a monoterpenoid lactone. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. In an anti-feeding activities test, daphnauranins C–E showed activity against male fruit fly with anti-feeding indexes (AI) up to 39.1, 39.2, and 27.8% respectively, at 1 mM. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Identification of Bioactive Chemical Markers in Zhi zhu xiang Improving Anxiety in Rat by Fingerprint-Efficacy Study
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092329
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Zhi zhu xiang (ZZX for short) is the root and rhizome of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, which is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) used to treat various mood disorders for more than 2000 years, especially anxiety. The aim of the present work was to
[...] Read more.
Zhi zhu xiang (ZZX for short) is the root and rhizome of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, which is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) used to treat various mood disorders for more than 2000 years, especially anxiety. The aim of the present work was to identify the bioactive chemical markers in Zhi zhu xiang improving anxiety in rats by a fingerprint-efficacy study. More specifically, the chemical fingerprint of ZZX samples collected from 10 different regions was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the similarity analyses were calculated based on 10 common characteristic peaks. The anti-anxiety effect of ZZX on empty bottle stimulated rats was examined through the Open Field Test (OFT) and the Elevated Plus Maze Test (EPM). Then we measured the concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in rat’s plasma by the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit, while the concentration of monoamine and metabolites (NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA) in the rat’s cerebral cortex and hippocampus was analysed by HPLC coupled with an Electrochemical Detector. At last, the fingerprint-efficacy study between chemical fingerprint and anti-anxiety effect of ZZX was accomplished by partial least squares regression (PLSR). As a result, we screened out four compounds (hesperidin, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C) as the bioactive chemical markers for the anti-anxiety effect of ZZX. The fingerprint-efficacy study we established might provide a feasible way and some elicitation for the identification of the bioactive chemical markers for TCM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Composition Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry Liqueurs
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092156
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activity, aroma compounds and color of sour cherry liqueurs with and without sugar during 6 months of storage at temperatures of 15 °C and 30 °C. Contents of
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The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activity, aroma compounds and color of sour cherry liqueurs with and without sugar during 6 months of storage at temperatures of 15 °C and 30 °C. Contents of phenolic compounds (HPLC, UPLC-MS) and antiradical activity (ABTS) changes were measured. Color changes were measured by an objective method (ColorQuest XE). During storage fluctuations of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity content were observed. The content of substances which react with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was comparable before and after 24 weeks. During the 24 weeks of storage, the highest average antioxidant activity against ABTS radicals was shown by sour cherry liqueurs without sugar, stored at 15 °C. Quicker degradation of anthocyanins was observed in liqueurs without sugar, stored at 30 °C (t1/2—5.9 weeks in liqueurs with sugar and 6.6 weeks in liqueurs without sugar). Better stability of red color was observed in liqueurs with sugar, stored at 15 °C. The content of the dominant aroma compound, benzaldehyde, increased during storage. Long-term storage and sugar addition decreases color attributes but increases organoleptic value without of great influence on antioxidant activity. Studies on a half-year period of liqueur storage showed that their characteristic features are almost unchanged if stored at 15 °C and without sugar added, but organoleptic properties were better in samples stored at 30 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Naphthalene Derivatives from the Bulbs of Eleutherine americana with Their Protective Effect on the Injury of HUVECs
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092111
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
Five new naphthalene derivatives, named Eleutherols A–C (13) and Eleuthinones B–C (4,5), together with three known compounds were isolated from the bulbs of Eleutherine americana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic
[...] Read more.
Five new naphthalene derivatives, named Eleutherols A–C (13) and Eleuthinones B–C (4,5), together with three known compounds were isolated from the bulbs of Eleutherine americana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. These compounds exhibited a potent effect against the injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) induced by high concentrations of glucose in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Cytisus villosus Pourr.
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081994
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The present study focuses on the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities of the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Cytisus villosus Pourr. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn was used to identify the phenolic compounds, being (epi)gallocatechin dimer the major compound
[...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities of the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Cytisus villosus Pourr. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn was used to identify the phenolic compounds, being (epi)gallocatechin dimer the major compound (111 ± 5 µg/g·dw) in the aqueous extract, while myricetin-O-rhamnoside (226 ± 9 µg/g·dw) was the main molecule in the ethyl acetate extract. Both extracts exhibited good scavenging activities against DPPH radical (EC50 µg/mL of 59 ± 2 and 31 ± 2 for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively). However, the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated more potent quenching activities than the aqueous extract. The antimicrobial activities were assessed on selected Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as on pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata. The extracts possessed selective and potent antimicrobial activities against the Gram-positive bacterium (IC50 of 186 ± 9 μg/mL and 92 ± 3 μg/mL for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively). Finally, C. villosus extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative potential on three human cancer cell lines representing breast and colon cancers. Although both extracts demonstrated sufficient growth inhibition of the three different cell lines, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited higher activity (LD50 values of 1.57 ± 0.06 mg/mL, 2.2 ± 0.1 mg/mL, and 3.2 ± 0.2 mg/mL for T47D, MCF-7, and HCT-116 cell lines). Both the extracts obtained from the aerial parts of C. villosus revealed very promising results and could be applied as functional agents in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Substituent Effect on the Radical Scavenging Activity of Apigenin
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081989
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Flavonoids widely found in natural foods are excellent free radical scavengers. The relationship between the substituent and antioxidative activity of flavonoids has not yet been completely elucidated. In this work, the antioxidative activity of apigenin derivatives with different substituents at the C3 position
[...] Read more.
Flavonoids widely found in natural foods are excellent free radical scavengers. The relationship between the substituent and antioxidative activity of flavonoids has not yet been completely elucidated. In this work, the antioxidative activity of apigenin derivatives with different substituents at the C3 position was determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton affinity (PA) were calculated. Donator acceptor map (DAM) analysis illustrated that the studied compounds are worse electron acceptors than F and also are not better electron donors than Na. The strongest antioxidative group of apigenin derivatives was the same as apigenin. Excellent correlations were found between the BDE/IP/PA and Hammett sigma constants. Therefore, Hammett sigma constants can be used to predict the antioxidative activity of substituted apigenin and to design new antioxidants based on flavonoids. In non-polar phases, the antioxidative activity of apigenin was increased by the electron-withdrawing groups, while it was reduced by the electron-donating groups. Contrary results occurred in the polar phase. The electronic effect of the substituents on BDE(4′-OH), BDE(5-OH), PA(4′-OH), and IP is mainly controlled by the resonance effect, while that on BDE(7-OH), PA(5-OH), and PA(7-OH) is governed by the field/inductive effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Immunostimulatory Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Extracted from Ascophyllum nodosum
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081912
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Polysaccharides from Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPS) were extracted and purified via an optimized protocol. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 4.3 h, extraction temperature of 84 °C and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to
[...] Read more.
Polysaccharides from Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPS) were extracted and purified via an optimized protocol. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 4.3 h, extraction temperature of 84 °C and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material of 27. The resulting yield was 9.15 ± 0.23% of crude AnPS. Two fractions, named AnP1-1 and AnP2-1 with molecular weights of 165.92 KDa and 370.68 KDa, were separated from the crude AnPS by chromatography in DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-300, respectively. AnP1-1 was composed of mannose, ribose, glucuronic acid, glucose and fucose, and AnP2-1 was composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose and fucose. AnPS, AnP1-1 and AnP2-1 exhibited high scavenging activities against ABTS radical and superoxide radical, and showed protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the immunostimulatory activities of AnP1-1 and AnP2-1 were evaluated by Caco-2 cells, the results showed both AnP1-1 and AnP2-1 could significantly promote the production of immune reactive molecules such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore, the results suggest that AnPS and its two fractions may be explored as a potential functional food supplement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Linalyl Acetate on Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in Mast Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071711
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an important factor responsible for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Because linalyl acetate (LA) possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, being antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperpigmentation, we hypothesized that LA could inhibit
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Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an important factor responsible for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Because linalyl acetate (LA) possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, being antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperpigmentation, we hypothesized that LA could inhibit TSLP. Therefore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, caspase-1 assay, Western blot analysis, fluorescent analyses of the intracellular calcium levels, and the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced edema model were used to investigate how LA inhibits the production of TSLP in HMC-1 cells. LA reduced the production and mRNA expression of TSLP in HMC-1 cells. LA also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and degradation of IκBα. PMA plus A23187 stimulation up-regulated caspase-1 activity in HMC-1 cells; however, this up-regulated caspase-1 activity was down-regulated by LA. Finally, LA decreased intracellular calcium levels in HMC-1 cells as well as PMA-induced ear swelling responses in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that LA would be beneficial to treatment of atopic and inflammatory diseases by reducing TSLP. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Magnolol Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation via Suppression of RANKL Expression
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071598
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Magnolol, a compound from the traditional Korean herb Magnolia sp., has been exhaustively investigated as a therapeutic agent against several diseases including systemic and local inflammation. We examined the effects of magnolol on osteoclastic differentiation associated with inflammation. Magnolol markedly reduced interleukin (IL)-1-induced
[...] Read more.
Magnolol, a compound from the traditional Korean herb Magnolia sp., has been exhaustively investigated as a therapeutic agent against several diseases including systemic and local inflammation. We examined the effects of magnolol on osteoclastic differentiation associated with inflammation. Magnolol markedly reduced interleukin (IL)-1-induced osteoclast formation in co-cultures of murine osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, whereas it had no effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophage cultures. In osteoblasts, magnolol markedly inhibited both the up-regulation of RANKL expression and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in response to IL-1 treatment. Addition of exogenous PGE2 reversed the inhibitory effects of magnolol on IL-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts and osteoclast formation in co-cultures. Magnolol inhibited IL-1-induced PGE2 production, at least in part by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that magnolol inhibits IL-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts through suppression of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, resulting in inhibition of osteoclast differentiation in co-cultures. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cosmetics Preservation: A Review on Present Strategies
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071571
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
Cosmetics, like any product containing water and organic/inorganic compounds, require preservation against microbial contamination to guarantee consumer’s safety and to increase their shelf-life. The microbiological safety has as main goal of consumer protection against potentially pathogenic microorganisms, together with the product’s preservation resulting
[...] Read more.
