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Special Issue "Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Long Y Chiang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Lowell,MA 01854, USA
Interests: : photonic organic materials; fullerenyl nanomaterials; photoenergy-active organic/polymer materials; photodynamic biomaterials; upconverting organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cirillo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: nanoparticles; carbon nanomaterials; hybrid materials; hydrogels; polymer therapeutics; self-assembling materials; stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems; cancer; infectious diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanocarbon compounds, including but not limited to fullerenes, graphenes, and carbon nanotubes, are attracting increasing interest due to their superior physic chemical, mechanical, and biological features. Such materials have been proposed for several applications in different research fields, from chemistry and engineering to electronics, materials science, energy management, and biomedicine.

This Special Issue is intended as a platform for interactive material science articles (either research and review articles) with an emphasis on the functionalization chemistry, preparation, and characterization of nanocarbon compounds, as well as all aspects of physical properties of functionalized, conjugated, or hybrid nanocarbon materials, and their associated applications. The ultimate aim is to collect all the recent advances in the field, highlighting the strengths and the weaknesses of each nanostructure and providing new ideas for researchers working in this multidisciplinary area.

Prof. Long Y Chiang
Prof. Giuseppe Cirillo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanocarbon compounds;
  • Carbon nanohybrids;
  • Chemical functionalization;
  • Characterization routes.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Aerogel Growth on Functionalized Carbon Fibers
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061295 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Graphene aerogel (GA) is a lightweight, porous, environmentally friendly, 3D structured material with interesting properties, such as electrical conductivity, a high surface area, and chemical stability, which make it a powerful tool in energy storage, sensing, catalyst support, or environmental applications. However, the [...] Read more.
Graphene aerogel (GA) is a lightweight, porous, environmentally friendly, 3D structured material with interesting properties, such as electrical conductivity, a high surface area, and chemical stability, which make it a powerful tool in energy storage, sensing, catalyst support, or environmental applications. However, the poor mechanical stability that often characterizes graphene aerogels is a serious obstacle for their use in such applications. Therefore, we report here the successful mechanical reinforcement of GA with carbon fibers (CFs) by combining reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CFs in a composite material. The surfaces of the CFs were first successfully desized and enriched with epoxy groups using epichloridrine. Epoxy-functionalized CFs (epoxy-CFs) were further covered by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets, using triethylene tetramine (TETA) as a linker. The rGO-covered CFs were finally incorporated into the GA, affording a stiff monolithic aerogel composite. The as-prepared epoxy-CF-reinforced GA was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and showed enhanced electrical conductivity and compressive strength. The improved electrical and mechanical properties of the GA-CFs composite could be used, among other things, as electrode material or strain sensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Systematic Investigations of Annealing and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube Yarns
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051144 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
Carbon nanotube yarns (CNY) are a novel carbonaceous material and have received a great deal of interest since the beginning of the 21st century. CNY are of particular interest due to their useful heat conducting, electrical conducting, and mechanical properties. The electrical conductivity [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube yarns (CNY) are a novel carbonaceous material and have received a great deal of interest since the beginning of the 21st century. CNY are of particular interest due to their useful heat conducting, electrical conducting, and mechanical properties. The electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube yarns can also be influenced by functionalization and annealing. A systematical study of this post synthetic treatment will assist in understanding what factors influences the conductivity of these materials. In this investigation, it is shown that the electrical conductivity can be increased by a factor of 2 and 5.5 through functionalization with acids and high temperature annealing respectively. The scale of the enhancement is dependent on the reducing of intertube space in case of functionalization. For annealing, not only is the highly graphitic structure of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) important, but it is also shown to influence the residual amorphous carbon in the structure. The promising results of this study can help to utilize CNY as a replacement for common materials in the field of electrical wiring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Intramolecular Energy- and Electron-Transfer of 3D-Conformeric Tris(fluorenyl-[60]fullerenylfluorene) Derivatives
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183337 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
New 3D conformers were synthesized to show a nanomolecular configuration with geometrically branched 2-diphenylaminofluorene (DPAF-C2M) chromophores using a symmetrical 1,3,5-triaminobenzene ring as the center core for the connection of three fused DPAF-C2M moieties. The design led to a class of [...] Read more.
