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Special Issue "Current Trends in Ginseng Research"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Deok-Chun Yang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials & Processing, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Interests: New ginseng resource development; Ginseng based nanoparticles; Invitro screening of ginseng materials; Cultured Roots of Mountain Ginseng (CRMG); Novel ginseng compounds synthesis and Bioconversion; Hybrid and cultivar development; Ginseng abiotic and biotic stress resistance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ginseng is the common name for plants in the genus Panax, and the most beneficial phytochemical in the Panax species—ginsenoside—has numerous theraputic benefits. Other pseudo-ginsengs include Dendropanax morbifera, Gynostemma plantphylum, Withania sominifera, Codonopsis lanceolata, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax vietnamensis. These plants are well-known for their adaptogen activities, which have been used to enhance human health since ancient times. While various functional studies have been conducted to prove the traditional beliefs about these plants using evidence-based science, more effort is needed to enhance the therapeutic values with empirical datasets. In addition, various technologies, such as bioconversion and nano-biotechnology, have been applied to address the limitations that exist in the molecular size of ginsenoides and are implicated in various products. For this Special Issue, we welcome studies that present research outcomes on therapeutic applications, ginseng-based nanoparticles, cosmetic applications, novel ginseng resources, ginseng saponins and their bioconversion, and secondary metabolites.

Prof. Dr. Deok Chun Yang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Ginseng-based nanoparticles
  • Metal nanoparticles
  • Novel ginseng resources
  • Drug formulations
  • Saponins and their conversion
  • Mass production

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Pectin-Lyase-Modified Ginseng Extract and Ginsenoside Rd Inhibits High Glucose-Induced ROS Production in Mesangial Cells and Prevents Renal Dysfunction in db/db Mice
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020367 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Diabetes increases the incidence rate of chronic renal disease. Pectin-lyase-modified ginseng (GS-E3D), with enhanced ginsenoside Rd content, has been newly developed. In this study, renal protective roles of GS-E3D in type-2 diabetic db/db mice were investigated. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [...] Read more.
Diabetes increases the incidence rate of chronic renal disease. Pectin-lyase-modified ginseng (GS-E3D), with enhanced ginsenoside Rd content, has been newly developed. In this study, renal protective roles of GS-E3D in type-2 diabetic db/db mice were investigated. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by high glucose (25 mM) was reduced by ES-E3D (75%) and ginsenoside Rd (60%). Diabetic db/db mice received 100 or 250 mg/kg/day of GS-E3D daily via oral gavage for 6 weeks. Albuminuria and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG, an oxidative stress marker) levels were increased in db/db mice and the levels recovered after GS-E3D treatment. In renal tissues, TUNEL-positive cells were decreased after GS-E3D treatment, and the increased apoptosis-related protein expressions were restored after GS-E3D treatment. Therefore, GS-E3D has a potent protective role in diabetes-induced renal dysfunction through antioxidative and antiapoptotic activities. These results may help patients to select a dietary supplement for diabetes when experiencing renal dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Metabolite Profiles of Ginseng Berry Pomace Obtained after Different Pressure Treatments and Their Correlation with the Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020284 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Ginseng berry pomace (GBP) is a byproduct of ginseng berry processing and is rich in numerous bioactive components, including ginsenosides and their derivatives. The application of GBP as a beneficial biomaterial is currently limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate their potential [...] Read more.
Ginseng berry pomace (GBP) is a byproduct of ginseng berry processing and is rich in numerous bioactive components, including ginsenosides and their derivatives. The application of GBP as a beneficial biomaterial is currently limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate their potential as a promising source of bioactive compounds using metabolite profiling. The GBP obtained after different ultra-high-pressure (UHP) treatments was analyzed by GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. In multivariate analyses, we observed a clear demarcation between the control and UHP-treated groups. The results demonstrated that the relative abundance of primary metabolites and a few ginsenosides was higher in the control, whereas UHP treatment contained higher levels of fatty acids and sugars. Furthermore, GBPs were fractionated using different solvents, followed by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS analyses. The heatmap revealed that phenolics (e.g., quercetin, kaempferol) and fewer polar ginsenosides (e.g., F4, Rh2) were abundant in the ethyl acetate fraction, whereas the levels of lignans (e.g., 7-hydroxysecoisolariciresinol, syringaresinol) and fatty acids (e.g., trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid) were high in chloroform. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics, less polar ginsenosides, and fatty acids were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity of GBP. Our study highlights GBP as a functional ingredient for the development of high-quality ginseng berry products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Alleviation of Ulcerative Colitis Potentially through th1/th2 Cytokine Balance by a Mixture of Rg3-enriched Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Persicaria tinctoria
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225230 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Ginseng is a vastly used herbal supplement in Southeast Asian countries. Red ginseng extract enriched with Rg3 (Rg3-RGE) is a formula that has been extensively studied owing to its various biological properties. Persicaria tinctoria (PT), belonging to the Polygonaceae family, has also been [...] Read more.