Cosmetics, like any product containing water and organic/inorganic compounds, require preservation against microbial contamination to guarantee consumer’s safety and to increase their shelf-life. The microbiological safety has as main goal of consumer protection against potentially pathogenic microorganisms, together with the product’s preservation resulting from biological and physicochemical deterioration. This is ensured by chemical, physical, or physicochemical strategies. The most common strategy is based on the application of antimicrobial agents, either by using synthetic or natural compounds, or even multifunctional ingredients. Current validation of a preservation system follow the application of good manufacturing practices (GMPs), the control of the raw material, and the verification of the preservative effect by suitable methodologies, including the challenge test. Among the preservatives described in the positive lists of regulations, there are parabens, isothiasolinone, organic acids, formaldehyde releasers, triclosan, and chlorhexidine. These chemical agents have different mechanisms of antimicrobial action, depending on their chemical structure and functional group’s reactivity. Preservatives act on several cell targets; however, they might present toxic effects to the consumer. Indeed, their use at high concentrations is more effective from the preservation viewpoint being, however, toxic for the consumer, whereas at low concentrations microbial resistance can develop. Full article
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Open AccessArticle (−)-Epicatechin Reduces Blood Pressure and Improves Left Ventricular Function and Compliance in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertensive Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071511
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
(−)-Epicatechin (E) is a flavanol found in green tea and cocoa and has been shown to attenuate tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated inflammation, improve nitric oxide levels, promote endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and inhibit NADPH oxidase. This study investigated
[...] Read more.
(−)-Epicatechin (E) is a flavanol found in green tea and cocoa and has been shown to attenuate tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated inflammation, improve nitric oxide levels, promote endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and inhibit NADPH oxidase. This study investigated the effect of 28 days of low epicatechin dosing (1 mg/kg/day) on the cardiovascular function of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Wistar rats (n = 120, 8 weeks of age) underwent uninephrectomy and were randomised into four groups (uninephrectomy (UNX), UNX + E, DOCA, DOCA + E). DOCA and DOCA + E rats received 1% NaCl drinking water along with subcutaneous injections of 25 mg deoxycorticosterone-acetate (in 0.4 mL of dimethylformamide) every fourth day. UNX + E and DOCA + E rats received 1 mg/kg/day of epicatechin by oral gavage. Single-cell micro-electrode electrophysiology, Langendorff isolated-heart assessment and isolated aorta and mesenteric organ baths were used to assess cardiovascular parameters. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Myocardial stiffness was increased and left ventricular compliance significantly diminished in the DOCA control group, and these changes were attenuated by epicatechin treatment (p < 0.05). Additionally, the DOCA + E rats showed significantly reduced blood pressure and malondialdehyde concentrations; however, there was no improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy, electrophysiology or vascular function. This study demonstrates the ability of epicatechin to reduce blood pressure, prevent myocardial stiffening and preserve cardiac compliance in hypertrophied DOCA-salt rat hearts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pentacyclic Triterpenes from Cecropia telenitida Can Function as Inhibitors of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061444
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plant extracts from the genus Cecropia have been used by Latin-American traditional medicine to treat metabolic disorders and diabetes. Previous results have shown that roots of Cecropia telenitida contain pentacyclic triterpenes and these molecules display a hypoglycemic effect in an insulin-resistant murine model.
[...] Read more.
Plant extracts from the genus Cecropia have been used by Latin-American traditional medicine to treat metabolic disorders and diabetes. Previous results have shown that roots of Cecropia telenitida contain pentacyclic triterpenes and these molecules display a hypoglycemic effect in an insulin-resistant murine model. The pharmacological target of these molecules, however, remains unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme, which highlights the potential use of this type of natural product as phytotherapeutic or botanical dietary supplements. The main goal of the study was the evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Cecropia telenitida molecules on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity. A pre-fractionated chemical library was obtained from the roots of Cecropia telenitida using several automated chromatography separation steps and a homogeneous time resolved fluorescence assay was used for the bio-guided isolation of inhibiting molecules. The screening of a chemical library consisting of 125 chemical purified fractions obtained from Cecropia telenitida roots identified one fraction displaying 82% inhibition of the formation of cortisol by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme. Furthermore, a molecule displaying IC50 of 0.95 ± 0.09 µM was isolated from this purified fraction and structurally characterized, which confirms that a pentacyclic triterpene scaffold was responsible for the observed inhibition. Our results support the hypothesis that pentacyclic triterpene molecules from Cecropia telenitida can inhibit 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity. These findings highlight the potential ethnopharmacological use of plants from the genus Cecropia for the treatment of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sterepinic Acids A–C, New Carboxylic Acids Produced by a Marine Alga-Derived Fungus
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061336
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Sterepinic acids A–C (13), new carboxylic acids with two primary alcohols, have been isolated from a fungal strain of Stereum sp. OUPS-124D-1 attached to the marine alga Undaria pinnatifida. Dihydro-1,5-secovibralactone (4), a new vibralactone derivative, was
[...] Read more.
Sterepinic acids A–C (13), new carboxylic acids with two primary alcohols, have been isolated from a fungal strain of Stereum sp. OUPS-124D-1 attached to the marine alga Undaria pinnatifida. Dihydro-1,5-secovibralactone (4), a new vibralactone derivative, was isolated from the same fungal metabolites together with known vibralactone A (5), and 1,5-secovibralactone (6). The planar structures of these compounds have been elucidated by spectroscopic analyses using IR, HRFABMS, and NMR spectra. To determine the absolute configuration of the compounds, we used the phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) method. These compounds exhibited less activity in the cytotoxicity assay against cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aspergoterpenins A–D: Four New Antimicrobial Bisabolane Sesquiterpenoid Derivatives from an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061291
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Aspergoterpenins A–D (14), four new bisabolane sesquiterpenoid derivatives, were obtained from the endophytic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, together with eight known compounds (512), and their structures were elucidated by a comprehensive analysis of their
[...] Read more.
Aspergoterpenins A–D (14), four new bisabolane sesquiterpenoid derivatives, were obtained from the endophytic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, together with eight known compounds (512), and their structures were elucidated by a comprehensive analysis of their NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), MS (Mass Spectrum) and CD (Circular Dichroism) spectra. Aspergoterpenin A (1) was the first example with a characteristic ketal bridged-ring part in the degraded natural bisabolane-type sesquiterpene structures. The compounds 112 displayed no significant activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, Caski, HepG2 and MCF-7). Further, the antimicrobial activities to Erwinia carotovora sub sp. Carotovora were evaluated, and the results showed that compounds 112 displayed antimicrobial activities with MIC values ranging from 15.2 to 85.2 μg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Four New Lignans from Kadsura Interior and Their Bioactivity
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061279
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
A phytochemical investigation of the stems of Kadsura interior has led to an isolation of four new lignans, named kadsutherin E–H (14), together with two known lignans (56). The structures of the four new compounds
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A phytochemical investigation of the stems of Kadsura interior has led to an isolation of four new lignans, named kadsutherin E–H (14), together with two known lignans (56). The structures of the four new compounds were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 16 exhibited inhibition against adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation. Among the isolated compounds, kadsutherin F (2) showed the strongest anti-platelet aggregation activity with an inhibition of 49.47%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Antioxidants from the Brown Alga Dictyopteris undulata
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051214
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
An investigation of anti-oxidative compounds from the brown alga Dictyopteris undulata has led to the isolation and identification of isozonarol, isozonarone, chromazonarol, zonaroic acid and isozonaroic acid. Their structures were identified by comparison of MS and NMR spectra. Full NMR assignment and absolute
[...] Read more.
An investigation of anti-oxidative compounds from the brown alga Dictyopteris undulata has led to the isolation and identification of isozonarol, isozonarone, chromazonarol, zonaroic acid and isozonaroic acid. Their structures were identified by comparison of MS and NMR spectra. Full NMR assignment and absolute configuration of isozonaroic acid are described. Isozonarol showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity among the compounds isolated. Full article
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Open AccessReview Echinacoside, an Inestimable Natural Product in Treatment of Neurological and other Disorders
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051213
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Echinacoside (ECH), a natural phenylethanoid glycoside, was first isolated from Echinacea angustifolia DC. (Compositae) sixty years ago. It was found to possess numerous pharmacologically beneficial activities for human health, especially the neuroprotective and cardiovascular effects. Although ECH showed promising potential for treatment of
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Echinacoside (ECH), a natural phenylethanoid glycoside, was first isolated from Echinacea angustifolia DC. (Compositae) sixty years ago. It was found to possess numerous pharmacologically beneficial activities for human health, especially the neuroprotective and cardiovascular effects. Although ECH showed promising potential for treatment of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, some important issues arose. These included the identification of active metabolites as having poor bioavailability in prototype form, the definite molecular signal pathways or targets of ECH with the above effects, and limited reliable clinical trials. Thus, it remains unresolved as to whether scientific research can reasonably make use of this natural compound. A systematic summary and knowledge of future prospects are necessary to facilitate further studies for this natural product. The present review generalizes and analyzes the current knowledge on ECH, including its broad distribution, different preparation technologies, poor pharmacokinetics and kinds of therapeutic uses, and the future perspectives of its potential application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts Stachys riederi var. japonica
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051200
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole
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The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole (15.43%), anisole (9.43%), 1,8-cineole (8.07%), geraniol (7.89%), eugenol (4.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.47%), caryophyllene (4.21%) and linalool (4.07%). Five active constituents (acetanisole, anisole, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and geraniol) were identified by bioactivity-directed fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila), with LC50 values of 15.0 mg/L and 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol and anisole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the oil against booklice. 1,8-Cineole showed stronger toxicity, and anisole as well as eugenol exhibited the same level of fumigant toxicity as the essential oil against maize weevils. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults and L. bostrychophila, with LC50 values of 21.8 µg/adult and 287.0 µg/cm2, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of S. riederi var. japonica and its isolates show potential as fumigants, and for their contact toxicity against grain storage insects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pyrrole Alkaloids from the Edible Mushroom Phlebopus portentosus with Their Bioactive Activities
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051198
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Seven pyrrole alkaloids, three of which are novel (phlebopines A–C (13)), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Phlebopus portentosus. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were
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Seven pyrrole alkaloids, three of which are novel (phlebopines A–C (13)), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Phlebopus portentosus. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their neuroprotective properties and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activities. Compound 7 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal-cell damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Polar Extracts of Dendrobium nobile, D. officinale, D. loddigesii, and Flickingeria fimbriata: Metabolite Identification, Content Evaluation, and Bioactivity Assay
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051185
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
The polar extract of the Dendrobium species or F. fimbriata (a substitute of Dendrobium), between the fat-soluble extract and polysaccharide has barely been researched. This report worked on the qualitative and quantitative studies of polar extracts from D. nobile, D. officinale
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The polar extract of the Dendrobium species or F. fimbriata (a substitute of Dendrobium), between the fat-soluble extract and polysaccharide has barely been researched. This report worked on the qualitative and quantitative studies of polar extracts from D. nobile, D. officinale, D. loddigesii, and F. fimbriata. Eight water-soluble metabolites containing a new diglucoside, flifimdioside A (1), and a rare imidazolium-type alkaloid, anosmine (4), were identified using chromatography as well as spectroscopic techniques. Their contents in the four herbs were high, approximately 0.9–3.7 mg/g based on the analysis of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy. Biological activity evaluation showed that the polar extract of F. fimbriata or its pure component had good antioxidant and neuroprotective activity; compounds 14 and shihunine (8) showed weak α-glucosidase inhibitory activity; 4 and 8 had weak anti-inflammatory activity. Under trial conditions, all samples had no cytotoxic activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pterostilbene and 4′-Methoxyresveratrol Inhibited Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051148
