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Special Issue "Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Min-Hsiung Pan

Institute of Food Science & Technology, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec.4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (ROC)
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cancer chemoprevention; anti-obesity; dietary natural bioactive compounds; anti-inflammation; carcinogenesis
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Filomena Conforti

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: phytochemical compounds; ethnopharmacology; alimurgic plants; biological activity of natural compounds; phytocosmetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. The risk factors for obesity include genetic and non-genetic factors alike, such as age, physiological condition, dietary behaviors and lifestyle. Since 1980, the number of obese people in the world has doubled. The cause of death from being underweight has shifted to obesity in most countries; moreover, obesity is a major risk factor in some chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of gut microbiota in obesity and metabolic disorders. Therefore, obesity is a serious health problem. To reduce body weight and adiposity, a change in lifestyle habits is still the crucial cornerstone. Physical activity might be helpful in the prevention of obesity by elevating average daily metabolic rate and increased energy expenditure. Unfortunately, this clinical approach is not long-term lasting and weight regain is often seen. Drugs that prevent weight regain appear necessary in obesity treatment. Although there are many methods and drugs to help people to fight obesity, or to maintain their body weight in order to prevent obesity, each method or drug has their limitations and side effects.

Recently, natural products are popular on the anti-obesity market. More and more research addresses finding natural bioactives from dietary or herbal plants that prevent or control obesity via a chemopreventive strategy. Many dietary bioactives isolated from fruits, vegetables and edible plants, such as anthocyanins from blueberries, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea, nobiletin from citrus peel, and curcumin from turmeric, resveratrol and pterostilbene from berries have been reported for their anti-obesity ability in vivo or in vitro. These natural compounds can decrease fat accumulation through inhibiting adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, decreasing triacylglycerol level in high-fat-diet-induced obesity animal models by enhancing lipolysis or reducing lipogenesis pathways.

Research articles or reviews covering all kinds of natural compounds, such as polyphenols, stilbenes, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, or derivatives, and their possible mechanisms for reducing fat accumulation or helping to control obesity and obesity related diseases are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules.

Prof. Dr. Min-Hsiung Pan
Prof. Dr. Filomena Conforti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • obesity
  • natural bioactives
  • gut microbiota
  • energy balance
  • lipogenesis
  • inflammation
  • high fat diet