New 3D conformers were synthesized to show a nanomolecular configuration with geometrically branched 2-diphenylaminofluorene (DPAF-C2M) chromophores using a symmetrical 1,3,5-triaminobenzene ring as the center core for the connection of three fused DPAF-C2M moieties. The design led to a class of cis-cup-tris[(DPAF-C2M)-C60(>DPAF-C9)] 3D conformers with three bisadduct-analogous <C60> cages per nanomolecule facing at the same side of the geometrical molecular cis-cup-shape structure. A sequential synthetic route was described to afford this 3D configurated conformer in a high yield with various spectroscopic characterizations. In principle, a nanostructure with a non-coplanar 3D configuration in design should minimize the direct contact or π-stacking of fluorene rings with each other during molecular packing to the formation of fullerosome array. It may also prevent the self-quenching effect of its photoexcited states in solids. Photophysical properties of this cis-cup-conformer were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Oxide Tablets for Sample Preparation of Drugs in Biological Fluids: Determination of Omeprazole in Human Saliva for Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071191 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, a novel sort of sample preparation sorbent was developed, by preparing thin layer graphene oxide tablets (GO-Tabs) utilizing a mixture of graphene oxide and polyethylene glycol on a polyethylene substrate. The GO-Tabs were used for extraction and concentration of omeprazole [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel sort of sample preparation sorbent was developed, by preparing thin layer graphene oxide tablets (GO-Tabs) utilizing a mixture of graphene oxide and polyethylene glycol on a polyethylene substrate. The GO-Tabs were used for extraction and concentration of omeprazole (OME) in human saliva samples. The determination of OME was carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) under gradient LC conditions and in the positive ion mode (ESI+) with mass transitions of m/z 346.3→198.0 for OME and m/z 369.98→252.0 for the internal standard. Standard calibration for the saliva samples was in the range of 2.0–2000 nmol L−1. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 2.0 nmol L−1, respectively. Method validation showed good method accuracy and precision; the inter-day precision values ranged from 5.7 to 8.3 (%RSD), and the accuracy of determinations varied from −11.8% to 13.3% (% deviation from nominal values). The extraction recovery was 60%, and GO-Tabs could be re-used for more than ten extractions without deterioration in recovery. In this study, the determination of OME in real human saliva samples using GO-Tab extraction was validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Conductivity of Defective Graphene Oxide: A Molecular Dynamic Study
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061103 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this paper, the thermal properties of graphene oxide (GO) with vacancy defects were studied using a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of GO increases with the model length. A linear relationship of the inverse length and [...] Read more.
In this paper, the thermal properties of graphene oxide (GO) with vacancy defects were studied using a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of GO increases with the model length. A linear relationship of the inverse length and inverse thermal conductivity was observed. The thermal conductivity of GO decreased monotonically with an increase in the degree of oxidation. When the degree of oxidation was 10%, the thermal conductivity of GO decreased by ~90% and this was almost independent of chiral direction. The effect of vacancy defect on the thermal conductivity of GO was also considered. The size effect of thermal conductivity gradually decreases with increasing defect concentration. When the vacancy defect ratio was beyond 2%, the thermal conductivity did not show significant change with the degree of oxidation. The effect of vacancy defect on thermal conductivity is greater than that of oxide group concentration. Our results can provide effective guidance for the designed GO microstructures in thermal management and thermoelectric applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Functionalized Carbon Nanostructures Versus Drug Resistance: Promising Scenarios in Cancer Treatment
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092102 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
Carbon nanostructures (CN) are emerging valuable materials for the assembly of highly engineered multifunctional nanovehicles for cancer therapy, in particular for counteracting the insurgence of multi-drug resistance (MDR). In this regard, carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene oxide (GO), and fullerenes (F) have been proposed [...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructures (CN) are emerging valuable materials for the assembly of highly engineered multifunctional nanovehicles for cancer therapy, in particular for counteracting the insurgence of multi-drug resistance (MDR). In this regard, carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene oxide (GO), and fullerenes (F) have been proposed as promising materials due to their superior physical, chemical, and biological features. The possibility to easily modify their surface, conferring tailored properties, allows different CN derivatives to be synthesized. Although many studies have explored this topic, a comprehensive review evaluating the beneficial use of functionalized CNT vs G or F is still missing. Within this paper, the most relevant examples of CN-based nanosystems proposed for MDR reversal are reviewed, taking into consideration the functionalization routes, as well as the biological mechanisms involved and the possible toxicity concerns. The main aim is to understand which functional CN represents the most promising strategy to be further investigated for overcoming MDR in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessReview
Filled Carbon Nanotubes as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051064 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Downsizing well-established materials to the nanoscale is a key route to novel functionalities, in particular if different functionalities are merged in hybrid nanomaterials. Hybrid carbon-based hierarchical nanostructures are particularly promising for electrochemical energy storage since they combine benefits of nanosize effects, enhanced electrical [...] Read more.