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Pterostilbene (Pte) and 4′-Methoxyresveratrol (4MR) are methylated derivatives of resveratrol. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Pte and 4MR in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Both Pte and 4MR significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide release by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA
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Pterostilbene (Pte) and 4′-Methoxyresveratrol (4MR) are methylated derivatives of resveratrol. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Pte and 4MR in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Both Pte and 4MR significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide release by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression. Moreover, both of them inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by decreasing p65 phosphorylation. In addition, 4MR but not Pte inhibited LPS-induced the activator protein (AP)-1 pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Further study suggested that Pte had an inhibitory effect on extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and p38 activation, but not on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while 4MR had an inhibitory effect on JNK and p38 activation, but not on ERK. Taken together, our data suggested that Pte induced anti-inflammatory activity by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways, while 4MR showed anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Three New Highly Oxygenated Germacranolides from Carpesium Divaricatum and Their Cytotoxic Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051078
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Three new highly oxygenated (24), and two known (1 and 5) germacranolides, were isolated from the whole plant of Carpesium divaricatum. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic
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Three new highly oxygenated (24), and two known (1 and 5) germacranolides, were isolated from the whole plant of Carpesium divaricatum. The planar structures and relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using the circular dichroism (CD) method and X-ray diffraction, and the stereochemistry of the new compounds 24 were determined using similar CD spectra with 1. The new compound 2 and the known compound 5 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against hepatocellular cancer (Hep G2) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells, superior to those of the positive control cis-platin. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Phenolic Composition and Bioactivity of Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav. Samples from Different Geographical Origin
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051037
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition and evaluate the bioactivity of several samples of Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav, and to compare aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts. Plant materials were obtained by growing some accessions (seed samples) of various wild
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The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition and evaluate the bioactivity of several samples of Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav, and to compare aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts. Plant materials were obtained by growing some accessions (seed samples) of various wild populations from different regions of Portugal conserved at the Portuguese Genebank in Braga. Phenolic compounds were analised by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn, antioxidant potential through in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation), cytotoxicity on tumor cells (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2) and non-tumor (PLP2) cells, anti-inflammatory activity in rat RAW 264.7 macrophages, by the ability to inhibit NO production and antimicrobial potential by the microdilution method with INT dye (iodonitrotetrazolium chloride). Thirteen compounds were identified, being salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, the main compounds present, with values ranging between 44.3–582, 50.9–550, and 24.36–101.5 mg/g extract, respectively. L. pedunculata aqueous extract revealed a higher antioxidant potential (EC50 values between 14 to 530 μg/mL), which could be related to its higher concentration in phenolic compounds; however, the hydroethanolic extract showed a higher anti-inflammatory (lower EC50 values than 124 μg/mL) potential and antiproliferative capacity (lower GI50 values than 34 μg/mL). Thus, this study highlights the bioactive effects of this species and opens up possibilities of uses in food and pharmaceutical formulations. However, there are potential differences in such properties according to geographical origin of plant material, as in general, the samples from Alentejo presented higher results in all the bioactivities, compared with Trás-os-Montes samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anticancer Profiling for Coumarins and Related O-Naphthoquinones from Mansonia gagei against Solid Tumor Cells In Vitro
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051020
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Napthoquinones and coumarins are naturally occurring compounds with potential anticancer activity. In the current study, two O-naphthoquinons (mansonone-G and mansonone-N) and six coumarins (mansorin-A, mansorin-B, mansorin-C, mansorins-I, mansorin-II, and mansorin-III) were isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei family Sterculariaceae. Isolated compounds
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Napthoquinones and coumarins are naturally occurring compounds with potential anticancer activity. In the current study, two O-naphthoquinons (mansonone-G and mansonone-N) and six coumarins (mansorin-A, mansorin-B, mansorin-C, mansorins-I, mansorin-II, and mansorin-III) were isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei family Sterculariaceae. Isolated compounds were examined for their potential anticancer activity against breast (MCF-7), cervix (HeLa), colorectal (HCT-116) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells using Sulfarhodamine-B (SRB) assay. Mansorin-II and mansorin-III showed relatively promising cytotoxic profile in all cell lines under investigation with inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range of 0.74 µM to 36 µM and 3.95 µM to 35.3 µM, respectively. In addition, mansorin-B, mansorin-C, mansorin-II and mansorin-III significantly increased cellular entrapment of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, doxorubicin, in colorectal cancer cells expressing the P-gp pump. The inhibitory effect of the isolated compounds on P-gp pump was examined using human recombinant P-gp molecules attached to ATPase subunit. Mansorin-B and mansonone-G were found to inhibit the P-gp attached ATPase subunit. On the other hand, mansorin-C, mansorin-III and mansorin-II inhibited P-gp pump via dual action (P-gp related ATPase subunit inhibition and P-gp substrate binding site occupation). However, mansorin II was examined for its potential chemomodulatory effect to paclitaxel (PTX) against colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116 and CaCo-2). Mansorin-II significantly reduced the IC50 of PTX in HCT-116 cells from 27.9 ± 10.2 nM to 5.1 ± 1.9 nM (synergism with combination index of 0.44). Additionally, Mansorin-II significantly reduced the IC50 of PTX in CaCo-2 cells from 2.1 ± 0.8 µM to 0.13 ± 0.03 µM (synergism with combination index of 0.18). Furthermore, cell cycle analysis was studied after combination of mansorin-II with paclitaxel using DNA flow cytometry analysis. Synergism of mansorin-II and PTX was reflected in increasing apoptotic cell population in both HCT-116 and CaCo-2 cells compared to PTX treatment alone. Combination of mansorin-II with PTX in CaCo-2 cells significantly increased the cell population in G2/M phase (from 2.9 ± 0.3% to 7.7 ± 0.8%) with reciprocal decrease in G0/G1 cell fraction from 52.1 ± 1.1% to 45.5 ± 1.0%. Similarly in HCT-116 cells, mansorin-II with PTX significantly increased the cell population in G2/M phase (from 33.4 ± 2.8% to 37.6 ± 1.3%) with reciprocal decrease in the S-phase cell population from 22.8 ± 1.7% to 20.2 ± 0.8%. In conclusion, mansorin-II synergizes the anticancer effect of paclitaxel in colorectal cancer cells, which might be partially attributed to enhancing its cellular entrapment via inhibiting P-gp efflux pump. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Sulforaphane and Iberin Products from Thai Cabbage Fermented by Myrosinase-Positive Bacteria
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040955
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Myrosinase-positive bacteria from local fermented foods and beverages in Thailand with the capacity to metabolize glucosinolate and produce isothiocyanates (ITCs) were isolated and used as selected strains for Thai cabbage fermentation. Enterobacter xiangfangensis 4A-2A3.1 (EX) from fermented fish and Enterococcus casseliflavus SB2X2 (EC)
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Myrosinase-positive bacteria from local fermented foods and beverages in Thailand with the capacity to metabolize glucosinolate and produce isothiocyanates (ITCs) were isolated and used as selected strains for Thai cabbage fermentation. Enterobacter xiangfangensis 4A-2A3.1 (EX) from fermented fish and Enterococcus casseliflavus SB2X2 (EC) from fermented cabbage were the two highest ITC producers among seventeen strains identified by 16S rRNA technique. EC and EX were used to ferment Thai cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) containing glucoiberin, glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin at 430.5, 615.1 and 108.5 µmol/100 g DW, respectively for 3 days at 25 °C. Different amounts of iberin nitrile, iberin, sulforaphane and indole 3-acetonitrile were produced by spontaneous, EX- and EC-induced cabbage fermentations, and significantly higher ITCs were detected (p < 0.01) with increased antioxidant activities. Iberin and sulforaphane production in EX-induced treatment peaked on day 2 at 117.4 and 294.1 µmol/100 g DW, respectively, significantly higher than iberin at 51.7 µmol/100 g DW but not significantly higher than sulforaphane at 242.6 µmol/100 g DW in EC-induced treatment at day 2. Maximum health-promoting benefits from this functional food can be obtained from consumption of a liquid portion of the fermented cabbage with higher ITC level along with a solid portion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biflavonoids Isolated from Selaginella tamariscina and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities via ERK 1/2 Signaling
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040926
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Selaginella tamariscina (S. tamariscina) (Beauv.) Spring (Selaginellaceae) has been used in oriental medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, chronic hepatitis, hyperglycemia, amenorrhea, hematuria, prolapse of the anus and metrorrhagia. In the present study, we isolated two strong anti-inflammatory compounds, the biflavonoids
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Selaginella tamariscina (S. tamariscina) (Beauv.) Spring (Selaginellaceae) has been used in oriental medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, chronic hepatitis, hyperglycemia, amenorrhea, hematuria, prolapse of the anus and metrorrhagia. In the present study, we isolated two strong anti-inflammatory compounds, the biflavonoids hinokiflavone (H) and 7′-O-methyl hinokiflavone (mH), from S. tamariscina and examined their anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and colon epithelial cells (HT-29). H and mH suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which are most highly activated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that H and mH suppressed the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. These results suggest that H and mH are compounds having potent anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat such diseases as IBD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid 8-O-Glucuronides from the Aerial Parts of Malva verticillata and Their Recovery Effects on Alloxan-Induced Pancreatic Islets in Zebrafish
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040833
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Malva verticillata (Cluster mallow), a leafy vegetable that has been popular in East Asia for a long time, has also been used in herbal teas and medicines. The aqueous fraction of the aerial parts of Malva verticillata, exhibiting a very high quantity
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Malva verticillata (Cluster mallow), a leafy vegetable that has been popular in East Asia for a long time, has also been used in herbal teas and medicines. The aqueous fraction of the aerial parts of Malva verticillata, exhibiting a very high quantity of flavonoids compared to the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions, exhibited significant recovery effects on pancreatic islets damaged by alloxan in zebrafish larvae. Thus, the bioactive components responsible for this anti-diabetic activity were investigated. A new flavonoid glucuronide (1) and five known flavonoids were isolated from the aqueous fraction. Based on several spectroscopic methods, compound 1 was identified to be nortangeretin-8-O-β-d-glucuronide, and was named malvaflavone A. The A-ring of compound 1 had a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxy moiety, which rarely occurs in plant systems. Also 8-O-glucuronide attached to the flavonoid moiety was rarely occurred in plant system. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 significantly improved the pancreatic islet size in zebrafish at 0.1 μM, and compounds 1 and 6 were found to block β-cell K+ channels in experiments with diazoxide. In ABTS, ORAC, and SOD assays, compounds 15 exhibited high anti-oxidant activities compared with quercetin and BHA (positive controls), indicating that the 8-O-glucuronide attached to the flavonoid moiety is a key structure for the expression of anti-oxidant activity. This is the first report of the isolation of compounds 16 from M. verticillata as well evaluated for anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant ativities. Full article
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Open AccessReview Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040790
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has
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Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investigations into these functional molecules in tea flowers, including functional molecules similar to those in tea leaves, as well as the preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers. Tea flowers contain representative metabolites similar to those of tea leaves, such as catechins, flavonols, caffeine, and amino acids. The preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers include saponins, polysaccharides, aromatic compounds, spermidine derivatives, and functional proteins. We also review the safety and biological functions of tea flowers. Tea flower extracts are proposed to be of no toxicological concern based on evidence from the evaluation of mutagenicity, and acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. The presence of many functional metabolites in tea flowers indicates that tea flowers possess diverse biological functions, which are mostly related to catechins, polysaccharides, and saponins. Finally, we discuss the potential for, and challenges facing, future applications of tea flowers as a second resource from tea plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040759
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren’t reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation
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Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren’t reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids as Potential Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040719
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating
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Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes. GSK-3β is one of the most attractive targets for medicinal chemists in the discovery, design, and synthesis of new selective potent inhibitors. In the current study, twenty-eight Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of various structural types were studied for their potency to inhibit GSK-3β. Promising results have been demonstrated by alkaloids of the homolycorine-{9-O-demethylhomolycorine (IC50 = 30.00 ± 0.71 µM), masonine (IC50 = 27.81 ± 0.01 μM)}, and lycorine-types {caranine (IC50 = 30.75 ± 0.04 μM)}. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hyperjaponol H, A New Bioactive Filicinic Acid-Based Meroterpenoid from Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030683
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
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Abstract
Hyperjaponol H (1), a new filicinic acid-based meroterpenoid, with a 6/6/10 ring system trans-fused by hetero-Diels–Alder cycloaddition between a germacrane sesquiterpenoid and a filicinic acid moiety, was isolated from aerial parts of Hypericum japonicum. The elucidation of its structure
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Hyperjaponol H (1), a new filicinic acid-based meroterpenoid, with a 6/6/10 ring system trans-fused by hetero-Diels–Alder cycloaddition between a germacrane sesquiterpenoid and a filicinic acid moiety, was isolated from aerial parts of Hypericum japonicum. The elucidation of its structure and absolute configuration were accomplished by the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and the comparison of Cotton effects of electron circular dichroism (ECD) with previously reported ones. The bioactivity assay showed that hyperjaponol H exhibited a moderate inhibitory efficacy on lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA replication in B95-8 cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Novel Secondary Metabolites from Endophytes
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030646
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Exploration of structurally novel natural products greatly facilitates the discovery of biologically active pharmacophores that are biologically validated starting points for the development of new drugs. Endophytes that colonize the internal tissues of plant species, have been proven to produce a large number
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Exploration of structurally novel natural products greatly facilitates the discovery of biologically active pharmacophores that are biologically validated starting points for the development of new drugs. Endophytes that colonize the internal tissues of plant species, have been proven to produce a large number of structurally diverse secondary metabolites. These molecules exhibit remarkable biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, to name but a few. This review surveys the structurally diverse natural products with new carbon skeletons, unusual ring systems, or rare structural moieties that have been isolated from endophytes between 1996 and 2016. It covers their structures and bioactivities. Biosynthesis and/or total syntheses of some important compounds are also highlighted. Some novel secondary metabolites with marked biological activities might deserve more attention from chemists and biologists in further studies. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Prenylated Polyphenols from Broussonetia kazinoki as Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Production
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030639
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages has been involved in inflammatory diseases. Seven polyphenols (17) were isolated from Broussonetia kazinoki (B. kazinoki) and investigated as potential inhibitors of NO overproduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Among them,
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Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages has been involved in inflammatory diseases. Seven polyphenols (17) were isolated from Broussonetia kazinoki (B. kazinoki) and investigated as potential inhibitors of NO overproduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, four prenylated polyphenols (24 and 6) with a catechol moiety efficiently suppressed the LPS-induced high level of NO with IC50 values of less than 6 µM. The compounds 24 and 6 also attenuated protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, they suppressed the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity by inhibiting the degradation of inhibitory-κB-α (I-κB-α) and the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that polyphenols from B. kazinoki might be beneficial for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Target Anti-Alzheimer Activities of Four Prenylated Compounds from Psoralea Fructus
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030614
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that is mediated by multiple signaling pathways. In recent years, the components of Psoralea Fructus (PF) have demonstrated some anti-Alzheimer effects both in vitro and in vivo. To further reveal the active compounds of PF
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that is mediated by multiple signaling pathways. In recent years, the components of Psoralea Fructus (PF) have demonstrated some anti-Alzheimer effects both in vitro and in vivo. To further reveal the active compounds of PF and their mechanisms regulating key targets of AD, in this study, we identified four prenylated compounds from the 70% ethanolic aqueous extract of PF, namely bavachin, bavachinin, bavachalcone, and isobavachalcone. Multi-target bioactivity analysis showed that these compounds could differentially inhibit neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and key AD-related protein targets, such as amyloid β-peptide 42, β-secretase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and acetylcholinesterase. These compounds may generate beneficial effects in AD prevention and treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Terpenoids from Chamaecyparis formosensis (Cupressaceae) Leaves with Modulatory Activity on Matrix Metalloproteases 2 and 9
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030604
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
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Abstract
Chamaecyparis formosensis is Taiwan’s most representative tree, and has high economic value. To date, only a few active chemical constituents have been reported for C. formosensis. In this study, 37 secondary metabolites, including three new compounds (13), were
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Chamaecyparis formosensis is Taiwan’s most representative tree, and has high economic value. To date, only a few active chemical constituents have been reported for C. formosensis. In this study, 37 secondary metabolites, including three new compounds (13), were extracted from the leaves of C. formosensis. The compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate layer were used at different concentrations to treat HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and to evaluate their effects on matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) expression. Based on extensive analysis of data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, the new compounds were identified as 11,12-dihydroxyisodaucenoic acid (1), 12-hydroxyisodaucenoic acid (2), and 1-oxo-2α,3β-dihydroxytotarol (3). Known compounds 437 were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with data reported in the literature. Biological activity tests by gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that seven compounds, including new compound 2, have no cytotoxic effect on HT-1080 cells and were found to increase MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression by 1.25- to 1.59-fold at lower concentrations of 10–50 µM. These naturally derived regulatory compounds could potentially serve as a novel pharmaceutical basis for medical purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wedelolactone Enhances Osteoblastogenesis through ERK- and JNK-mediated BMP2 Expression and Smad/1/5/8 Phosphorylation
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030561
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
Our previous study showed that wedelolactone, a compound isolated from Ecliptae herba, has the potential to enhance osteoblastogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which wedelolactone promoted osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remain largely unknown. In this study, treatment with
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Our previous study showed that wedelolactone, a compound isolated from Ecliptae herba, has the potential to enhance osteoblastogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which wedelolactone promoted osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remain largely unknown. In this study, treatment with wedelolactone (2 μg/mL) for 3, 6, and 9 days resulted in an increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK and JNK started to increase on day 3 of treatment, and p38 phosphorylation was increased by day 6 of treatment. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) mRNA and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced after treatment of cells with wedelolactone for 6 and 9 days. The addition of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, ERK inhibitor PD98059, and p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed wedelolactone-induced alkaline-phosphatase activity, bone mineralization, and osteoblastogenesis-related marker genes including Runx2, Bglap, and Sp7. Increased expression of BMP2 mRNA and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation was blocked by SP600125 and PD98059, but not by SB203580. These results suggested that wedelolactone enhanced osteoblastogenesis through induction of JNK- and ERK-mediated BMP2 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Persicaline, A New Antioxidant Sulphur-Containing Imidazoline Alkaloid from Salvadora persica Roots
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020483
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Salvadora persica L. is a popular chewing stick commonly known as “miswak”. During our ongoing research activities on the chemical constituents of Salvadora persica roots, which is a new sulphur-containing imidazoline alkaloid 1,3-Dibenzyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-butyl)-1,3-dihydro-imidazole-2-thione, persicaline, (1) along with five known compounds (
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Salvadora persica L. is a popular chewing stick commonly known as “miswak”. During our ongoing research activities on the chemical constituents of Salvadora persica roots, which is a new sulphur-containing imidazoline alkaloid 1,3-Dibenzyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-butyl)-1,3-dihydro-imidazole-2-thione, persicaline, (1) along with five known compounds (26) are identified. Compounds (2, 3) were reported for the first time from the family Salvadoraeceae. The structure of the new compound was established by extensive spectroscopic data and HR-MS. The antioxidant activities of the fractions and isolates were evaluated using different in vitro methods, such as DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. Compound (1) showed a promising antioxidant activity with IC50 0.1, 0.08, and 0.09 µM in the three assays, respectively, comparable to ascorbic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Phenolic and Isocoumarin Glycosides from the Stems of Homalium paniculiflorum
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020472
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Two new phenolic glycosides (1 and 2) and two new isocoumarin glycosides (3 and 4), along with 14 known compounds (518), were isolated from the stems of Homalium paniculiflorum. Their structures were established on
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Two new phenolic glycosides (1 and 2) and two new isocoumarin glycosides (3 and 4), along with 14 known compounds (518), were isolated from the stems of Homalium paniculiflorum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All new compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities via examining the inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 1 and 4 exhibited inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 30.23 ± 1.23 μM and 19.36 ± 0.19 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020402
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents,
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This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78%) and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract), followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively), for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract), 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds in Cornelian Cherry Vinegars
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020379
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
We analyzed the effect of Cornelian cherry varieties differing in fruit color (‘Yantaryi’—yellow fruits, ‘Koralovyi’—coral fruits, ‘Podolski’—red fruits) and the production method on the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of Cornelian cherry vinegars, and on their content of iridoids and polyphenols. Acetic fermentation was
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We analyzed the effect of Cornelian cherry varieties differing in fruit color (‘Yantaryi’—yellow fruits, ‘Koralovyi’—coral fruits, ‘Podolski’—red fruits) and the production method on the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of Cornelian cherry vinegars, and on their content of iridoids and polyphenols. Acetic fermentation was conducted by two methods: I) single-stage (spontaneous) acetic fermentation, without inoculation with microorganisms, and II) two-stage fermentation in which the first stage involved the use of Saccharomyces bayanus—Safspirit fruit yeast for alcoholic fermentation, and the second one included spontaneous acetic fermentation. Acetic acid, glycerol, individual iridoids, phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins were quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The antioxidative activity was determined based on the following tests: 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), while the total polyphenols content was determined using the Folin-Ciocialteu (F-C) reagent test. Both the Cornelian cherry variety and vinegar production method affected the antioxidative properties as well as concentrations of iridoids and polyphenols in the finished product. The concentration of total polyphenols (F-C) in vinegars ranged from 326.60 to 757.27 mg gallic acids equivalents (GAE)/100 mL vinegar, whereas the antioxidative activity assayed with the DPPH and FRAP methods was the highest in the vinegars produced from the coral and red varieties of Cornelian cherry with the two-stage method. Loganic acid predominated among the identified iridoids, reaching a concentration of 185.07 mg loganic acid (LA)/100 mL in the vinegar produced in the two-stage fermentation from the coral-fruit variety. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the main representatives among the identified phenolic compounds. The results of this study demonstrate Cornelian cherry vinegars to be rich sources of biologically-active iridoids and phenolic compounds with antioxidative properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Flavonolignans on the P2Y12 Pathway in Blood Platelets
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020374
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly
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Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin. For this reason, the aim of the current work was to verify the effects of silybin, silychristin, and silydianin on ADP-induced physiological platelets responses, as well as mechanisms of P2Y12-dependent intracellular signal transduction. We evaluated the effect of tested flavonolignans on ADP-induced blood platelets’ aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (using light transmission aggregometry), adhesion to fibrinogen (using the static method), and the secretion of PF-4 (using the ELISA method). Additionally, using the double labeled flow cytometry method, we estimated platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. We demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of blood platelets’ ability to perform ADP-induced aggregation, adhere to fibrinogen, and secrete PF-4 in samples treated with flavonolignans. Additionally, we observed that all of the tested flavonolignans were able to increase VASP phosphorylation in blood platelets samples, which is correlated with P2Y12 receptor inhibition. All of these analyses show that silychristin and silybin have the strongest inhibitory effect on blood platelet activation by ADP, while silydianin also inhibits the ADP pathway, but to a lesser extent. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that silybin, silychristin, and silydianin have inhibitory properties against the P2Y12 receptor and block ADP-induced blood platelet activation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020345
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc), a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli
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This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc), a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Raphanus sativus (radish). Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves). By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS) analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1) was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves). This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM) was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM) on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Value, Chemical Characterization and Bulb Morphology of Greek Garlic Landraces
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020319
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable crop throughout the world. In Greece there are many areas which have specialized in garlic cultivation through the last decades, considered the main production areas. However, despite the significance of garlic as a food
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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable crop throughout the world. In Greece there are many areas which have specialized in garlic cultivation through the last decades, considered the main production areas. However, despite the significance of garlic as a food product and the high annual income of this crop, there is a decreasing trend in total cultivated area in Greece, and the local landraces are gradually neglected in favor of new imported genotypes. In the present study, garlic genotypes (local landraces/varieties, imported genotypes, commercial cultivars) from the main production regions of Greece were assessed for their chemical composition and quality (total soluble solids, dry matter content, nutritional value, mineral composition, organic acids, fatty acids content and free sugars content), and bulb morphology. The results of the present study showed significant diversity in quality features and bulb morphology, not only between the genotypes from different growing regions, but also between those of the same region. This result is interesting since it could be implemented for further improvement and valorization of this important vegetable crop through extensive breeding programs within the framework of sustainability and genetic, material conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estrogenic Effects of the Extracts from the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) and Its Effective Compounds in Vitro and in Vivo
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the estrogenic effects of the extracts from Chinese yam and its effective compounds. Methods: The activity of the yam was investigated by the uterine weight gain of mice and a proliferation assay of breast
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Background: The aim of this study was to explore the estrogenic effects of the extracts from Chinese yam and its effective compounds. Methods: The activity of the yam was investigated by the uterine weight gain of mice and a proliferation assay of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 cell); the estrogenic activity was comprehensively evaluated by a serum pharmacology experiment. The levels of estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also measured. Western blot analysis and antagonist assays with faslodex (ICI182,780), methylpiperidino-pyrazole (MPP), Delta (9) –tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and G-15 were used to explore the mechanism of the effects of the yam. To find the effective compounds of the yam which play a role in its estrogen-like effects, we used the same methods to study the effects of adenosine and arbutin. Results: The Chinese yam and two main compounds, adenosine and arbutin, have estrogen-like effects. The mechanism of the yam which plays a role in its estrogen-like effects was mainly mediated by the estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ, and GPR30; that of adenosine was mainly mediated by estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, and that of arbutin was mainly mediated by estrogen receptors ERβ and GPR30. Conclusions: The Chinese yam has estrogen-like effects; adenosine and arbutin are two of the effective compounds in the yam which play a role in its estrogen-like effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactivity-Guided Screening of Wound-Healing Active Constituents from American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana)
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010101
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts
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Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC. Seven compounds were successfully identified from the water elution fraction of the EE of PA using UPLC-MS. Among these compounds, four compounds (P2, P3, P4, P5(1)) were first reported in PA. Some of these compounds have been previously reported to have various pharmacological activities that could contribute to the high wound-healing activity of PA. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Modulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia by Prenylated Chalcones from Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik. through Inhibition of I-κBα Degradation
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010109
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by microglia may cause neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. From the activity-guided purification of Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik. (syn. Psoralea corylifolia L.), three prenylated chalcones were
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The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by microglia may cause neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. From the activity-guided purification of Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik. (syn. Psoralea corylifolia L.), three prenylated chalcones were identified: isobavachalcone (1), bavachromene (2), and kanzonol B (3). These prenylated chalcones showed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on NO and PGE2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that these prenylchalcones reduced the expression of protein and mRNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated microglia. Furthermore, three prenylated chalcones blocked the inhibitory-κBα (I-κBα) degradation and down-regulated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) level of nucleus in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Therefore, these prenylated chalcones from Psoralea corylifolia may be beneficial for the treatment of neuro-inflammatory diseases by modulating iNOS and COX-2 expressions in activated microglial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antrodia cinnamomea Oligosaccharides Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation through Promoting O-GlcNAcylation and Repressing p38/Akt Phosphorylation
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products
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Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products were prepared from AC polysaccharides at 90 °C (ACHO) or 25 °C (ACCO), which showed different oligosaccharide identities. Compared to ACCO, ACHO displayed better inhibitory effects on LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α and MCP-1 in macrophage cells. Further, ACHO significantly suppressed the inflammation in lung tissues of LPS-injected C57BL/6 mice. The potential anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism may be associated with the promotion of protein O-GlcNAcylation, which further skewed toward the marked suppression of p38 and Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the suppressive effect of AC oligosaccharides on inflammation may be an effective approach for the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Furoquinoline Alkaloids from Vepris lecomteana (Pierre) Cheek & T. Heller (Rutaceae)
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Three new prenylated furoquinoline alkaloids named lecomtequinoline A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with the known compounds anhydroevoxine (4), evoxine (5), dictamnine (6), N-methylflindersine (7), evoxanthine
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Three new prenylated furoquinoline alkaloids named lecomtequinoline A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with the known compounds anhydroevoxine (4), evoxine (5), dictamnine (6), N-methylflindersine (7), evoxanthine (8), hesperidin, lupeol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, stearic acid, and myristyl alcohol, were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of leaves and stem of Vepris lecomteana. The structures of compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS, UV, and IR) and by comparison with previously reported data. Crude extracts of leaves and stem displayed high antimicrobial activity, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (values of 10.1–16.5 and 10.2–20.5 µg/mL, respectively, against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas agarici, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus warneri, while compounds 16 showed values ranging from 11.1 to 18.7 µg/mL or were inactive, suggesting synergistic effect. The extracts may find application in crude drug preparations in Western Africa where Vepris lecomteana is endemic, subject to negative toxicity results in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds from the Stems of Clausena lansium
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122226
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
In view of the significant neuroprotective effect of Clausena lansium, we continued to separate the n-butanol and the water extracts from the stems of C. lansium in order to find the leading compounds with significant activity. Two new phenolic glycosides, Clausenolside
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In view of the significant neuroprotective effect of Clausena lansium, we continued to separate the n-butanol and the water extracts from the stems of C. lansium in order to find the leading compounds with significant activity. Two new phenolic glycosides, Clausenolside A–B (12), one new pair of phenolic enantiomers (3a, 3b), and two new monoterpenoids, clausenapene A–B (45), together with twelve known analogues (617) were isolated from the stems of C. lansium. Compounds 117 were obtained from C. lansium for the first time. Compounds 3a, 3b, 4, 16, and 17 showed strong or moderate potential neuroprotective effects on inhibited PC12 cell injury induced by okadaic acid, and compound 9 exhibited strong potential hepatoprotective activities. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, NMR experiments, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sequential Combination of Microwave- and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122216
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction assays were used to isolate total flavonoids (TF) from Osmanthus fragrans flowers. The effects of the solid-liquid ratio, ethanol concentration, microwave power, microwave extraction time, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic extraction time on the yield of TF were studied. A
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Microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction assays were used to isolate total flavonoids (TF) from Osmanthus fragrans flowers. The effects of the solid-liquid ratio, ethanol concentration, microwave power, microwave extraction time, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic extraction time on the yield of TF were studied. A sequential combination of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction (SC-MUAE) methods was developed, which was subsequently optimized by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM). The interaction effects of the ethanol concentration (40–60%), microwave extraction time (5–7 min), ultrasonic extraction time (8–12 min) and ultrasonic power (210–430 W) on the yield of TF were investigated. The optimum operating parameters for the extraction of TF were determined to be as follows: ethanol concentration (48.15%), microwave extraction time (6.43 min), ultrasonic extraction time (10.09 min) and ultrasonic power (370.9 W). Under these conditions, the extraction yield of TF was 7.86 mg/g. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Topical Anti-Aging Ingredients in a Citrus junos Callus Extract
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122198
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we prepared and characterized a callus extract from Citrus junos and assessed its utility as a source of topical anti-aging ingredients. Callus extract was produced by aqueous extraction from Citrus junos grown on Murashige and Skoog medium with picloram as
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In this study, we prepared and characterized a callus extract from Citrus junos and assessed its utility as a source of topical anti-aging ingredients. Callus extract was produced by aqueous extraction from Citrus junos grown on Murashige and Skoog medium with picloram as a growth regulator. After measuring the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the major phenolic compound in calli was identified as p-hydroxycinnamoylmalic acid (1) by spectroscopic analysis. The total phenol content in the extract was determined to be 24.50 ± 0.43 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents; however, the total flavonoid content of the extract was not determined. The biological activities of the callus extract, in terms of skin anti-aging, were assessed by measuring the anti-tyrosinase activity in, and melanogenesis by, melanoma cells; and proliferation of, and procollagen synthesis by, human fibroblasts. The callus extract was incorporated into nanoliposomes (NLs) to improve its percutaneous absorption. Addition of the callus extract resulted in a 1.85-fold decrease in the melanin content of melanocytes compared with that with arbutin. The extract (500 μg/mL) significantly promoted the proliferation of, and procollagen synthesis by, fibroblasts (by 154% and 176%, respectively). In addition, the flux through the human epidermis of Citrus junos callus extract incorporated into NLs was 17.67-fold higher than that of the callus extract alone. These findings suggest that Citrus junos callus extract-loaded NLs have promise as an anti-aging cosmetic, as well as having a skin-lightening effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Bioactive Polyphenols Extraction from Picea Mariana Bark
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122118
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and non-toxicity properties, the hot water extract of Picea mariana bark was demonstrated to contain highly valuable bioactive polyphenols. In order to improve the recovery of these molecules, an optimization of the extraction was performed using water. Several