Ginseng is a vastly used herbal supplement in Southeast Asian countries. Red ginseng extract enriched with Rg3 (Rg3-RGE) is a formula that has been extensively studied owing to its various biological properties. Persicaria tinctoria (PT), belonging to the Polygonaceae family, has also been reported for its anti-inflammatory properties. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is inflammation of the large intestine, particularly in the colon. This disease is increasingly common and has high probability of relapse. We investigated, separately and in combination, the effects of Rg3-RGE and PT using murine exemplary of UC induced by DSS (Dextran Sulfate Sodium). For in vitro and in vivo experiments, nitric oxide assay, qRT-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Western blot, ulcerative colitis introduced by DSS, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and flow cytometry analysis were performed. The results obtained demonstrate that treatment with Rg3-RGE + PT showed synergism to suppress inflammation (in vitro) in RAW 264.7 cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor κB pathways. Moreover, in C57BL/6 mice, this mixture exhibits strong anti-inflammatory effects in restoring colon length, histopathological damage, pro-inflammatory mediators, and cytokines amount, and decreasing levels of NLRP3 inflammasome (in vivo). Our results recommend that this mixture can be used for the prevention of UC as a prophylactic/therapeutic supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Metabolic Profiling Reveals Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Intake of Black Ginseng Extracts in Beagle Dogs
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163759 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Black ginseng (BG) has better health benefits than white ginseng. The intake of BG changes the levels of metabolites, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. However, there is no research on the effect of BG extract intake on the metabolic [...] Read more.
Black ginseng (BG) has better health benefits than white ginseng. The intake of BG changes the levels of metabolites, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. However, there is no research on the effect of BG extract intake on the metabolic profile of dog serum. In this study, serum metabolic profiling was conducted to investigate metabolic differences following the intake of BG extracts in beagle dogs. The beagle dogs were separated into three groups and fed either a regular diet (RD, control), RD with a medium concentration of BG extract (BG-M), or RD with a high concentration of BG extract (BG-H). Differences were observed among the three groups after the dogs ingested the experimental diet for eight weeks. The concentrations of alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine changed with the intake of BG extracts. Furthermore, levels of glycine and β-alanine increased in the BG-H group compared to the control and BG-M groups, indicating that BG extracts are associated with anti-inflammatory processes. Our study is the first to demonstrate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of BG extract in beagle dogs. Glycine and β-alanine are proposed as candidate serum biomarkers in dogs that can discriminate between the effects of ingesting BG-H. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Fermented Ginseng Extract, BST204, Suppresses Tumorigenesis and Migration of Embryonic Carcinoma through Inhibition of Cancer Stem Cell Properties
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143128 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The pharmacological effects of BST204—a fermented ginseng extract—on several types of cancers have been reported. However, the effects of ginseng products or single ginsenosides against cancer stem cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we identified the anti-tumorigenic and anti-invasive activities of [...] Read more.
The pharmacological effects of BST204—a fermented ginseng extract—on several types of cancers have been reported. However, the effects of ginseng products or single ginsenosides against cancer stem cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we identified the anti-tumorigenic and anti-invasive activities of BST204 through the suppression of the cancer stem cell marker, CD133. The treatment of embryonic carcinoma cells with BST204 induced the expression of the tumor suppressor protein, p53, which decreased the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and downregulated the expression of CD133 and several stemness transcription factors. These changes resulted in both the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The knockdown of CD133 suggests that it has a role in tumorigenesis, but not in cancer cell proliferation or cell cycle arrest. Treatment with BST204 resulted in the reduced expression of the mesenchymal marker, N-cadherin, and the increased expression of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, leading to the suppression of tumor cell migration and invasion. The knockdown of CD133 also exhibited an anti-invasive effect, indicating the role of CD133 in tumor invasion. The single ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2—major components of BST204—exhibited limited effects against cancer stem cells compared to BST204, suggesting possible synergism among several ginsenoside compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Fermented Wild Ginseng by Rhizopus oligosporus Improved l-Carnitine and Ginsenoside Contents
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092111 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
We conducted this study to investigate the beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of wild ginseng on ginsenosides, l-carnitine contents and its biological activity. The Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of wild ginseng was carried out at 30 °C for between 1 and 14 [...] Read more.