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ketogenic Diet-Induced Weight Loss is Associated with an Increase in Vitamin D Levels in Obese Adults
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132499
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Vitamin D is an important micronutrient involved in several processes. Evidence has shown a strong association between hypovitaminosis D and cardio-metabolic diseases, including obesity. A ketogenic diet has proven to be very effective for weight loss, especially in reducing fat mass while preserving [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is an important micronutrient involved in several processes. Evidence has shown a strong association between hypovitaminosis D and cardio-metabolic diseases, including obesity. A ketogenic diet has proven to be very effective for weight loss, especially in reducing fat mass while preserving fat-free mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a ketogenic diet-induced weight loss on vitamin D status in a population of obese adults. We enrolled 56 obese outpatients, prescribed with either traditional standard hypocaloric Mediterranean diet (SHMD) or very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. The mean value of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in the whole population at baseline was 17.8 ± 5.6 ng/mL, without differences between groups. After 12 months of dietetic treatment, in VLCKD patients serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 18.4 ± 5.9 to 29.3 ± 6.8 ng/mL (p < 0.0001), vs 17.5 ± 6.1 to 21.3 ± 7.6 ng/mL (p = 0.067) in the SHMD group (for each kilogram of weight loss, 25(OH)D concentration increased 0.39 and 0.13 ng/mL in the VLCKD and in the SHMD groups, respectively). In the VLCKD group, the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was strongly associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and fatty mass variation. In a multiple regression analysis, fatty mass was the strongest independent predictor of serum 25(OH)D concentration, explaining 15.6%, 3.3%, and 9.4% of its variation in the whole population, in SHMD, and VLCKD groups, respectively. We also observed a greater reduction of inflammation (evaluated by high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) values) and a greater improvement in glucose homeostasis, confirmed by a reduction of HOMA values, in the VLCKD versus the SHMD group. Taken together, all these data suggest that a dietetic regimen, which implies a great reduction of fat mass, can improve vitamin D status in the obese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol-Induced White Adipose Tissue Browning in Obese Mice by Remodeling Fecal Microbiota
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123356
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Promoting the browning of white fat may be a potential means of combating obesity. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the body weight and browning of white fat in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and the potential [...] Read more.
Promoting the browning of white fat may be a potential means of combating obesity. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the body weight and browning of white fat in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and the potential associated mechanism in vivo. Eight-week-old male mice were randomized to receive different treatments: (1), chow without any additional treatment (chow); (2), chow plus 0.4% resveratrol (chow-RES); (3), HFD without any additional treatment (HFD); and (4), HFD plus 0.4% resveratrol (HFD-RES). After 4 weeks of feeding, additional 8-week-old male recipient mice were randomly allocated to the following 4 treatments: (5), HFD and received feces from chow-fed mice; (6), HFD and received feces from chow-RES-fed mice; (7), HFD and received feces from HFD-fed mice; and (8), HFD and received feces from HFD-RES-fed mice. RES treatment significantly inhibited increases in fat accumulation, promoted the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice. Subsequent analyses showed that the gut microbiota remodeling induced by resveratrol had a positive role in WAT browning, and sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) signaling appears to be a key component of this process. Overall, the results show that RES may serve as a potential intervention to reduce obesity by alleviating dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Phytochemical and Biological Profile of Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC.: An Inhibitor of Pancreatic Lipase
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112829
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme for lipid absorption, is one of the most important targets for the treatment of obesity, while natural compounds have recently attracted much interest as potential inhibitors of this enzyme. Here, in an attempt to find new effective agents, [...] Read more.
Pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme for lipid absorption, is one of the most important targets for the treatment of obesity, while natural compounds have recently attracted much interest as potential inhibitors of this enzyme. Here, in an attempt to find new effective agents, the methanolic extract from Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC. and its sub-extracts were investigated for their potential inhibitory activity. The ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase was verified through the in vitro evaluation of the prevention of p-nitrophenyl caprylate hydrolysis. The antioxidant activity was also verified by means of DPPH and β-carotene bleaching tests. Compositional profiling revealed that flavonoid glycosides were the main specialized metabolites present in the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of the plant with kaempferol and quercetin representing the two O-glycosylated aglycones. Kaempferol-3-O-β-(2″-O-glucosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-a-arabinosyl-7-O-rhamnoside were the most abundant flavonols. The crude methanolic extract and the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate sub-extracts showed a strong lipase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 2.06 ± 0.02, 1.52 ± 0.02 and 1.31 ± 0.02 mg/mL, respectively. The best capacity to scavenge DPPH radical was detected for the ethyl acetate sub-extract (IC50 = 171.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL), which was also effective in protecting linoleic acid from peroxidation (IC50 = 35.69 ± 2.30 µg/mL). Obtained results support the hypothesis that M. arvensis can be a source of bioactive phytochemicals for the pharmacological inhibition of dietary lipids absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Purified Phlorizin from DocynIa Indica (Wall.) Decne by HSCCC, Compared with Whole Extract, Phlorizin and Non-Phlorizin Fragment Ameliorate Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Improves Intestinal Barrier Function in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2701; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102701
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Natural products generally contain complex and multiple bioactive compounds that are responsible for the effects on health through complicated synergistic and/or suppressive actions. As an important raw material of local ethnic minority tea, ethnomedicines and food supplements in southwestern areas of China, Docynia [...] Read more.