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Reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and non-toxicity properties, the hot water extract of Picea mariana bark was demonstrated to contain highly valuable bioactive polyphenols. In order to improve the recovery of these molecules, an optimization of the extraction was performed using water. Several extraction parameters were tested and extracts obtained analyzed both in terms of relative amounts of different phytochemical families and of individual molecules concentrations. As a result, low temperature (80 °C) and low ratio of bark/water (50 mg/mL) were determined to be the best parameters for an efficient polyphenol extraction and that especially for low molecular mass polyphenols. These were identified as stilbene monomers and derivatives, mainly stilbene glucoside isorhapontin (up to 12.0% of the dry extract), astringin (up to 4.6%), resveratrol (up to 0.3%), isorhapontigenin (up to 3.7%) and resveratrol glucoside piceid (up to 3.1%) which is here reported for the first time for Picea mariana. New stilbene derivatives, piceasides O and P were also characterized herein as new isorhapontin dimers. This study provides novel information about the optimal extraction of polyphenols from black spruce bark, especially for highly bioactive stilbenes including the trans-resveratrol. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Resveratrol-Induced Effects on Body Fat Differ Depending on Feeding Conditions
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122091
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol
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Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), which has been proposed as an “energy restriction mimetic” because it can exert energy restriction-like effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of resveratrol on obesity under different feeding conditions, such as overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction, in animals and humans. The vast majority of the studies reported have addressed the administration of resveratrol to animals alongside an obesogenic diet. Under these experimental conditions usually a decreased body weight amount was found. To date, studies that focus on the effects of resveratrol under normal feeding or energy restriction conditions in animals and humans are scarcer. In these studies no changes in body fat were reported. After analyzing the results obtained under overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction conditions, it can be stated that resveratrol is useful in reducing body fat accumulation, and thus preventing obesity. Nevertheless, for ethical reasons, these results have been obtained in animals. By contrast, there are no evidences showing the usefulness of this phenolic compound in reducing previously accumulated body fat. Consequently, as of yet, there is not scientific support for proposing resveratrol as a new anti-obesity treatment tool. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Rosiglitazone-Like Effects of Vitexilactone, a Constituent from Vitex trifolia L. in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22112030
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The increased number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide problem, and insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as therapeutic agents. We found that extracts of Vitex trifolia L. (V. trifolia), a medicinal plant from
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The increased number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide problem, and insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as therapeutic agents. We found that extracts of Vitex trifolia L. (V. trifolia), a medicinal plant from Myanmar, induced adipogenesis similar to rosiglitazone (ROS), which is a TZD, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we attempted to isolate from V. trifolia those compounds that showed ROS-like effects. Among the extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol obtained from V. trifolia, the ethyl acetate extract with the strongest ROS-like effects was purified by various chromatographic methods to obtain three known compounds: vitexilactone (1), vitexicarpin (2) and oleanolic acid (3). Among the isolated compounds, the ROS-like action of 1 was the strongest. The effects of 1 on 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis were compared with those of ROS. Both 1 and ROS increased lipid accumulation, the expression of adiponectin and GLUT4 in the cell membrane and decreased both the size of adipocytes and the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, unlike ROS, the induction of proteins involved in lipogenesis was partial. ROS-like effects of 1 in 3T3-L1 cells were suppressed by the addition of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), one of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists, suggesting that the action of 1 on adipocytes is mediated by PPARγ. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that 1 is a novel insulin sensitizer candidate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22112023
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption
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Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%), soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%), freezing and thawing (8.34%), and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%). The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Two Sulfur Glycoside Compounds Isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd Protect NRK52e Cells against Hypertonic-Induced Adhesion and Inflammation by Suppressing the MAPK Signaling Pathway and RAAS
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111956
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Lepidium apetalum Willd has been used to reduce edema and promote urination. Cis-desulfoglucotropaeolin (cis-DG) and trans-desulfoglucotropaeolin (trans-DG) were isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd, and caused a significant increase in cell viability in a hypertonic model in NRK52e
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Lepidium apetalum Willd has been used to reduce edema and promote urination. Cis-desulfoglucotropaeolin (cis-DG) and trans-desulfoglucotropaeolin (trans-DG) were isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd, and caused a significant increase in cell viability in a hypertonic model in NRK52e cells. In the hypertonic model, cis-DG and trans-DG significantly promoted the cell viability of NRK52e cells and inhibited the elevation of Na+ in the supernatant, inhibited the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system, significantly reduced the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (ALD), and lowered aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na+–K+ ATP content in renal medulla. After treatment with cis-DG and trans-DG, expression of calcineurin (CAN) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) was decreased in renal tissue and Ca2+ influx was inhibited, thereby reducing the secretion of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), reversing the increase in adhesion and inflammatory factor E-selectin and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) induced by high NaCl, while reducing oxidative stress status and decreasing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) expression also contributed to these improvements. The cis-DG and trans-DG reduced the expression of p-p44/42 MAPK, p-JNK and p-p38, inhibited the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway in NRN52e cells induced by high salt, decreased the overexpression of p-p38 and p-HSP27, and inhibited the overactivation of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the p38-MAPK pathway may play a vital role in the hypertonic-induced adhesion and inflammatory response. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the mechanism of cis-DG and trans-DG may mainly be through inhibiting the p38-MAPK signaling pathway, inhibiting the excessive activation of the RAAS system, and thereby reducing adhesion and inflammatory factors. Full article
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Open AccessReview Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.)—Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111942
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. The main component of S. marianum fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan called silybin, which is not
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Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. The main component of S. marianum fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan called silybin, which is not only the major silymarin element but is also the most active ingredient of this extract, which has been confirmed in various studies. This compound belongs to the flavonoid group known as flavonolignans. Silybin’s structure consists in two main units. The first is based on a taxifolin, the second a phenyllpropanoid unit, which in this case is conyferil alcohol. These two units are linked together into one structure by an oxeran ring. Since the 1970s, silybin has been regarded in official medicine as a substance with hepatoprotective properties. There is a large body of research that demonstrates silybin’s many other healthy properties, but there are still a lack of papers focused on its molecular structure, chemistry, metabolism, and novel form of administration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is a literature review presenting and systematizing our knowledge of the silybin molecule, with particular emphasis on its structure, chemistry, bioavailability, and metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Plectranthus punctatus
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111919
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Four new para-benzoquinone containing abietane-type diterpenoids (14) along with thirteen known diterpenoids (517) were isolated from the roots of Plectranthus punctatus. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectroscopic analyses and
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Four new para-benzoquinone containing abietane-type diterpenoids (14) along with thirteen known diterpenoids (517) were isolated from the roots of Plectranthus punctatus. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activity and showed significant inhibitory activity against all bacterial strains used, with compounds 6, 8, 10, and 11 showing an inhibition zone for Staphylococcus warneri even greater than the reference drug, gentamycin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural and Functional Properties Changes of β-Conglycinin Exposed to Hydroxyl Radical-Generating Systems
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111893
Received: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
The objective of the present study was to examine the structural and functional changes of β-conglycinin exposed to oxidizing radicals produced by FeCl3/H2O2/ascorbic acid hydroxyl radical-generating system (HRGS) for 3 h at room temperature. Increasing H2
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The objective of the present study was to examine the structural and functional changes of β-conglycinin exposed to oxidizing radicals produced by FeCl3/H2O2/ascorbic acid hydroxyl radical-generating system (HRGS) for 3 h at room temperature. Increasing H2O2 concentrations resulted in a loss of histidine residues, lysine residues, and available lysine, which was accompanied by the formation of protein carbonyls and disulphide bonds (p < 0.05). Changes in secondary structure, surface hydrophobicity, and intrinsic fluorescence indicated that hydroxyl radicals had induced protein unfolding and conformational alterations. Results from SDS-PAGE implied that a small amount of protein cross-linkages produced by oxidative incubation. The emulsifying properties of β-conglycinin were gradually improved with the increasing extent of oxidation. The structural changes above contributed to the reduction of potential allergenicity of β-conglycinin, as verified by specific ELISA analysis. These results suggest that moderate oxidation could partially improve the protein functional properties and reduced the potential allergy of protein, providing guidance for effective use of moderately oxidized soy protein in the industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acaricidal Activity and Synergistic Effect of Thyme Oil Constituents against Carmine Spider Mite (Tetranychus Cinnabarinus (Boisduval))
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111873
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Studies examining the use of essential oils as replacements for synthetic insecticides require an understanding of the contribution of each constituent present, interactions among these components, and how they relate to overall toxicity. In the present study, the chemical composition of commercial thyme
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Studies examining the use of essential oils as replacements for synthetic insecticides require an understanding of the contribution of each constituent present, interactions among these components, and how they relate to overall toxicity. In the present study, the chemical composition of commercial thyme oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thyme oil and blends of its major constituents were tested for their acaricidal activitities against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)) using a slide-dip bioassay. Natural thyme oil showed greater toxicity than any single constituent or blend of constituents. Thymol was the most abundant component (34.4%), and also possessed the strongest acaricidal activity compared with other single constituents. When tested individually, four constituents (linalool, terpinene, p-cymene and carvacrol) also had activity, while α-pinene, benzoic acid and ethyl gallate had almost no activity. The toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated a synergistic effect among the putatively active and inactive constituents, with the presence of all constituents necessary to reach the highest toxicity. The results indicated that thyme oil and some of its major constituents have the potential to be developed into botanical acaricides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification for the First Time of Cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 as a Nematocide for Control of Meloidogyne incognita
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111839
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1
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The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1 to M. incognita significantly inhibited the hatching of eggs and caused the mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2), with these inhibitory effects depending on the length of incubation time and concentration of the treatment. The dipeptide cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) was identified in B. amyloliquefaciens culture for the first time using chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H, 13C, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and recognized to have nematocidal activity. Various concentrations of cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) were investigated for their effect on the hatching of eggs and J2 mortality. Moreover, the in vivo nematocidal activity of the Y1 strain was investigated by conducting pot experiments in which tomato plants were inoculated with M. incognita. Each and every pot was amended 50 mL of fertilizer media (F), or Y1 culture, or nematicide (N) (only once), or fertilizer media with N (FN) at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after transplantation. The results of the pot experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effect of B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 against M. incognita as it significantly decreases the count of eggs and galls per root of the tomato plant as well as the population of J2 in the soil. Besides, the investigation into the growth parameters, such as the length of shoot, shoot fresh and dry weights of the tomato plants, showed that they were significantly higher in the Y1 strain Y1-treated plants compared to F-, FN- and N-treated plants. Therefore, the biocontrol repertoire of this bacterium opens a new insight into the applications in crop pest control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Human Liver Cells and Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Nordic Berry Extracts
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101806
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries.