We conducted this study to investigate the beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of wild ginseng on ginsenosides, l-carnitine contents and its biological activity. The Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of wild ginseng was carried out at 30 °C for between 1 and 14 days. Fourteen ginsenosides and l-carnitine were analyzed in the fermented wild ginseng by the ultra high pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) system. Our results showed that the total amount of ginsenosides in ginseng increased from 3274 to 5573 mg/kg after 14 days of fermentation. Among the 14 ginsenosides tested, the amounts of 13 ginsenosides (Rg1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rg3, Rh1, compound K, F1 and F2) increased, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 decreased, during the fermentation. Furthermore, l-carnitine (630 mg/kg) was newly synthesized in fermented ginseng extract after 14 days. In addition, both total phenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities showed an increase in the fermented ginseng with respect to non-fermented ginseng. These results show that the fermentation process reduced the cytotoxicity of wild ginseng against RAW264.7 cells. Both wild and fermented wild ginseng showed anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessCommunication
Inhibition of Programmed Death Receptor-1/Programmed Death Ligand-1 Interactions by Ginsenoside Metabolites
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092068 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Evidence suggests that programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) targeted inhibitors act as an immune checkpoint blockade, indicating that these compounds may be useful in cancer immunotherapy by inhibiting the immune response between T-cells and tumors. Previous studies have shown that ginsenosides can [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) targeted inhibitors act as an immune checkpoint blockade, indicating that these compounds may be useful in cancer immunotherapy by inhibiting the immune response between T-cells and tumors. Previous studies have shown that ginsenosides can regulate the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in target diseases; however, it remains unknown whether ginsenosides act as a blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. In this study, we used competitive ELISA to investigate 12 ginsenosides for their ability to block PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. In addition, we performed a protein–ligand docking simulation and examined the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds formed at the interfaces between the ginsenosides and PD-L1/PD-1. Eight out of the 12 ginsenosides studied showed inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions at 35% at the maximum concentration (1 μM). Among them, Rg3 and Compound K (C-K) demonstrated the highest inhibitory effects. Rg3 and C-K were further identified for their interaction efficacy with PD-1/PD-L1, which supported our results demonstrating the blocking activity of these compounds against PD-1/PD-L1 binding interactions. Collectively, our findings suggest that some ginsenosides, including Rg3 and C-K, inhibit PD-1/PD-L1 binding interactions. Therefore, these compounds may prove useful as part of an overall immuno-oncological strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Systems Biological Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Potential of Red Ginseng Supplements against Metabolic Diseases
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081967 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Red ginseng has been widely used in health-promoting supplements in Asia and is becoming increasingly popular in Western countries. However, its therapeutic mechanisms against most diseases have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to provide the biological mechanisms [...] Read more.
Red ginseng has been widely used in health-promoting supplements in Asia and is becoming increasingly popular in Western countries. However, its therapeutic mechanisms against most diseases have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to provide the biological mechanisms of red ginseng against various metabolic diseases. We used a systems biological approach to comprehensively identify the component-target and target-pathway networks in order to explore the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of red ginseng against metabolic diseases. Of the 23 components of red ginseng with target, 5 components were linked with 37 target molecules. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these 37 targets were mainly involved in 9 signaling pathways relating to immune cell differentiation and vascular health. These results successfully explained the mechanisms underlying the efficiency of red ginseng for metabolic diseases, such as menopausal symptoms in women, blood circulation, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Korean Red Ginseng Plays an Anti-Aging Role by Modulating Expression of Aging-Related Genes and Immune Cell Subsets
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071492 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Despite previous reports of anti-aging effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study investigated possible mechanisms of KRG-mediated anti-aging effects in aged mice. KRG significantly inhibited thymic involution in old mice. Interestingly, KRG only increased protein [...] Read more.
