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Antiviral Effects of Houttuynia cordata Polysaccharide Extract on Murine Norovirus-1 (MNV-1)—A Human Norovirus Surrogate

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310006, China
2
College of Medical Technology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China
3
School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Cédric Delattre and Raphaël E. Duval
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091835
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract

Houttuynia cordata is an herbal plant rich in polysaccharides and with several pharmacological activities. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis throughout the world. In this study, H. cordata polysaccharide (HP), with a molecular weight of ~43 kDa, was purified from H. cordata water extract (HWE). The polysaccharide HP was composed predominantly of galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 1.56:1.49:1.26:1.11. Methylation and NMR analyses revealed that HP was a pectin-like acidic polysaccharide mainly consisting of α-1,4-linked GalpA, β-1,4-linked Galp, β-1,4-linked Glcp, and β-1,4-linked Xylp residues. To evaluate the antiviral activity of H. cordata extracts, we compared the anti-norovirus potential of HP with HWE and ethanol extract (HEE) from H. cordata by plaque assay (plaque forming units (PFU)/mL) for murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a surrogate of HuNoVs. Viruses at high (8.09 log10 PFU/mL) or low (4.38 log10 PFU/mL) counts were mixed with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL of HP, HWE or HEE and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. H. cordata polysaccharide (HP) was more effective than HEE in reducing MNV-1 plaque formation, but less effective than HWE. When MNV-1 was treated with 500 μg/mL HP, the infectivity of MNV-1 decreased to an undetectable level. The selectivity indexes of each sample were 1.95 for HEE, 5.74 for HP, and 16.14 for HWE. The results of decimal reduction time and transmission electron microscopic revealed that HP has anti-viral effects by deforming and inflating virus particles, thereby inhibiting the penetration of viruses in target cells. These findings suggest that HP might have potential as an antiviral agent in the treatment of viral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiviral effects; Houttuynia cordata; polysaccharide; water extract; ethanol extract; murine norovirus-1 antiviral effects; Houttuynia cordata; polysaccharide; water extract; ethanol extract; murine norovirus-1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cheng, D.; Sun, L.; Zou, S.; Chen, J.; Mao, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liao, N.; Zhang, R. Antiviral Effects of Houttuynia cordata Polysaccharide Extract on Murine Norovirus-1 (MNV-1)—A Human Norovirus Surrogate. Molecules 2019, 24, 1835.

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