Natural products generally contain complex and multiple bioactive compounds that are responsible for the effects on health through complicated synergistic and/or suppressive actions. As an important raw material of local ethnic minority tea, ethnomedicines and food supplements in southwestern areas of China, Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne (DID) mainly consists of phlorizin (PHZ), which is the main active component. In this study, the holistic activities and the interactions of components of PHZ, non-phlorizin (NP) in the DID extract (DIDE) were evaluated. A rapid and effective high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was performed to knock out PHZ from DIDE and the purity of PHZ was 96.01% determined by HPLC, with a recovery rate of 96.76%. After 13 weeks of treatment course in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice model, the results revealed that the DIDE and PHZ significantly decreased weight gain, blood lipid levels, hyperplasia of adipocytes and alleviated inflammation (p < 0.05). Both DIDE and PHZ improves insulin resistance (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the intestinal barrier function was improved compared to HFD group, through the determination of serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS), glucagon-likepeptide-2 (GLP-2) and hematoxylin-eosin staining of jejunum. Interestingly, after NP treatment, the metabolic syndrome of the HFD-induced obesity appeared to have a similar improvement. All the experiments showed that there is a synergistic weakening phenomenon when PHZ and NP interact with each other in the mixed state. In conclusion, for the PHZ and NP showing a good effect on anti-obesity, anti-inflammation, and intestinal barrier function, DIDE could be a good source of functional food to prevent obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Berberine on the Gut Microbiota in Apc min/+ Mice Fed with a High Fat Diet
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092298
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Berberine (BBR) has been extensively reported to inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) development, though its bioavailability is poor. Nowadays, an increasing number of studies have shown that BBR significantly accumulates in the intestines and could regulate gut microbiota in obesity. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: Berberine (BBR) has been extensively reported to inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) development, though its bioavailability is poor. Nowadays, an increasing number of studies have shown that BBR significantly accumulates in the intestines and could regulate gut microbiota in obesity. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of BBR on gut microbiota in Apc min/+ mice receiving a high fat diet (HFD). Methods: Apc min/+ mice received either HFD alone or HFD and BBR for 12 weeks. The intestinal tissues were collected to evaluate the efficiency of BBR on neoplasm development by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry was conducted to investigate the effects of BBR on cyclin D1 and β-catenin in colon tissues. Fecal samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: BBR significantly reduced intestinal tumor development and altered the structure of gut microbiota in Apc min/+ mice fed with an HFD. At the phylum level, it was able to significantly inhibit the increase in Verrucomicrobia. At the genus level, it was able to suppress Akkermansia and elevate some short chain fat acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria. Conclusions: BBR significantly alleviated the development of CRC in Apc min/+ mice fed with HFD and restored the enteric microbiome community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Inclusion of Fructooligosaccharide and Resistant Maltodextrin in High Fat Diets Promotes Simultaneous Improvements on Body Fat Reduction and Fecal Parameters
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092169
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of incorporating a mixture of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and resistant maltodextrin (RMD) at a ratio of 1:2 on body fat accumulation and fecal bacterial parameters in rats. Our results indicated that high dietary fat consumption might effectively (p [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of incorporating a mixture of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and resistant maltodextrin (RMD) at a ratio of 1:2 on body fat accumulation and fecal bacterial parameters in rats. Our results indicated that high dietary fat consumption might effectively (p < 0.05) increase body fat, but consequently inducing a significantly (p < 0.05) higher growth of C. perfringens and retarded growth (p < 0.05) of the Bifidobacterium spp. in the large intestine. As compared with the high fat control, an incorporation of the FOS and RMD mixture at a high dose (0.97 and 1.94 g/kg body weight, respectively) could result in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in feed efficiency (−16%), total visceral fat (−17.4%), non-visceral fat levels (−20.3%), and total body fat (−19.2%). Furthermore, feeding the FOS and RMD mixture at a high dose was capable to counter the above undesirable impacts by reducing the C. perfringens count (−14.8%) and increasing the total Bifidobacterium count (134.4%) and total fecal short chain fatty acids (195.4%). A supplementation of adequate amount of FOS and RMD might confer a concreted solution to the obesity and deteriorated fecal bacteria profiles due to high fat consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
Open AccessArticle
Modulatory Effect of Polyphenolic Compounds from the Mangrove Tree Rhizophora mangle L. on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet Obese Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092114
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
No scientific report proves the action of the phytochemicals from the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle in the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the acetonic extract of R. mangle barks (AERM) on type 2 diabetes. [...] Read more.
No scientific report proves the action of the phytochemicals from the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle in the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the acetonic extract of R. mangle barks (AERM) on type 2 diabetes. The main chemical constituents of the extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection analysis electrospray-iontrap mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS). High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were used as model of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. After 4 weeks of AERM 5 or 50 mg/kg/day orally, glucose homeostasis was evaluated by insulin tolerance test (kiTT). Hepatic steatosis, triglycerides and gene expression were also evaluated. AERM consists of catechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acids derivatives. These metabolites have nutritional importance, obese mice treated with AERM (50 mg/kg) presented improvements in insulin resistance resulting in hepatic steatosis reductions associated with a strong inhibition of hepatic mRNA levels of CD36. The beneficial effects of AERM in an obesity model could be associated with its inhibitory α-amylase activity detected in vitro. Rhizophora mangle partially reverses insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity, supporting previous claims in traditional knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Natural Products and Obesity: A Focus on the Regulation of Mitotic Clonal Expansion during Adipogenesis
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061157
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is recognized as a worldwide health crisis. Obesity and its associated health complications such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases impose a big social and economic burden. In an effort to identify safe, efficient, and long-term effective methods to treat obesity, [...] Read more.