Despite previous reports of anti-aging effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study investigated possible mechanisms of KRG-mediated anti-aging effects in aged mice. KRG significantly inhibited thymic involution in old mice. Interestingly, KRG only increased protein expression, but not mRNA expression, of aging-related genes Lin28a, GDF-11, Sirt1, IL-2, and IL-17 in the thymocytes of old mice. KRG also modulated the population of some types of immune cells in old mice. KRG increased the population of regulatory T cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-expressing natural killer (NK) cells in the spleen of old mice, but serum levels of regulatory T cell-specific cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β were unaffected. Finally, KRG recovered mRNA expression of Lin28a, GDF-11, and Sirt1 artificially decreased by concanavalin A (Con A) in both thymocytes and splenocytes of old mice without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that KRG exerts anti-aging effects by preventing thymic involution, as well as modulating the expression of aging-related genes and immune cell subsets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Ginseng Gintonin Contains Ligands for GPR40 and GPR55
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051102 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived glycolipoprotein complex, has an exogenous ligand for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. However, recent lipid analysis of gintonin has shown that gintonin also contains other bioactive lipids besides LPAs, including linoleic acid and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). Linoleic acid, a free fatty [...] Read more.
Gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived glycolipoprotein complex, has an exogenous ligand for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. However, recent lipid analysis of gintonin has shown that gintonin also contains other bioactive lipids besides LPAs, including linoleic acid and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). Linoleic acid, a free fatty acid, and LPI are known as ligands for the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR40, and GPR55, respectively. We, herein, investigated whether gintonin could serve as a ligand for GPR40 and GPR55, using the insulin-secreting beta cell-derived cell line INS-1 and the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, respectively. Gintonin dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Gintonin-stimulated insulin secretion was partially inhibited by a GPR40 receptor antagonist but not an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist and was down-regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GPR40. Gintonin dose-dependently induced [Ca2+]i transients and Ca2+-dependent cell migration in PC-3 cells. Gintonin actions in PC-3 cells were attenuated by pretreatment with a GPR55 antagonist and an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist or by down-regulating GPR55 with siRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrated that gintonin-mediated insulin secretion by INS-1 cells and PC-3 cell migration were regulated by the respective activation of GPR40 and GPR55 receptors. These findings indicated that gintonin could function as a ligand for both receptors. Finally, we demonstrated that gintonin contained two more GPCR ligands, in addition to that for LPA receptors. Gintonin, with its multiple GPCR ligands, might provide the molecular basis for the multiple pharmacological actions of ginseng. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Gintonin-Enriched Fraction Suppresses Heat Stress-Induced Inflammation through LPA Receptor
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051019 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Heat stress can be caused by various environmental factors. When exposed to heat stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction occur due to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. In particular, inflammatory responses induced by heat stress are common in [...] Read more.
Heat stress can be caused by various environmental factors. When exposed to heat stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction occur due to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. In particular, inflammatory responses induced by heat stress are common in muscle cells, which are the most exposed to heat stress and directly affected. Gintonin-Enriched Fraction (GEF) is a non-saponin component of ginseng, a glycolipoprotein. It is known that it has excellent neuroprotective effects, therefore, we aimed to confirm the protective effect against heat stress by using GEF. C2C12 cells were exposed to high temperature stress for 1, 12 and 15 h, and the expression of signals was analyzed over time. Changes in the expression of the factors that were observed under heat stress were confirmed at the protein level. Exposure to heat stress increases phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and increases expression of inflammatory factors such as NLRP3 inflammasome through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Activated inflammatory signals also increase the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). Also, expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase related to oxidative stress is increased. However, it was confirmed that the changes due to the heat stress were suppressed by the GEF treatment. Therefore, we suggest that GEF helps to protect heat stress in muscle cell and prevent tissue damage by oxidative stress and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Red Ginseng Improves Exercise Endurance by Promoting Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Myoblast Differentiation
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040865 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Red ginseng has been reported to elicit various therapeutic effects relevant to cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of red ginseng on exercise endurance and skeletal muscle function remains unclear. Herein, we sought to investigate whether red ginseng could [...] Read more.
