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Special Issue "Plant-Derived Phenolic Compounds: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Application"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2023 | Viewed by 13605

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Stefano Castellani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Interests: drug delivery by nanoparticles in vitro; cell imaging; cellular models of inflammation; natural antioxidants for airway epithelium; chronic respiratory diseases
Dr. Massimo Conese
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-derived phenolic compounds, a large group of water-soluble metabolites, have protective roles against a variety of environmental stresses by scavenging free radicals during oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds vary from low molecular weight monomers to high molecular weight molecules and can be widely found in fruits, seeds, flowers, and leafs. The most important classes of phenolic compounds are flavonoids (i.e. catechin,epicatechin) quinones, stilbenes (i.e. resveratrol) and essential oils (i.e. thymol, carvacrol). Monomers of (+)-catechins and the isomer (−)-epicatechins polymerize to form condensed tannins called proanthocyanidins. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are considered as beneficial molecole for prevention and treatment of several diseases, since it has been shown that they have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. They have also proved effective as cardioprotective agents by inhibiting the LDL oxidation involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, these active molecules have also evidenced efficacy in improving diabetic complications, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy. Plant-derived phenolic compounds have shown anticancer properties by slowing tumor development through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Phenolic compounds have been found to present strong antimicrobial agents, i.e. they provide antiadhesive actions against bacteria in urinary and dental infections. Finally, these compounds can increase migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhance wound healing as well o control the functions and behavior of MSCs during immunomodulation. This Special Issue will contain contributions concerning different aspects of the use of phenolic plant-derived molecules for prevention and therapy of several diseases, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in their protective role, their  bioavailability and their metabolism in human tissue. Moreover the use of different strategies for extraction, synthesis and delivery of these compounds,will be covered.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Castellani
Prof. Dr. Massimo Conese
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Phenolic compounds 
  • Extraction 
  • Synthesis 
  • Oxidative stress 
  • Inflammation 
  • Cancer 
  • Neurodegenerative diseases 
  • Cardiovascular diseases 
  • Diabetes 
  • Mesenchymal stem cells 
  • Drug delivery

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
HPLC Analysis and the Antioxidant and Preventive Actions of Opuntia stricta Juice Extract against Hepato-Nephrotoxicity and Testicular Injury Induced by Cadmium Exposure
Molecules 2022, 27(15), 4972; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154972 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Opuntia stricta is a rich source of phenolic compounds. This species generally has strong antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds isolated from Opuntia stricta, including its radical scavenging activities and [...] Read more.
Opuntia stricta is a rich source of phenolic compounds. This species generally has strong antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds isolated from Opuntia stricta, including its radical scavenging activities and preventive action against Cd-induced oxidative stress in rats. To assess the protection of prickly pear juice extract (PPJE) against Cd-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity and testicular damage, male albino rats received PPJE (250 mg kg−1) and/or Cd (1 mg kg−1) by oral administration and injection, respectively, for five consecutive weeks. The preventive action of PPJE was estimated using biochemical markers of kidney and liver tissues, antioxidant status, and histological examinations. In the present study, the lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, antioxidant status, and metallothionein levels were determined in different tissues. The chromatographic analysis indicated that PPJE extract is very rich in phenolic compounds such as verbascoside, catechin hydrate, and oleuropein. Our results showed that PPJE-treated rats had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased Cd levels in liver and kidney tissues. In addition, the administration of PPJE induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in lipid peroxidation of 30.5, 54.54, and 40.8 in the liver, kidney, and testicle, respectively, and an increase in antioxidant status in these tissues. Additionally, PPJE showed a strong ability to protect renal, hepatic, and testicular architectures against Cd exposure. This study revealed that PPJE protects against the toxic effects of Cd, possibly through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Full article
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Article
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Administering Antioxidant Grape Seed-Derived Polyphenol Compounds: A Potential Application in Aquaculture
Molecules 2022, 27(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020344 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
The supply of nutrients, such as antioxidant agents, to fish cells still represents a challenge in aquaculture. In this context, we investigated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of a combination of Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 to administer a grape seed [...] Read more.