Obesity is recognized as a worldwide health crisis. Obesity and its associated health complications such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases impose a big social and economic burden. In an effort to identify safe, efficient, and long-term effective methods to treat obesity, various natural products with potential for inhibiting adipogenesis were revealed. This review aimed to discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying adipogenesis and the inhibitory effects of various phytochemicals, including those from natural sources, on the early stage of adipogenesis. We discuss key steps (proliferation and cell cycle) and their regulators (cell-cycle regulator, transcription factors, and intracellular signaling pathways) at the early stage of adipocyte differentiation as the mechanisms responsible for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Beneficial Effects of Natural Bioactive Compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Obesity
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010210
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a condition associated with the accumulation of excess fat in the body, energy imbalance, lipogenesis, etc., which increases adipose tissue mass through adipogenesis and poses a health risk. Its prevalence has become an economic burden to the health care system and [...] Read more.
Obesity is a condition associated with the accumulation of excess fat in the body, energy imbalance, lipogenesis, etc., which increases adipose tissue mass through adipogenesis and poses a health risk. Its prevalence has become an economic burden to the health care system and the world at large. One of the alternatives to tackling obesity involves the use of bioactive compounds. We critically examined the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) on various parameters associated with the development of obesity such as; the effect of HSE on body weight, the effect of HSE on lipid accumulation, cholesterol metabolism and plasma parameters, the inhibitory effect of HSE on pancreatic lipase, and the effect of HSE on adipocyte differentiation/adipogenesis. This review has gathered reports on the various anti-obesity effects of H. sabdariffa bioactive compounds in cell and animal models, as well as in humans. Available toxicology information on the consumption of H. sabdariffa revealed that its toxicity is dose-dependent and may cause an adverse effect when administered over a long period of time. Reports have shown that H. sabdariffa derived bioactive compounds are potent in the treatment of obesity with an evident reduction in body weight, inhibition of lipid accumulation and suppression of adipogenesis through the PPARγ pathway and other transcriptional factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biological Properties and Bioactive Components of Allium cepa L.: Focus on Potential Benefits in the Treatment of Obesity and Related Comorbidities
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010119
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants, utilized worldwide as both vegetable and flavouring. This species is known to contain sulphur amino acids together with many vitamins and minerals. A variety of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, phytosterols [...] Read more.
Common onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants, utilized worldwide as both vegetable and flavouring. This species is known to contain sulphur amino acids together with many vitamins and minerals. A variety of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, phytosterols and saponins, have also been identified. Despite the predominant use of this plant as food, a wide range of beneficial effects have also been proved. Different biological properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic, have been reported. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the studies concerning the beneficial effects of this species against obesity and its related comorbidities, such as hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes. Both in vitro and in vivo results about onion dietary supplementation have been taken into account. Furthermore, this review examines the possible role of onion bioactive components in modulating or preventing weight-gain or related diseases, as well as the possible mechanisms behind their activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Anti-Obesity Effects of Medicinal and Edible Mushrooms
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112880
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a group of metabolic disorders caused by multiple factors, including heredity, diet, lifestyle, societal determinants, environment, and infectious agents, which can all lead to the enhancement of storage body fat. Excess visceral fat mass in adipose tissue generate several metabolic disorders, [...] Read more.
Obesity is a group of metabolic disorders caused by multiple factors, including heredity, diet, lifestyle, societal determinants, environment, and infectious agents, which can all lead to the enhancement of storage body fat. Excess visceral fat mass in adipose tissue generate several metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular diseases with chronic inflammation based pathophysiology. The objective of the current review is to summarize the cellular mechanisms of obesity that attenuate by antioxidant potentials of medicinal and edible mushrooms. Studies have showed that mushrooms potentially have antioxidant capacities, which increase the antioxidant defense systems in cells. They boost anti-inflammatory actions and thereby protect against obesity-related hypertension and dyslipidemia. The practice of regular consumption of mushrooms is effective in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, and thus could be a good candidate for use in future pharmaceutical or nutraceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Current Therapies Focused on High-Density Lipoproteins Associated with Cardiovascular Disease
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112730
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) comprise a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein particles divided into subclasses that are determined by density, size and surface charge as well as protein composition. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of [...] Read more.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) comprise a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein particles divided into subclasses that are determined by density, size and surface charge as well as protein composition. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. HDLs promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and have several atheroprotective functions such as anti-inflammation, anti-thrombosis, and anti-oxidation. HDLs are considered to be atheroprotective because they are associated in serum with paraoxonases (PONs) which protect HDL from oxidation. Polyphenol consumption reduces the risk of chronic diseases in humans. Polyphenols increase the binding of HDL to PON1, increasing the catalytic activity of PON1. This review summarizes the evidence currently available regarding pharmacological and alternative treatments aimed at improving the functionality of HDL-C. Information on the effectiveness of the treatments has contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate plasma levels of HDL-C, thereby promoting the development of more effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For that purpose, Scopus and Medline databases were searched to identify the publications investigating the impact of current therapies focused on high-density lipoproteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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Other

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Open AccessAddendum
Addendum: de Souza Mesquita, L.M., et al. Modulatory Effect of Polyphenolic Compounds from the Mangrove Tree Rhizophora mangle L. on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet Obese Mice. Molecules, 2018, 23, 2114
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010169
Received: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to add the process number in the Acknowledgments section in this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
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