Red ginseng has been reported to elicit various therapeutic effects relevant to cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of red ginseng on exercise endurance and skeletal muscle function remains unclear. Herein, we sought to investigate whether red ginseng could affect exercise endurance and examined its molecular mechanism. Mice were fed with red ginseng extract (RG) and undertook swimming exercises to determine the time to exhaustion. Animals fed with RG had significantly longer swimming endurance. RG treatment was also observed to enhance ATP production levels in myoblasts. RG increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators, NRF-1, TFAM, and PGC-1α, which was accompanied by an elevation in mitochondrial DNA, suggesting an enhancement in mitochondrial energy-generating capacity. Importantly, RG treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 and AMPK and upregulated PGC1α expression in both myoblasts and in vivo muscle tissue. In addition, RG treatment also stimulated C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Our findings show that red ginseng improves exercise endurance, suggesting that it may have applications in supporting skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Ginseng Extract Ameliorates the Negative Physiological Effects of Heat Stress by Supporting Heat Shock Response and Improving Intestinal Barrier Integrity: Evidence from Studies with Heat-Stressed Caco-2 Cells, C. elegans and Growing Broilers
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040835 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Climatic changes and heat stress have become a great challenge in the livestock industry, negatively affecting, in particular, poultry feed intake and intestinal barrier malfunction. Recently, phytogenic feed additives were applied to reduce heat stress effects on animal farming. Here, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Climatic changes and heat stress have become a great challenge in the livestock industry, negatively affecting, in particular, poultry feed intake and intestinal barrier malfunction. Recently, phytogenic feed additives were applied to reduce heat stress effects on animal farming. Here, we investigated the effects of ginseng extract using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. Quantitative real-time PCR, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements and survival assays under heat stress conditions were carried out in various model systems, including Caco-2 cells, Caenorhabditis elegans and jejunum samples of broilers. Under heat stress conditions, ginseng treatment lowered the expression of HSPA1A (Caco-2) and the heat shock protein genes hsp-1 and hsp-16.2 (both in C. elegans), while all three of the tested genes encoding tight junction proteins, CLDN3, OCLN and CLDN1 (Caco-2), were upregulated. In addition, we observed prolonged survival under heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, and a better performance of growing ginseng-fed broilers by the increased gene expression of selected heat shock and tight junction proteins. The presence of ginseng extract resulted in a reduced decrease in transepithelial resistance under heat shock conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was performed to quantitate the most prominent ginsenosides in the extract used for this study, being Re, Rg1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd. In conclusion, ginseng extract was found to be a suitable feed additive in animal nutrition to reduce the negative physiological effects caused by heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Herb–Drug Interaction of Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenoside Rc with Valsartan in Rats
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030622 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the herb–drug interactions involving red ginseng extract (RGE) or ginsenoside Rc with valsartan, a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) transporters. In HEK293 cells overexpressing drug transporters, the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides- Rb1, Rb2, Rc, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the herb–drug interactions involving red ginseng extract (RGE) or ginsenoside Rc with valsartan, a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) transporters. In HEK293 cells overexpressing drug transporters, the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides- Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, compound K, and Rh2-inhibited human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters (IC50 values of 7.99–68.2 µM for OATP1B1; 1.36–30.8 µM for OATP1B3), suggesting the herb–drug interaction of PPD-type ginsenosides involving OATPs. Protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides-Re, Rg1, and Rh1-did not inhibit OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and all ginsenosides tested didn’t inhibit OCT and OAT transporters. However, in rats, neither RGE nor Rc, a potent OATP inhibitor among PPD-type ginsenoside, changed in vivo pharmacokinetics of valsartan following repeated oral administration of RGE (1.5 g/kg/day for 7 days) or repeated intravenous injection of Rc (3 mg/kg for 5 days). The lack of in vivo herb–drug interaction between orally administered RGE and valsartan could be attributed to the low plasma concentration of PPD-type ginsenosides (5.3–48.4 nM). Even high plasma concentration of Rc did not effectively alter the pharmacokinetics of valsartan because of high protein binding and the limited liver distribution of Rc. The results, in conclusion, would provide useful information for herb–drug interaction between RGE or PPD-type ginsenosides and Oatp substrate drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
New Dammarane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from Panax notoginseng Leaves and Their Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activities
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010139 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Inflammation is a very common and important pathological process that can cause many diseases. The discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs and the treatment of inflammation are particularly essential. Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins (PNS) were demonstrated to show anti-inflammatory effects in the leaves of Panax notoginseng [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a very common and important pathological process that can cause many diseases. The discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs and the treatment of inflammation are particularly essential. Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins (PNS) were demonstrated to show anti-inflammatory effects in the leaves of Panax notoginseng. Chromatographies and spectral analysis methods were combined to isolate and identify PNS. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities of all compounds were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. As a result, eleven new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, notoginsenosides NL-A1–NL-A4 (14), NL-B1–NL-B3 (57), NL-C1–NL-C3 (810), and NL-D (11) were isolated, and their structures were identified by using various spectrometric techniques and chemical reactions. Among them, compounds 4 and 11 were characterized by the malonyl substitution at 3-position. The 3-malonyl substituted dammarane-type terpennoids were first obtained from natural products. In addition, compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, and 810 were found to play an important role in suppressing NO levels at 50 μM, without cytotoxicity. All inhibitory activities were found to be dose-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Ginseng Gintonin Enhances Hyaluronic Acid and Collagen Release from Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Interaction
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244438 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Gintonin is a newly discovered component of ginseng and acts as a ligand for G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. It is currently unclear whether gintonin has skin-related effects. Here, we examined the effects of a gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) on [Ca2+] [...] Read more.