The supply of nutrients, such as antioxidant agents, to fish cells still represents a challenge in aquaculture. In this context, we investigated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of a combination of Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 to administer a grape seed extract (GSE) mixture containing several antioxidant compounds. The combination of the two lipids for the SLN formation resulted in colloids exhibiting mean particle sizes in the range 139–283 nm and zeta potential values in the range +25.6–43.4 mV. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction evidenced structural differences between the free GSE and GSE-loaded SLN, leading to the conclusion that GSE alters the structure of the lipid nanocarriers. From a biological viewpoint, cell lines from gilthead seabream and European sea bass were exposed to different concentrations of GSE-SLN for 24 h. In general, at appropriate concentrations, GSE-SLN increased the viability of the fish cells. Furthermore, regarding the gene expression in those cells, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, whereas the expression of hsp70 and other genes related to the cytoskeleton was downregulated. Hence, an SLN formulation containing Gelucire® 50/13/Precirol® ATO5 and GSE may represent a compelling platform for improving the viability and antioxidant properties of fish cells. Full article
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Article
Effect of Resveratrol Treatment on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells through Alterations of Bcl-2 Family Members
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6560; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216560 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Pancreatic cancers are among of the most lethal types of neoplasms, and are mostly detected at an advanced stage. Conventional treatment methods such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy often do not bring the desired therapeutic effects. For this reason, natural compounds are increasingly being [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancers are among of the most lethal types of neoplasms, and are mostly detected at an advanced stage. Conventional treatment methods such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy often do not bring the desired therapeutic effects. For this reason, natural compounds are increasingly being used as adjuvants in cancer therapy. Polyphenolic compounds, including resveratrol, are of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms of resveratrol on human pancreatic cells. The study was carried out on three human pancreatic cancer cell lines: EPP85-181P, EPP85-181RNOV (mitoxantrone-resistant cells) and AsPC-1, as well as the normal pancreatic cell line H6c7. The cytotoxicity of resveratrol in the tested cell lines was assessed by the colorimetric method (MTT) and the flow cytometry method. Three selected concentrations of the compound (25, 50 and 100 µM) were tested in the experiments during a 48-h incubation. TUNEL and Comet assays, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, real-time PCR and Western Blot analyses were used to evaluate the pleiotropic effect of resveratrol. The results indicate that resveratrol is likely to be anticarcinogenic by inhibiting human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. In addition, it affects the levels of Bcl-2 pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. However, it should be emphasized that the activity of resveratrol was specific for each of the tested cell lines, and the most statistically significant changes were observed in the mitoxantrone-resistant cells. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Apoptotic Effect of the Small Molecule Procyanidin B1 in Early Mouse Embryonic Development Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6150; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206150 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
As an antioxidant, procyanidin B1(PB1) can improve the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos; PB1 reduces the level of oxidative stress (OS) during the in vitro development of SCNT embryos by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing [...] Read more.
As an antioxidant, procyanidin B1(PB1) can improve the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos; PB1 reduces the level of oxidative stress (OS) during the in vitro development of SCNT embryos by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the level of glutathione (GSH) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Metabolite hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produces OS. Catalase (CAT) can degrade hydrogen peroxide so that it produces less toxic water (H2O) and oxygen (O2) in order to reduce the harm caused by H2O2. Therefore, we tested the CAT level in the in vitro development of SCNT embryos; it was found that PB1 can increase the expression of CAT, indicating that PB1 can offset the harm caused by oxidative stress by increasing the level of CAT. Moreover, if H2O2 accumulates excessively, it produces radical-(HO-) through Fe2+/3+ and damage to DNA. The damage caused to the DNA is mainly repaired by the protein encoded by the DNA damage repair gene. Therefore, we tested the expression of the DNA damage repair gene, OGG1. It was found that PB1 can increase the expression of OGG1 and increase the expression of protein. Through the above test, we proved that PB1 can improve the repairability of DNA damage. DNA damage can lead to cell apoptosis; therefore, we also tested the level of apoptosis of blastocysts, and we found that PB1 reduced the level of apoptosis. In summary, our results show that PB1 reduces the accumulation of H2O2 by decreasing the level of OS during the in vitro development of SCNT embryos and improves the repairability of DNA damage to reduce cell apoptosis. Our results have important significance for the improvement of the development of SCNT embryos in vitro and provide important reference significance for diseases that can be treated using SCNT technology. Full article
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Article
Curcumin and Nano-Curcumin Mitigate Copper Neurotoxicity by Modulating Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Akt/GSK-3β Signaling
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5591; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185591 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Copper (Cu) is essential for multiple biochemical processes, and copper sulphate (CuSO4) is a pesticide used for repelling pests. Accidental or intentional intoxication can induce multiorgan toxicity and could be fatal. Curcumin (CUR) is a potent antioxidant, but its poor systemic [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) is essential for multiple biochemical processes, and copper sulphate (CuSO4) is a pesticide used for repelling pests. Accidental or intentional intoxication can induce multiorgan toxicity and could be fatal. Curcumin (CUR) is a potent antioxidant, but its poor systemic bioavailability is the main drawback in its therapeutic uses. This study investigated the protective effect of CUR and N-CUR on CuSO4-induced cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats, pointing to the possible involvement of Akt/GSK-3β. Rats received 100 mg/kg CuSO4 and were concurrently treated with CUR or N-CUR for 7 days. Cu-administered rats exhibited a remarkable increase in cerebral malondialdehyde (MDA), NF-κB p65, TNF-α, and IL-6 associated with decreased GSH, SOD, and catalase. Cu provoked DNA fragmentation, upregulated BAX, caspase-3, and p53, and decreased BCL-2 in the brain of rats. N-CUR and CUR ameliorated MDA, NF-κB p65, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, downregulated pro-apoptotic genes, upregulated BCL-2, and enhanced antioxidants and DNA integrity. In addition, both N-CUR and CUR increased AKT Ser473 and GSK-3β Ser9 phosphorylation in the brain of Cu-administered rats. In conclusion, N-CUR and CUR prevent Cu neurotoxicity by attenuating oxidative injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis and upregulating AKT/GSK-3β signaling. The neuroprotective effect of N-CUR was more potent than CUR. Full article
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Article
The Role of Allium subhirsutum L. in the Attenuation of Dermal Wounds by Modulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Wistar Albino Rats
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4875; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164875 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2567 | Correction
Abstract
In our study, Allium subhirsutum L. (AS) was investigated to assess its phenolic profile and bioactive molecules including flavonoids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant potential of AS and wound healing activity were addressed using skin wound healing and oxidative stress and inflammation marker [...] Read more.