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A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE) and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Equol, a Clinically Important Metabolite, Inhibits the Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101799
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease
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Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease on rice. Here, we demonstrated that equol influences the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Equol showed a significant inhibition to the mycelial growth, conidial generation and germination, and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. As a result, equol greatly reduced the virulence of M. oryzae on rice and barley leaves. The antifungal activity of equol was also found in several other plant fungal pathogens. These findings expand our knowledge on the bioactivities of equol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds Present Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Influence the Lowering of Blood Pressure in Rats
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101792
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
This study identified two phenolic compounds in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits: naringenin (first report in this species) and gallic acid. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1H-, 13C-NMR) and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. A
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This study identified two phenolic compounds in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits: naringenin (first report in this species) and gallic acid. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1H-, 13C-NMR) and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. A high content of phenolics (659.21 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample—Folin-Ciocalteau method) and total flavonoids (140.69 mg of rutin equivalents/g of sample—aluminum chloride method) were quantified in S. terebinthifolius, as well as high antioxidant activity (77.47%—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH method). The antihypertensive activity related to its phenolic content was investigated. After intravenous infusion in Wistar rats, these phenolics significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the systolic, median, and diastolic arterial pressures of individuals. The rotarod test was performed to determine the mechanism of action of the sample vasorelaxant effect. It was found that its action exceeded that of the positive control used (diazepam). This confirmed the vasodilatory activity exerted by S. terebinthifolius fruits is related to the phenolic compounds present in the plant, which are potent antioxidants and inhibit oxidative stress, mainly in the central nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure, Absolute Configuration, and Antiproliferative Activity of Abietane and Icetexane Diterpenoids from Salvia ballotiflora
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101690
Received: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
From the aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora, eleven diterpenoids were isolated; among them, four icetexanes and one abietane (15) are reported for the first time. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means, mainly 1H- and 13C-NMR,
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From the aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora, eleven diterpenoids were isolated; among them, four icetexanes and one abietane (15) are reported for the first time. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means, mainly 1H- and 13C-NMR, including 1D and 2D homo- and hetero-nuclear experiments. Most of the isolated diterpenoids were tested for their antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and radical scavenging activities using the sulforhodamine B assay on six cancer cell lines, the TPA-induced ear edema test in mice, and the reduction of the DPPH assay, respectively. Some diterpenoids showed anti-proliferative activity, these being icetexanes 6 and 3, which were the most active with IC50 (μM) = 0.27 ± 0.08 and 1.40 ± 0.03, respectively, for U251 (human glioblastoma) and IC50 (μM) = 0.0.46 ± 0.05 and 0.82 ± 0.06 for SKLU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), when compared with adriamycin (IC50 (μM) = 0.08 ± 0.003 and 0.05 ± 0.003, as the positive control), respectively. Compounds 3 and 10 showed significant reduction of the induced ear edema of 37.4 ± 2.8 and 25.4 ± 3.0% (at 1.0 μmol/ear), respectively. Compound 4 was the sole active diterpenoid in the antioxidant assay (IC50 = 98. 4 ± 3.3), using α-tocopherol as the positive control (IC50 (μM) = 31.7 ± 1.04). The diterpenoid profile found is of chemotaxonomic relevance and reinforces the evolutionary link of S. ballotiflora with other members of the section Tomentellae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health-Promoting Phytochemicals from 11 Mustard Cultivars at Baby Leaf and Mature Stages
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101749
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Mustard is a Brassica vegetable that provides a number of phytonutrients. However, the phytonutrient profile of mustard has been relatively limited. We analyzed the glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, carotenoids, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of 11
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Mustard is a Brassica vegetable that provides a number of phytonutrients. However, the phytonutrient profile of mustard has been relatively limited. We analyzed the glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, carotenoids, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of 11 mustard cultivars grown in a greenhouse at the baby leaf and mature stages. An aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin and its hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate and 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane were the major phytonutrients in the mustard leaves. Carotenoids β-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin were detected. We found phytonutrient concentration and their change with plant growth were cultivar-dependent. The %RDA value for vitamin A calculated using β-carotene content and retinol activity equivalents suggests that mustard cultivars used in this study can be a good source of vitamin A. Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity also varied among cultivars and between physiological stages. Our results suggest that mustard leaves are rich in various phytochemicals and their composition depends on cultivar and the physiological stage. This is the first report on phytochemical composition in various mustard cultivars at different physiological stages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Seven Major Bio-Active Components in Normal and Blood Stasis Rats after Oral Administration of Herb Pair Danggui-Honghua by UPLC-TQ/MS
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101746
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix) and Honghua (Carthami Flos) is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid,
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The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix) and Honghua (Carthami Flos) is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic acid, 3-n-butylphthalide, and ligustilide) in plasma samples in vivo by UPLC-TQ/MS method and investigatedwhether the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of the seven components could be altered in blood stasis rats after oral administration of the Gui-Hong extracts. It was found that the Cmax and AUC0-t of these components in blood stasis rats had increasing tendency compared with normal rats. Most components in model and normal rats had significant difference in some pharmacokinetic parameters, which indicated that the metabolism enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of these bio-active componentsmay bealtered in blood stasis rats. This study was the first report about the pharmacokinetic investigation between normal and blood stasis rats after oral administrationof Gui-Hong extracts, and these results are important and valuable for better clinical applications of Gui-Hong herb pair and relatedTCM formulae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101708
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of
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Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology of Geniposide, a Natural Product
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101689
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Iridoid glycosides are natural products occurring widely in many herbal plants. Geniposide (C17H24O10) is a well-known one, present in nearly 40 species belonging to various families, especially the Rubiaceae. Along with this herbal component, dozens of its
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Iridoid glycosides are natural products occurring widely in many herbal plants. Geniposide (C17H24O10) is a well-known one, present in nearly 40 species belonging to various families, especially the Rubiaceae. Along with this herbal component, dozens of its natural derivatives have also been isolated and characterized by researchers. Furthermore, a large body of pharmacological evidence has proved the various biological activities of geniposide, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cholagogic effects and so on. However, there have been some research articles on its toxicity in recent years. Therefore, this review paper aims to provide the researchers with a comprehensive profile of geniposide on its phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology in order to highlight some present issues and future perspectives as well as to help us develop and utilize this iridoid glycoside more efficiently and safely. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioassay-Guided Isolated Compounds from Morinda officinalis Inhibit Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101638
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Due to the side effects of synthetic drugs, the therapeutic potential of natural products for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has gained interest. Morinda officinalis has demonstrated inhibitory effects on geriatric diseases, such as bone loss and osteoporosis. However, although AD is a geriatric disease,
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Due to the side effects of synthetic drugs, the therapeutic potential of natural products for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has gained interest. Morinda officinalis has demonstrated inhibitory effects on geriatric diseases, such as bone loss and osteoporosis. However, although AD is a geriatric disease, M. officinalis has not been evaluated in an AD bioassay. Therefore, M. officinalis extracts and fractions were tested for AD-related activity, including inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. A bioassay-guided approach led to isolation of 10 active compounds, eight anthraquinones (18), one coumarin (9), and one phytosterol (10), from n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of M. officinalis. The five anthraquinones (48) were stronger inhibitors of AChE than were other compounds. Compounds 3 and 9 were good inhibitors of BChE, and compounds 3 and 8 were good inhibitors of BACE1. Compounds 15 and 79 were more active than the positive control in inhibiting AGE formation. In addition, we first suggested a structure-activity relationship by which anthraquinones inhibit AChE and BACE1. Our findings demonstrate the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of M. officinalis for AD and its potential use as a natural alternative medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Silico Prediction of the Anti-Depression Mechanism of a Herbal Formula (Tiansi Liquid) Containing Morinda officinalis and Cuscuta chinensis
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101614
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Purpose: Depression is a sickening psychiatric condition that is prevalent worldwide. To manage depression, the underlying modes of antidepressant effect of herbals are important to be explored for the development of natural drugs. Tiansi Liquid is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that
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Purpose: Depression is a sickening psychiatric condition that is prevalent worldwide. To manage depression, the underlying modes of antidepressant effect of herbals are important to be explored for the development of natural drugs. Tiansi Liquid is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is prescribed for the management of depression, however its underlying mechanism of action is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate the pharmacological mode of action of a herbal formula used in TCM for the treatment of depression. Methods: Based on literature search, an ingredients-targets database was developed for Tiansi Liquid, followed by the identification of targets related to depression. The interaction between these targets was evaluated on the basis of protein-protein interaction network constructed by STITCH and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis using ClueGO plugin. Results: As a result of literature search, 57 components in Tiansi Liquid formula and 106 potential targets of these ingredients were retrieved. A careful screening of these targets led to the identification of 42 potential targets associated with depression. Ultimately, 327 GO terms were found by analysis of gene functional annotation clusters and abundance value of these targets. Most of these terms were found to be closely related to depression. A significant number of protein targets such as IL10, MAPK1, PTGS2, AKT1, APOE, PPARA, MAPK1, MIF, NOS3 and TNF-α were found to be involved in the functioning of Tiansi Liquid against depression. Conclusions: The findings elaborate that Tiansi Liquid can be utilized to manage depression, however, multiple molecular mechanisms of action could be proposed for this effect. The observed core mechanisms could be the sensory perception of pain, regulation of lipid transport and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Metabolites from the Edible Fungus Phellinus baumii in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101583
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
The edible fungus Phellinus baumii Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicines for strengthening health and prolonging life. An extract of the fruiting bodies of P. baumii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation based on its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7