Gintonin is a newly discovered component of ginseng and acts as a ligand for G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. It is currently unclear whether gintonin has skin-related effects. Here, we examined the effects of a gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) on [Ca2+]i transient induction in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We found that GEF treatment transiently induced [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. GEF also increased cell viability and proliferation, which could be blocked by Ki16425, an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, or 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), a calcium chelator. We further found that GEF stimulated hyaluronic acid (HA) release from HDFs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which could be attenuated by Ki16425, U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an IP3 receptor antagonist, and BAPTA-AM. Moreover, we found that GEF increased HA synthase 1 (HAS1) expression in a time-dependent manner. We also found that GEF stimulates collagen release and the expression of collagen 1, 3, and 7 synthases in a time-dependent manner. GEF-mediated collagen synthesis could be blocked by Ki16425, U73122, 2-APB, and BAPTA-AM. GEF treatment also increased the mRNA levels of LPA1-6 receptor subtypes at 8 h and increased the protein levels of LPA1-6 receptor subtypes at 8 h. Overall, these results indicate that the GEF-mediated transient induction of [Ca2+]i is coupled to HA and collagen release from HDFs via LPA receptor regulations. We can, thus, conclude that GEF might exert a beneficial effect on human skin physiology via LPA receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Polyethylene Glycol-Ginsenoside Rh1 and Rh2 Conjugates and Their Efficacy against Lung Cancer and Inflammation
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4367; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234367 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Low solubility and tumor-targeted delivery of ginsenosides to avoid off-target cytotoxicity are challenges for clinical trials. In the present study, we report on a methodology for the synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ginsenoside conjugates through a hydrolysable ester bond using the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene [...] Read more.
Low solubility and tumor-targeted delivery of ginsenosides to avoid off-target cytotoxicity are challenges for clinical trials. In the present study, we report on a methodology for the synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ginsenoside conjugates through a hydrolysable ester bond using the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol with the hydrophobic ginsenosides Rh1 and Rh2 to enhance water solubility and passive targeted delivery. The resulting conjugates were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). 1H NMR revealed that the C-6 and C-3 sugar hydroxyl groups of Rh1 and Rh2 were esterified. The conjugates showed spherical shapes that were monitored by field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), and the average sizes of the particles were 62 ± 5.72 nm and 134 ± 8.75 nm for PEG-Rh1and PEG-Rh2, respectively (measured using a particle size analyzer). Owing to the hydrophilic enhancing properties of PEG, PEG-Rh1 and PEG-Rh2 solubility was greatly enhanced compared to Rh1 and Rh2 alone. The release rates of Rh1 and Rh2 were increased in lower pH conditions (pH 5.0), that for pathophysiological sites as well as for intracellular endosomes and lysosomes, compared to normal-cell pH conditions (pH 7.4). In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the PEG-Rh1conjugates had greater anticancer activity in a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) compared to Rh1 alone, whereas PEG-Rh2 showed lower cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. On the other hand, both PEG-Rh1 and PEG-Rh2 showed non-cytotoxicity in a nondiseased murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) compared to free Rh1 and Rh2, but PEG-Rh2 exhibited increased efficacy against inflammation by greatly inhibiting nitric oxide production. Thus, the overall conclusion of our study is that PEG conjugation promotes the properties of Rh1 for anticancer and Rh2 for inflammation treatments. Depends on the disease models, they could be potential drug candidates for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Validated UPLC-MS/MS Method for Analyzing Major Ginseng Saponins from Various Ginseng Species
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224065 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
Ginsenosides, which contain one triterpene and one or more sugar moieties, are the major bioactive compounds of ginseng. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a specific and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of [...] Read more.