Downsizing well-established materials to the nanoscale is a key route to novel functionalities, in particular if different functionalities are merged in hybrid nanomaterials. Hybrid carbon-based hierarchical nanostructures are particularly promising for electrochemical energy storage since they combine benefits of nanosize effects, enhanced electrical conductivity and integrity of bulk materials. We show that endohedral multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) encapsulating high-capacity (here: conversion and alloying) electrode materials have a high potential for use in anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIB). There are two essential characteristics of filled CNT relevant for application in electrochemical energy storage: (1) rigid hollow cavities of the CNT provide upper limits for nanoparticles in their inner cavities which are both separated from the fillings of other CNT and protected against degradation. In particular, the CNT shells resist strong volume changes of encapsulates in response to electrochemical cycling, which in conventional conversion and alloying materials hinders application in energy storage devices. (2) Carbon mantles ensure electrical contact to the active material as they are unaffected by potential cracks of the encapsulate and form a stable conductive network in the electrode compound. Our studies confirm that encapsulates are electrochemically active and can achieve full theoretical reversible capacity. The results imply that encapsulating nanostructures inside CNT can provide a route to new high-performance nanocomposite anode materials for LIB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Engineering 3D Graphene-Based Materials: State of the Art and Perspectives
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020339 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Graphene is the prototype of two-dimensional (2D) materials, whose main feature is the extremely large surface-to-mass ratio. This property is interesting for a series of applications that involve interactions between particles and surfaces, such as, for instance, gas, fluid or charge storage, catalysis, [...] Read more.
Graphene is the prototype of two-dimensional (2D) materials, whose main feature is the extremely large surface-to-mass ratio. This property is interesting for a series of applications that involve interactions between particles and surfaces, such as, for instance, gas, fluid or charge storage, catalysis, and filtering. However, for most of these, a volumetric extension is needed, while preserving the large exposed surface. This proved to be rather a hard task, especially when specific structural features are also required (e.g., porosity or density given). Here we review the recent experimental realizations and theoretical/simulation studies of 3D materials based on graphene. Two main synthesis routes area available, both of which currently use (reduced) graphene oxide flakes as precursors. The first involves mixing and interlacing the flakes through various treatments (suspension, dehydration, reduction, activation, and others), leading to disordered nanoporous materials whose structure can be characterized a posteriori, but is difficult to control. With the aim of achieving a better control, a second path involves the functionalization of the flakes with pillars molecules, bringing a new class of materials with structure partially controlled by the size, shape, and chemical-physical properties of the pillars. We finally outline the first steps on a possible third road, which involves the construction of pillared multi-layers using epitaxial regularly nano-patterned graphene as precursor. While presenting a number of further difficulties, in principle this strategy would allow a complete control on the structural characteristics of the final 3D architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Chemistry of Fullerenes, Graphenes, and Carbon Nanotubes)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Authors: Francisco Cases
Affiliation: Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Área de Conocimiento Química Física, Universitat Politècnica de València
Title: Carbon cloth anodes coated with Reduced Graphene Oxide and Pt nanoparticles applied to the electrochemical treatment of Amaranth solutions
Abstract: Active carbon cloth electodes (ACE) were prepared by coating reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or/and Pt nanoparticles potentiodinamically. The Pt atomic content in ACE/RGO-Pt [6.3%-10.1%] was higher than in ACE/Pt [4.5%-6.1%]. This result is in the line with the high electrical conductivity, huge specific surface area and adsorption capacities of graphene which improves the electrocoating process. Percentages of decolourization above 85% at 0.37 Ah L-1 and 0.16 Ah L-1 were obtained with the divided “H” shaped cell and non-divided cell after electrolysis, respectively, when a ACE/RGO-Pt was used. The electric energy per order (EEO) reached values around 0.59 Kwh m-3 per order for the electrooxidation and 0.11 Kwh/m3order for the electrolysis in the non-divided cell. UV-visible spectra showed the disappearance of the peak at 520 nm responsible for the color solution after the electrolysis. Faster pseudo first-order kinetics was obtained for the decolourization process in the non-divided cell and FTIR-ATR spectra showed a great degradation of Amaranth structure during the electrooxidation.

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