In our study, Allium subhirsutum L. (AS) was investigated to assess its phenolic profile and bioactive molecules including flavonoids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant potential of AS and wound healing activity were addressed using skin wound healing and oxidative stress and inflammation marker estimation in rat models. Phytochemical and antiradical activities of AS extract (ASE) and oil (ASO) were studied. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group I served as a control and was treated with simple ointment base, group II was treated with ASE ointment, group III was treated with ASO ointment and group IV (reference group; Ref) was treated with a reference drug “Cytolcentella® cream”. Phytochemical screening showed that total phenols (215 ± 3.5 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (172.4 ± 3.1 mg QE/g) were higher in the ASO than the ASE group. The results of the antioxidant properties showed that ASO exhibited the highest DPPH free radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.136 ± 0.07 mg/mL), FRAP test (IC50 = 0.013 ± 0.006 mg/mL), ABTS test (IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.06 mg/mL). In the wound healing study, topical application of ASO performed the fastest wound-repairing process estimated by a chromatic study, percentage wound closure, fibrinogen level and oxidative damage status, as compared to ASE, the Cytolcentella reference drug and the untreated rats. The use of AS extract and oil were also associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress damage in the wound-healing treated rats. Overall, the results provided that AS, particularly ASO, has a potential medicinal value to act as effective skin wound healing agent. Full article
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Review

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Review
Polyphenolic Flavonoid Compound Quercetin Effects in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5781; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195781 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Flavonoids are ubiquitous groups of polyphenolic compounds present in most natural products and plants. These substances have been shown to have promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties with multiple target interactions and multiple pathway regulations against various human cancers. Polyphenolic flavonoid compounds can block [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are ubiquitous groups of polyphenolic compounds present in most natural products and plants. These substances have been shown to have promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties with multiple target interactions and multiple pathway regulations against various human cancers. Polyphenolic flavonoid compounds can block the initiation or reverse the promotion stage of multistep carcinogenesis. Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables and has been shown to have multiple properties capable of reducing cell growth in cancer cells. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) therapy remains a challenge for hematologists worldwide, and the outcomes for patients with both disorders continue to be poor. This scenario indicates the increasing demand for innovative drugs and rational combinative therapies. Herein, we discuss the multitarget effects of the flavonoid quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonol, on AML and MDS. Full article
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Review
Caffeic Acid on Metabolic Syndrome: A Review
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5490; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185490 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors that may lead to a more sinister disease. Raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia in the form of elevated triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised fasting glucose, and central obesity are the risk factors that [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors that may lead to a more sinister disease. Raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia in the form of elevated triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised fasting glucose, and central obesity are the risk factors that could lead to full-blown diabetes, heart disease, and many others. With increasing sedentary lifestyles, coupled with the current COVID-19 pandemic, the numbers of people affected with MetS will be expected to grow in the coming years. While keeping these factors checked with the polypharmacy available currently, there is no single strategy that can halt or minimize the effect of MetS to patients. This opens the door for a more natural way of controlling the disease. Caffeic acid (CA) is a phytonutrient belonging to the flavonoids that can be found in abundance in plants, fruits, and vegetables. CA possesses a wide range of beneficial properties from antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antianxiolytic, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review discusses the current discovery of the effect of CA against MetS. Full article
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Other

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Correction
Correction: Saoudi et al. The Role of Allium subhirsutum L. in the Attenuation of Dermal Wounds by Modulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Wistar Albino Rats. Molecules 2021, 26, 4875
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5332; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165332 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following change to their paper [...] Full article
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