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The edible fungus Phellinus baumii Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicines for strengthening health and prolonging life. An extract of the fruiting bodies of P. baumii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation based on its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The resulting fractions were chemically investigated, leading to isolation of three phenolic compounds (13), a sesquiterpene (4), two steroids (56), a fatty acid (7), and a cerebroside (8). Spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and LC/MS were used to determine their chemical structures. Compounds 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were identified in P. baumii for the first time. Since all compounds were isolated from active fractions with anti-inflammatory activity, their ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production, and compounds 13 had IC50 values <10 μM. Treatment of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with compounds 13 inhibited phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα. In addition, treatment of compounds 13 reduced LPS-induced increases of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. Collectively, compounds 13 inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. Thus, P. baumii is a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents, and active compounds 13 could be promising lead compounds for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cardiovascular Activity of the Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091539
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in developed and developing countries and decrease the quality of life, which has enormous social and economic consequences for the population. Recent studies on essential oils have attracted attention and encouraged continued research of this
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Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in developed and developing countries and decrease the quality of life, which has enormous social and economic consequences for the population. Recent studies on essential oils have attracted attention and encouraged continued research of this group of natural products because of their effects on the cardiovascular system. The pharmacological data indicate a therapeutic potential for essential oils for use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this review reports the current studies of essential oils chemical constituents with cardiovascular activity, including a description of their mechanisms of action. Full article
Open AccessCommunication A New Monoterpene from the Leaves of a Radiation Mutant Cultivar of Perilla frutescens var. crispa with Inhibitory Activity on LPS-Induced NO Production
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091471
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
The leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Lamiaceae)—known as ‘Jureum-soyeop’ or ‘Cha-jo-ki’ in Korean, ‘ZI SU YE’ in Chinese, and ‘Shiso’ in Japan—has been used as a medicinal herb. Recent gamma irradiated mutation breeding on P. frutescens var. crispa in our research group
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The leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Lamiaceae)—known as ‘Jureum-soyeop’ or ‘Cha-jo-ki’ in Korean, ‘ZI SU YE’ in Chinese, and ‘Shiso’ in Japan—has been used as a medicinal herb. Recent gamma irradiated mutation breeding on P. frutescens var. crispa in our research group resulted in the development of a new perilla cultivar, P. frutescens var. crispa (cv. Antisperill; PFCA), which has a higher content of isoegomaketone. The leaves of PFCA were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, and phytochemical investigation on this extract led to the isolation and identification of a new compound, 9-hydroxy-isoegomaketone [(2E)-1-(3-furanyl)-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one; 1]. Compound 1 exhibited inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 14.4 μM. The compounds in the SC-CO2 extracts of the radiation mutant cultivar and the original plant were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091467
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane
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Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid groups were isolated from Aframomum meleguea seeds and identified as 6-gingerol (1), 6-paradol (2), 8-dehydrogingerdione (3), 8-gingerol (4), dihydro-6-paradol (5), dihydrogingerenone A (6), dihydrogingerenone C (7), 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (8), and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (9). The structures of isolated compounds were established by NMR and mass spectral data, in addition to referring to literature data. Exposure of MCF-7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells to subcytotoxic concentrations of the compounds under investigation resulted in accelerated proliferation. Among them, paradol was selected for further detailed biochemical analysis in SAOS-2 cells. DNA flowcytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that paradol did not induce any significant change in the proliferation index of SAOS-2 cells. Assessment of osteogenic gene expression revealed that paradol enhanced the expression of osteocyte and osteoblast-related genes and inhibited osteoclast and RUNX suppressor genes. Biochemically, paradol enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D content and decreased the osteoporotic marker acid phosphatase. In conclusion, paradol, which is a major constituents of A. melegueta seeds, exhibited potent proliferative and ossification characteristics in bone cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Components Isolated from Apios americana Medik
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091432
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
A new compound 1, 5-methoxy-2,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-coumaronochromone, along with seven known compounds (28), were isolated from Apios americana using open column chromatography. Their structures were established based on an analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectra. Among these,
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A new compound 1, 5-methoxy-2,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-coumaronochromone, along with seven known compounds (28), were isolated from Apios americana using open column chromatography. Their structures were established based on an analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectra. Among these, two compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) at a concentration below 50 μM. The respective competitive (1) and mixed (2) inhibitors were revealed to have Ki values of 21.0 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 1.5 μM, based on the Dixon plot. The potential inhibitor (2) was visually presented in a predicted binding pose in the receptor by molecular docking. Additionally, molecular dynamics were performed for a detailed understanding of their complex by Gromacs 4.6.5 package. Full article
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Open AccessReview An Overview of LEDs’ Effects on the Production of Bioactive Compounds and Crop Quality
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091420
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
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Abstract
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are characterized by their narrow-spectrum, non-thermal photon emission, greater longevity, and energy-saving characteristics, which are better than traditional light sources. LEDs thus hold the potential to revolutionize horticulture lighting technology for crop production, protection, and preservation. Exposure to different LED
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Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are characterized by their narrow-spectrum, non-thermal photon emission, greater longevity, and energy-saving characteristics, which are better than traditional light sources. LEDs thus hold the potential to revolutionize horticulture lighting technology for crop production, protection, and preservation. Exposure to different LED wavelengths can induce the synthesis of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, which in turn can improve the nutritional quality of horticultural crops. Similarly, LEDs increase the nutrient contents, reduce microbial contamination, and alter the ripening of postharvest fruits and vegetables. LED-treated agronomic products can be beneficial for human health due to their good nutrient value and high antioxidant properties. Besides that, the non-thermal properties of LEDs make them easy to use in closed-canopy or within-canopy lighting systems. Such configurations minimize electricity consumption by maintaining optimal incident photon fluxes. Interestingly, red, blue, and green LEDs can induce systemic acquired resistance in various plant species against fungal pathogens. Hence, when seasonal clouds restrict sunlight, LEDs can provide a controllable, alternative source of selected single or mixed wavelength photon source in greenhouse conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Homoisoflavonoids and Chalcones Isolated from Haematoxylum campechianum L., with Spasmolytic Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091405
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Haematoxylum campechianum is a medicinal plant employed as an astringent to purify the blood and to treat stomach problems such as diarrhea and dysentery. A bio-guided chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract obtained from this plant allowed for the isolation of five compounds:
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Haematoxylum campechianum is a medicinal plant employed as an astringent to purify the blood and to treat stomach problems such as diarrhea and dysentery. A bio-guided chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract obtained from this plant allowed for the isolation of five compounds: two chalcones known as sappanchalcone (1); 3-deoxysappanchalcone (2); three homoisoflavonoids known as hematoxylol A (3); 4-O-methylhematoxylol (4); and, hematoxin (5). The spasmolytic activity was determined in an in vitro model (electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum), and allowed to demonstrate that the methanolic extract (EC50 = 62.11 ± 3.23) fractions HcF7 (EC50 = 61.75 ± 3.55) and HcF9 (EC50 = 125.5 ± 10.65) and compounds 1 (EC50 = 16.06 ± 2.15) and 2 (EC50 = 25.37 ± 3.47) of Haematoxylum campechianum present significant relaxing activity as compared to papaverine (EC50 = 20.08 ± 2.0) as a positive control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of Murraya tetramera Huang and Their Repellent Activity against Tribolium castaneum
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081379
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13)
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Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13) and one new natural product (8), which were identified asmurratetra A (9), murratetra B (10), murratetra C (13) and [2-(7-methoxy-2-oxochromen-8-yl)-3-methylbut-2-enyl]3-methylbut-2-enoate (8), respectively. Meanwhile, the repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum was investigated for 13 of these isolated compounds. The results showed that the tested compounds had various levels of repellent activity against T. castaneum. Among them, compounds 1 (4(15)-eudesmene-1β,6α-diol), 11 (isoferulic acid) and 16 (2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate) showed fair repellent activity against T. castaneum. They might be considered as potential leading compounds for the development of natural repellents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Portuguese Honeys from Different Geographical and Botanical Origins: A 4-Year Stability Study Regarding Quality Parameters and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081338
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Portuguese honeys (n = 15) from different botanical and geographical origins were analysed regarding their quality parameters (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, moisture and pH), colour (L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant profile (total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, DPPH• scavenging activity, and ferric reducing
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Portuguese honeys (n = 15) from different botanical and geographical origins were analysed regarding their quality parameters (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, moisture and pH), colour (L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant profile (total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, DPPH• scavenging activity, and ferric reducing power). The samples were analysed fresh and after 4-years of storage (at 25 °C and protected from light). The hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity of the fresh samples were in accordance with the recommended values described in the legislation. In general, the antioxidant activity of the samples correlated more with the bioactive compounds content than with colour. The storage affected differently each individual sample, especially regarding the antioxidant profile. Nevertheless, although in general the lightness of the samples decreased (and the redness increased), after 4 years, 11 samples still presented acceptable diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Biological Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Derived Fungi-Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, Cultivated in the Presence of Epigenetic Modifying Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081302
Received: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a
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Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azacytidine). Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant biomembrane protective effect of erythrocytes. 2 also showed algicidal activity against Chattonella marina, a bloom forming alga responsible for large scale fish deaths. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Activity of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) Glucomannan on Mouse Macrophage-Like J774.1 Cells and Mouse Primary Peritoneal Macrophages
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071187
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Porang is a local plant of Indonesia, which has a high content of glucomannan. In this study, porang glucomannan (PG) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to enhance emulsion properties to be widely used in food industry. OSA-modified PG (OSA-PG) enhanced the
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Porang is a local plant of Indonesia, which has a high content of glucomannan. In this study, porang glucomannan (PG) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to enhance emulsion properties to be widely used in food industry. OSA-modified PG (OSA-PG) enhanced the phagocytosis activity of macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, OSA-PG increased the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by enhancing their gene expression. Immunoblot analysis displayed that OSA-PG tended to activate both nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Treatment of OSA-PG with polymyxin B revealed that cytokine production induced by OSA-PG was not caused by endotoxin contamination. Our findings also indicated that OSA-PG activates macrophages through not only Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, but another receptor. Overall findings suggested that OSA-PG has a potential as an immunomodulatory food factor by stimulating macrophages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and C