Ginsenosides, which contain one triterpene and one or more sugar moieties, are the major bioactive compounds of ginseng. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a specific and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of twelve different resources of ginseng. The six marker compounds of ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1, as well as an internal standard, were separated by a reversed-phase C-18 column with a gradient elution of water and methanol-acetonitrile. The multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify and identify twelve market products. The results demonstrated that not only is the logarithm of its partition coefficient (cLog P; octanol-water partition coefficient) one of the factors, but also the number of sugars, position of sugars, and position of the hydroxyl groups are involved in the complicated separation factors for the analytes in the analytical system. If the amount of ginsenoside Rb1 was higher than 40 mg/g, then the species might be Panax quinquefolius, based on the results of the marker ginsenoside contents of various varieties. In summary, this study provides a rapid and precise analytical method for identifying the various ginsenosides from different species, geographic environments, and cultivation cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic Approach for Discrimination of Cultivation Age and Ripening Stage in Ginseng Berry Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213837 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze metabolic differences of ginseng berries according to cultivation age and ripening stage using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics method. Ginseng berries were harvested every week during five different ripening stages of three-year-old and four-year-old ginseng. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze metabolic differences of ginseng berries according to cultivation age and ripening stage using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics method. Ginseng berries were harvested every week during five different ripening stages of three-year-old and four-year-old ginseng. Using identified metabolites, a random forest machine learning approach was applied to obtain predictive models for the classification of cultivation age or ripening stage. Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot showed a clear separation by ripening stage, indicating that continuous metabolic changes occurred until the fifth ripening stage. Three-year-old ginseng berries had higher levels of valine, glutamic acid, and tryptophan, but lower levels of lactic acid and galactose than four-year-old ginseng berries at fully ripened stage. Metabolic pathways affected by different cultivation age were involved in amino acid metabolism pathways. A random forest machine learning approach extracted some important metabolites for predicting cultivation age or ripening stage with low error rate. This study demonstrates that different cultivation ages or ripening stages of ginseng berry can be successfully discriminated using a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach together with random forest analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Anti-adipogenic Properties of Hydroponic Ginseng Fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183359 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Hydroponic ginseng (HPG) has been known to have various bio-functionalities, including an antioxidant effect. Recently, fermentation by lactic acid bacteria has been studied to enhance bio-functional activities in plants by biologically converting their chemical compounds. HPG roots and shoots were fermented with Leuconostoc [...] Read more.
Hydroponic ginseng (HPG) has been known to have various bio-functionalities, including an antioxidant effect. Recently, fermentation by lactic acid bacteria has been studied to enhance bio-functional activities in plants by biologically converting their chemical compounds. HPG roots and shoots were fermented with Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P isolated from kimchi. The total phenolic compounds, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-adipogenic effects of these fermented samples were evaluated in comparison with non-fermented samples (control). During 24 h fermentation of HPG roots and shoots, the viable number of cells increased to 7.50 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the fermented HPG roots increased by 107.19% and 645.59%, respectively, compared to non-fermented HPG roots. The antioxidant activity of fermented HPG, as assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), β-carotene-linoleic, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, was also significantly enhanced. In an anti-inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, the nitric oxide content and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) decreased when treated with fermented samples. Simultaneously, lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was reduced when treated with fermented HPG. Fermentation by L. mesenteroides showed improved antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic HPG effects. These results show that fermented HPG has potential for applications in the functional food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Ginsenoside Rg3
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4905; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214905 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 471
Abstract
Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is a member of the ginsenoside family of chemicals extracted from Panax ginseng. Like other ginsenosides, Rg3 has two epimers: 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3) and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3). Rg3 is an intriguing molecule due to its anti-cancer properties. One facet [...] Read more.
Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is a member of the ginsenoside family of chemicals extracted from Panax ginseng. Like other ginsenosides, Rg3 has two epimers: 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3) and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3). Rg3 is an intriguing molecule due to its anti-cancer properties. One facet of the anti-cancer properties of Rg3 is the anti-angiogenic action. This review describes the controversies on the effects and effective dose range of Rg3, summarizes the evidence on the efficacy of Rg3 on angiogenesis, and raises the possibility that Rg3 is a prodrug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessReview
Diversity of Ginsenoside Profiles Produced by Various Processing Technologies
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4390; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194390 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Ginseng is a traditional medicinal herb commonly consumed world-wide owing to its unique family of saponins called ginsenosides. The absorption and bioavailability of ginsenosides mainly depend on an individual’s gastrointestinal bioconversion abilities. There is a need to improve ginseng processing to predictably increase [...] Read more.
Ginseng is a traditional medicinal herb commonly consumed world-wide owing to its unique family of saponins called ginsenosides. The absorption and bioavailability of ginsenosides mainly depend on an individual’s gastrointestinal bioconversion abilities. There is a need to improve ginseng processing to predictably increase the pharmacologically active of ginsenosides. Various types of ginseng, such as fresh, white, steamed, acid-processed, and fermented ginsengs, are available. The various ginseng processing methods produce a range ginsenoside compositions with diverse pharmacological properties. This review is intended to summarize the properties of the ginsenosides found in different Panax species as well as the different processing methods. The sugar moiety attached to the C–3, C–6, or C–20 deglycosylated to produce minor ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd→Rg3, F2, Rh2; Re, Rf→Rg1, Rg2, F1, Rh1. The malonyl-Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd were demalonylated into ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd by dehydration. Dehydration also produces minor ginsenosides such as Rg3→Rk1, Rg5, Rz1; Rh2→Rk2, Rh3; Rh1→Rh4, Rk3; Rg2→Rg6, F4; Rs3→Rs4, Rs5; Rf→Rg9, Rg10. Acetylation of several ginsenosides may generate acetylated ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1, Rh4, Rk3, Rs4, Rs5, Rs6, and Rs7. Acid processing methods produces Rh1→Rk3, Rh4; Rh2→Rk1, Rg5; Rg3→Rk2, Rh3; Re, Rf, Rg2→F1, Rh1, Rf2, Rf3, Rg6, F4, Rg9. Alkaline produces Rh16, Rh3, Rh1, F4, Rk1, ginsenoslaloside-I, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rh1-60-acetate, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh19, zingibroside-R1 through hydrolysis, hydration addition reactions, and dehydration. Moreover, biological processing of ginseng generates the minor ginsenosides of Rg3, F2, Rh2, CK, Rh1, Mc, compound O, compound Y through hydrolysis reactions, and synthetic ginsenosides Rd12 and Ia are produced through glycosylation. This review with respect to the properties of particular ginsenosides could serve to increase the utilization of ginseng in agricultural products, food, dietary supplements, health supplements, and medicines, and may also spur future development of novel highly functional ginseng products through a combination of various processing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Saponin Diversity of Panax ginseng
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3452; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153452 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
Ginsenosides are the major bioactive constituents of Panax ginseng, which have pharmacological effects. Although there are several reviews in regards to ginsenosides, new ginsenosides have been detected continually in recent years. This review updates the ginsenoside list from P. ginseng to 170 [...] Read more.
Ginsenosides are the major bioactive constituents of Panax ginseng, which have pharmacological effects. Although there are several reviews in regards to ginsenosides, new ginsenosides have been detected continually in recent years. This review updates the ginsenoside list from P. ginseng to 170 by the end of 2019, and aims to highlight the diversity of ginsenosides in multiple dimensions, including chemical structure, tissue spatial distribution, time, and isomeride. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and C17 side-chain varied (C17SCV) manners are the major types of ginsenosides, and the constitute of ginsenosides varied significantly among different parts. Only 16 ginsenosides commonly exist in all parts of a ginseng plant. Protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside is dominant in root, rhizome, leaf, stem, and fruit, whereas malonyl- and C17SCV-type ginsenosides occupy a greater proportion in the flower and flower bud compared with other parts. In respects of isomeride, there are 69 molecular formulas corresponding to 170 ginsenosides, and the median of isomers is 2. This is the first review on diversity of ginsenosides, providing information for reasonable utilization of whole ginseng plant, and the perspective on studying the physiological functions of ginsenoside for the ginseng plant itself is also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessReview
Characteristics of Panax ginseng Cultivars in Korea and China
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112635 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia. Its pharmacological activity comes from ginsenosides, and its roots are produced commercially for traditional and Oriental medicine. Though 17 Panax species are available around the world, there was [...] Read more.
Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia. Its pharmacological activity comes from ginsenosides, and its roots are produced commercially for traditional and Oriental medicine. Though 17 Panax species are available around the world, there was a need to develop cultivars adapted to different climatic conditions and resistant to various diseases while still producing high-quality, high-yield roots. Thus, 12 and 9 commercial P. ginseng cultivars have been registered in South Korea and China, respectively. Those varieties show superiority to local landraces. For example, Chunpoong is more highly resistant to rusty rot disease than the local Jakyungjong landrace and has a good root shape; it is highly cultivated to produce red ginseng. The Chinese cultivar Jilin Huangguo Renshen has higher ginsenoside content than its local landraces. This review provides information about P. ginseng cultivars and offers directions for future research, such as intra- and interspecific hybridization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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