Next Article in Journal
Removal of Ammonia from the Municipal Waste Treatment Effluents using Natural Minerals
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring New Structural Features of the 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Scaffold for the Inhibition of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharide Composition in Polyporus umbellatus by HPLC–ESI–TOF–MS
Open AccessArticle

A Polysaccharide Isolated from Codonopsis pilosula with Immunomodulation Effects Both In Vitro and In Vivo

1
Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Department of Pharmacy, Section Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
3
Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
4
Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These three authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3632; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203632
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II) as sidechains. They both expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer’s patch cells. Endo-1,4-β-galactanase degradation gave a decrease of interleukine 6 (IL-6) production compared with native WCP-I and WCP-Ia, but exo-α-l-arabinofuranosidase digestion showed no changes in activity. This demonstrated that the stimulation activity partly disappeared with removal of β-d-(1→4)-galactan chains, proving that the AG-I side chain plays an important role in immunoregulation activity. WCP-Ia had a better promotion effect than WCP-I in vivo, shown through an increased spleen index, higher concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, and a slight increment in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that β-d-(1→4)-galactan-containing chains in WCP-I play an essential role in the expression of immunomodulating activity. Combining all the results in this and previous studies, the intestinal immune system might be the target site of WCP-Ia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Codonopsis pilosula; polysaccharide; Peyer’s patch; immunomodulation Codonopsis pilosula; polysaccharide; Peyer’s patch; immunomodulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zou, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Fu, Y.-P.; Inngjerdingen, K.T.; Paulsen, B.S.; Feng, B.; Zhu, Z.-K.; Li, L.-X.; Jia, R.-Y.; Huang, C.; Song, X.; Lv, C.; Ye, G.; Liang, X.-X.; He, C.-L.; Yin, L.-Z.; Yin, Z.-Q. A Polysaccharide Isolated from Codonopsis pilosula with Immunomodulation Effects Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Molecules 2019, 24, 3632.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop