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Special Issue "Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Samir Mohyeldin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polymer Materials Research Department, Advanced Technologies and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box: 21934 Alexandria, Egypt.
Interests: biopolymers; wound dressing; enzyme immobilization; polyelectrolyte ions exchange polymer membranes; drug delivery; antimicrobial; anti-inflammatory; protein separation
Dr. Katarína Valachová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: degradation of high molar mass hyaluronan by reactive oxygen species; chitosan and its derivatives; skin wound healing; effects of antioxidants and drugs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Tamer M Tamer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polymer Materials Research Department, Advanced Technologies and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box: 21934 Alexandria, Egypt.
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polysaccharides; wound dressing; natural polymers; functionalization of polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin is a natural linear polysaccharide composed of β-(1–4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units. Chitin has a wide distribution in many species, including crustaceans and insect exoskeletons, as well as in some bacterial and fungal cell walls. Chitosan is another nitrogen-containing polysaccharide consisting of β-(1–4)-poly-D-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been found in many fungi species. It can also be prepared commercially via a simple deacetylation process of chitin. 

Both chitin and chitosan derivatives have excellent biological properties, including being nontoxic, mucoadhesive, hemocompatible, and biodegradable and possessing antitumor, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. These properties make them attractive biomaterials for different applications, especially in medicine. The examination of chitin derivatives in medicinal and other fields is of high interest, as has been documented in numerous papers in the last few years.

This Special Issue titled “Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications” aims to gather studies concerning chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives. The main topics of interest are the preparation of chitin, chitosan, or its derivatives and their applications in medicine, cosmetics, the food industry, water treatments, etc. and the effects of these compounds against reactive oxygen species. For this Special Issue, high-quality research papers will be accepted along with review papers summarizing the state of the art of a specific area of this field of research.

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Samir Mohyeldin
Dr. Katarína Valachová
Dr. Tamer M Tamer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin
  • chitosan
  • functionalized chitin and chitosan
  • chitin and chitosan derivatives
  • medicinal applications

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Article
Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in IPEC-J2 Cells by Inhibiting the Nuclear Factor-κB Signalling Pathway
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030569 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC), a product of chitosan deacetylation, possesses anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was used to assess the protective effects of LMWC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. IPEC-J2 cells were pretreated [...] Read more.
Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC), a product of chitosan deacetylation, possesses anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was used to assess the protective effects of LMWC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. IPEC-J2 cells were pretreated with or without LMWC (400 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of LPS (5 μg/mL) for 6 h. LMWC pretreatment increased (p < 0.05) the occludin abundance and decreased (p < 0.05) the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, apoptosis rate and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (caspase-3) and -8 contents in LPS-treated IPEC-J2 cells. Moreover, LMWC pretreatment downregulated (p < 0.05) the expression levels of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR-associated death domain and decreased (p < 0.05) the nuclear and cytoplasmic abundance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in LPS-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. These results suggest that LMWC exerts a mitigation effect on LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage by suppressing TNFR1-mediated apoptosis and decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines via the inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Formulation of Quaternized Aminated Chitosan Nanoparticles for Efficient Encapsulation and Slow Release of Curcumin
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020449 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
An effective drug nanocarrier was developed on the basis of a quaternized aminated chitosan (Q-AmCs) derivative for the efficient encapsulation and slow release of the curcumin (Cur)-drug. A simple ionic gelation method was conducted to formulate Q-AmCs nanoparticles (NPs), using different ratios of [...] Read more.
An effective drug nanocarrier was developed on the basis of a quaternized aminated chitosan (Q-AmCs) derivative for the efficient encapsulation and slow release of the curcumin (Cur)-drug. A simple ionic gelation method was conducted to formulate Q-AmCs nanoparticles (NPs), using different ratios of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as an ionic crosslinker. Various characterization tools were employed to investigate the structure, surface morphology, and thermal properties of the formulated nanoparticles. The formulated Q-AmCs NPs displayed a smaller particle size of 162 ± 9.10 nm, and higher surface positive charges, with a maximum potential of +48.3 mV, compared to native aminated chitosan (AmCs) NPs (231 ± 7.14 nm, +32.8 mV). The Cur-drug encapsulation efficiency was greatly improved and reached a maximum value of 94.4 ± 0.91%, compared to 75.0 ± 1.13% for AmCs NPs. Moreover, the in vitro Cur-release profile was investigated under the conditions of simulated gastric fluid [SGF; pH 1.2] and simulated colon fluid [SCF; pH 7.4]. For Q-AmCs NPs, the Cur-release rate was meaningfully decreased, and recorded a cumulative release value of 54.0% at pH 7.4, compared to 73.0% for AmCs NPs. The formulated nanoparticles exhibited acceptable biocompatibility and biodegradability. These findings emphasize that Q-AmCs NPs have an outstanding potential for the delivery and slow release of anticancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Anti-Obesity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) in SD Rats and in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes Models
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020331 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Excess body weight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated metabolic complications, and weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease morbidity and mortality in T2D patients. Weight-loss strategies using dietary interventions produce a significant [...] Read more.
Excess body weight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated metabolic complications, and weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease morbidity and mortality in T2D patients. Weight-loss strategies using dietary interventions produce a significant decrease in diabetes-related metabolic disturbance. We have previously reported that the supplementation of low molecular chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) significantly inhibited blood glucose levels in both animals and humans. However, the effect of GO2KA1 on obesity still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of GO2KA1 on lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro and plasma lipid profiles using a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated to differentiate under the adipogenic stimulation in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of GO2KA1. Adipocyte differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining of lipids and the expression of adipogenic gene expression. Compared to control group, the cells treated with GO2KA1 significantly decreased in intracellular lipid accumulation with concomitant decreases in the expression of key transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBP/α). Consistently, the mRNA expression of downstream adipogenic target genes such as fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FAS), were significantly lower in the GO2KA1-treated group than in the control group. In vivo, male SD rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induced obesity, followed by oral administration of GO2KA1 at 0.1 g/kg/body weight or vehicle control in HFD. We assessed body weight, food intake, plasma lipids, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for liver function, and serum level of adiponectin, a marker for obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Compared to control group GO2KA1 significantly suppressed body weight gain (185.8 ± 8.8 g vs. 211.6 ± 20.1 g, p < 0.05) with no significant difference in food intake. The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were significantly lower in the GO2KA1-treated group than in the control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was higher in the GO2KA1 group. The GO2KA1-treated group also showed a significant reduction in ALT and AST levels compared to the control. Moreover, serum adiponectin levels were significantly 1.5-folder higher than the control group. These in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that dietary supplementation of GO2KA1 may prevent diet-induced weight gain and the anti-obesity effect is mediated in part by inhibiting adipogenesis and increasing adiponectin level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Influence of the Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan and BMP-2 Concentration on Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Properties of BMP-2/PLA Granule-Loaded Chitosan/β-Glycerophosphate Hydrogels
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020261 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
Compositions based on chitosan/β-glycerophosphate hydrogels with highly porous polylactide granules can be used to obtain moldable bone graft materials that have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. To eliminate the influence of such characteristics as chain length, degree of purification, and molecular weight on a [...] Read more.
Compositions based on chitosan/β-glycerophosphate hydrogels with highly porous polylactide granules can be used to obtain moldable bone graft materials that have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. To eliminate the influence of such characteristics as chain length, degree of purification, and molecular weight on a designed material, the one-stock chitosan sample was reacetylated to degrees of deacetylation (DD%) of 19.5, 39, 49, 55, and 56. A study of the chitosan/β-glycerophosphate hydrogel with chitosan of a reduced DD% showed that a low degree of deacetylation increased the MSCs (multipotent stromal cells) viability rate in vitro and reduced the leukocyte infiltration in subcutaneous implantation to Wistar rats in vivo. The addition of 12 wt% polylactide granules resulted in optimal composite mechanical and moldable properties, and increased the modulus of elasticity of the hydrogel-based material by approximately 100 times. Excessive filling of the material with PLA (polylactide) granules (more than 20%) led to material destruction at a ~10% strain. Osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the chitosan hydrogel-based material with reacetylated chitosan (39 DD%) and highly porous polylactide granules impregnated with BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) have been demonstrated in models of orthotopic and ectopic bone formation. When implanted into a critical-size calvarial defect in rats, the optimal concentration of BMP-2 was 10 μg/mL: bone tissue areas filled the entire material’s thickness. Implantation of the material with 50 μg/mL BMP-2 was accompanied with excessive growth of bone tissue and material displacement beyond the defect. Significant osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the material with 10 μg/mL of BMP-2 were also shown in subcutaneous implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Investigation of Parameters Influencing Tubular-Shaped Chitosan-Hydroxyapatite Layer Electrodeposition
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010104 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Tubular-shaped layer electrodeposition from chitosan-hydroxyapatite colloidal solutions has found application in the field of regeneration or replacement of cylindrical tissues and organs, especially peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of this phenomenon has not been described. In this work, [...] Read more.
Tubular-shaped layer electrodeposition from chitosan-hydroxyapatite colloidal solutions has found application in the field of regeneration or replacement of cylindrical tissues and organs, especially peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of this phenomenon has not been described. In this work, the colloidal systems are subjected to the action of an electric current initiated at different voltages. Parameters of the electrodeposition process (i.e., total charge exchanged, gas volume, and deposit thickness) are monitored over time. Deposit structures are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The value of voltage influences structural characteristics but not thickness of deposit for the process lasting at least 20 min. The calculated number of exchanged electrons for studied conditions suggests that the mechanism of deposit formation is governed not only by water electrolysis but also interactions between formed hydroxide ions and calcium ions coordinated by chitosan chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Nonhost Disease Resistance in Pea: Chitosan’s Suggested Role in DNA Minor Groove Actions Relative to Phytoalexin-Eliciting Anti-Cancer Compounds
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5913; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245913 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 614
Abstract
A stable intense resistance called “nonhost resistance” generates a complete multiple-gene resistance against plant pathogenic species that are not pathogens of pea such as the bean pathogen, Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (Fsph). Chitosan is a natural nonhost resistance response gene activator of [...] Read more.
A stable intense resistance called “nonhost resistance” generates a complete multiple-gene resistance against plant pathogenic species that are not pathogens of pea such as the bean pathogen, Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (Fsph). Chitosan is a natural nonhost resistance response gene activator of defense responses in peas. Chitosan may share with cancer-treatment compounds, netropsin and some anti-cancer drugs, a DNA minor groove target in plant host tissue. The chitosan heptamer and netropsin have the appropriate size and charge to reside in the DNA minor groove. The localization of a percentage of administered radio-labeled chitosan in the nucleus of plant tissue in vivo indicates its potential to transport to site(s) within the nuclear chromatin (1,2). Other minor groove-localizing compounds administered to pea tissue activate the same secondary plant pathway that terminates in the production of the anti-fungal isoflavonoid, pisatin an indicator of the generated resistance response. Some DNA minor groove compounds also induce defense genes designated as “pathogenesis-related” (PR) genes. Hypothetically, DNA targeting components alter host DNA in a manner enabling the transcription of defense genes previously silenced or minimally expressed. Defense-response-elicitors can directly (a) target host DNA at the site of transcription or (b) act by a series of cascading events beginning at the cell membrane and indirectly influence transcription. A single defense response, pisatin induction, induced by chitosan and compounds with known DNA minor groove attachment potential was followed herein. A hypothesis is formulated suggesting that this DNA target may be accountable for a portion of the defense response generated in nonhost resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Novel Potential Application of Chitosan Oligosaccharide for Attenuation of Renal Cyst Growth in the Treatment of Polycystic Kidney Disease
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5589; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235589 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a natural polymer derived from chitosan, exerts several biological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-metabolic syndrome, and drug delivery enhancer. Since COS is vastly distributed to kidney and eliminated in urine, it may have a potential advantage as the therapeutics of [...] Read more.
Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a natural polymer derived from chitosan, exerts several biological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-metabolic syndrome, and drug delivery enhancer. Since COS is vastly distributed to kidney and eliminated in urine, it may have a potential advantage as the therapeutics of kidney diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder characterized by multiple fluid-filled cysts, replacing normal renal parenchyma and leading to impaired renal function and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The effective treatment for PKD still needs to be further elucidated. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed as a drug target for PKD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of COS on renal cyst enlargement and its underlying mechanisms. We found that COS at the concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/mL decreased renal cyst growth without cytotoxicity, as measured by MTT assay. Immunoblotting analysis showed that COS at 100 µg/mL activated AMPK, and this effect was abolished by STO-609, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta (CaMKKβ) inhibitor. Moreover, COS elevated the level of intracellular calcium. These results suggest that COS inhibits cyst progression by activation of AMPK via CaMKKβ. Therefore, COS may hold the potential for pharmaceutical application in PKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Synergistic Antifungal Activity of Chitosan with Fluconazole against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Fluconazole-Resistant Strains
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215114 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
(1) Background: Few antifungal drugs are currently available, and drug-resistant strains have rapidly emerged. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antifungal activity from a combinational treatment of chitosan with a clinical antifungal drug on Candida albicans [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Few antifungal drugs are currently available, and drug-resistant strains have rapidly emerged. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antifungal activity from a combinational treatment of chitosan with a clinical antifungal drug on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. (2) Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests, checkerboard assays, and disc assays were employed to determine the inhibitory effect of chitosan with or without other antifungal drugs on C. albicans and C. tropicalis. (3) Results: Treatment with chitosan in combination with fluconazole showed a great synergistic fungicidal effect against C. albicans and C. tropicalis, but an indifferent effect on antifungal activity when challenged with chitosan-amphotericin B or chitosan-caspofungin simultaneously. Furthermore, the combination of chitosan and fluconazole was effective against drug-resistant strains. (4) Conclusions: These findings provide strong evidence that chitosan in combination with fluconazole is a promising therapy against two Candida species and its drug-resistant strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Kinetic Study of Glucosamine Production Using Aspergillus sydowii BCRC 31742 under Solid-State Fermentation
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204832 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to obtain a high yield and productivity for glucosamine using a low-cost solid-state culture with Aspergillus sydowii BCRC 31742. The fermentation conditions, such as inoculum biomass, moisture content, and supplemental volume and mineral salt, were chosen to [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to obtain a high yield and productivity for glucosamine using a low-cost solid-state culture with Aspergillus sydowii BCRC 31742. The fermentation conditions, such as inoculum biomass, moisture content, and supplemental volume and mineral salt, were chosen to achieve high productivity of glucosamine (GlcN). When the initial supplemental volume used was 3 mL/g substrate, the yield and productivity of GlcN were 48.7 mg/gds and 0.69 mg/gds·h, respectively. This result will be helpful for the industrialization of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Hemocyanin Modification of Chitosan Scaffolds with Calcium Phosphate Phases Increase the Osteoblast/Osteoclast Activity Ratio—A Co-Culture Study
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194580 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 767
Abstract
The ongoing research on biomaterials that support bone regeneration led to the quest for materials or material modifications that can actively influence the activity or balance of bone tissue cells. The bone biocompatibility of porous chitosan scaffolds was modified in the present study [...] Read more.
The ongoing research on biomaterials that support bone regeneration led to the quest for materials or material modifications that can actively influence the activity or balance of bone tissue cells. The bone biocompatibility of porous chitosan scaffolds was modified in the present study by the addition of calcium phosphates or hemocyanin. The first strategy comprised the incorporation of calcium phosphates into chitosan to create a biomimetic chitosan—mineral phase composite. The second strategy comprised dip-coating of chitosan scaffolds with hemocyanin extracted from crayfish hemolymph. The cytocompatibility was assessed in a mono-culture of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and their differentiation to osteoblasts; in a mono-culture of human monocytes (hMs) and their maturation to osteoclasts; and in a co-culture of hBMSC/osteoblasts—hM/osteoclasts. Mineral incorporation caused an increase in scaffold bioactivity, as shown by reduced calcium concentration in the cell culture medium, delayed differentiation of hBMSCs, and reduced osteoclastic maturation of hMs in mono-culture. Dip-coating with hemocyanin led to increased proliferation of hBMSCs and equivalent osteoclast maturation in mono-culture, while in co-culture, both an inhibitory effect of mineral incorporation on osteoblastogenesis and stimulatory effects of hemocyanin were observed. It was concluded that highly bioactive scaffolds (containing mineral phases) restrain osteoblast and osteoclast development, while hemocyanin coating significantly supports osteoblastogenesis. These influences on the osteoblasts/osteoclasts activity ratio may support scaffold-driven bone healing in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Insight into Physicochemical, Rheological, and Antibacterial Properties of Chitosan Extracted from Antarctic krill: A Comparative Study
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4074; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184074 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
In this work, physicochemical, rheological, and antibacterial properties of chitosan (CS) extracted from white shrimp (WS), giant river prawn (GP), and Antarctic krill (AK) were investigated. The results demonstrated that molecular weight (MW) of commercial chitosan (CCS), WSCS, GPCS, and AKCS were 1175.8, [...] Read more.
In this work, physicochemical, rheological, and antibacterial properties of chitosan (CS) extracted from white shrimp (WS), giant river prawn (GP), and Antarctic krill (AK) were investigated. The results demonstrated that molecular weight (MW) of commercial chitosan (CCS), WSCS, GPCS, and AKCS were 1175.8, 2130.4, 1293.3, and 1109.3 kDa with the degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 73.5, 74.1, 82.1, and 75.9%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to study the structural differences of CS. Moreover, storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of AKCS were lower than that of WSCS and GPCS, respectively, but higher than that of CCS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) of CS against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated at concentration between 0.0125 and 1 mg/mL. These results highlighted that AKCS with low viscoelastic properties had a potential application in food and pharmaceutical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Activity of Amphotericin B-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles against Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174002 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Chitosan nanoparticles have gained attention as drug delivery systems (DDS) in the medical field as they are both biodegradable and biocompatible with reported antimicrobial and anti-leishmanial activities. We investigated the application of chitosan nanoparticles as a DDS for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [...] Read more.
Chitosan nanoparticles have gained attention as drug delivery systems (DDS) in the medical field as they are both biodegradable and biocompatible with reported antimicrobial and anti-leishmanial activities. We investigated the application of chitosan nanoparticles as a DDS for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) by preparing two types of chitosan nanoparticles: positively charged with tripolyphosphate sodium (TPP) and negatively charged with dextran sulphate. Amphotericin B (AmB) was incorporated into these nanoparticles. Both types of AmB-loaded nanoparticles demonstrated in vitro activity against Leishmania major intracellular amastigotes, with similar activity to unencapsulated AmB, but with a significant lower toxicity to KB-cells and red blood cells. In murine models of CL caused by L. major, intravenous administration of AmB-loaded chitosan-TPP nanoparticles (Size = 69 ± 8 nm, Zeta potential = 25.5 ± 1 mV, 5 mg/kg/for 10 days on alternate days) showed a significantly higher efficacy than AmBisome® (10 mg/kg/for 10 days on alternate days) in terms of reduction of lesion size and parasite load (measured by both bioluminescence and qPCR). Poor drug permeation into and through mouse skin, using Franz diffusion cells, showed that AmB-loaded chitosan nanoparticles are not appropriate candidates for topical treatment of CL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Microencapsulation of Fluticasone Propionate and Salmeterol Xinafoate in Modified Chitosan Microparticles for Release Optimization
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3888; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173888 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polysaccharide, widely studied in the past due to its unique properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Chemical modification of CS is an effective pathway to prepare new matrices with additional functional groups and improved properties, such as [...] Read more.
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polysaccharide, widely studied in the past due to its unique properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Chemical modification of CS is an effective pathway to prepare new matrices with additional functional groups and improved properties, such as increment of hydrophilicity and swelling rate, for drug delivery purposes. In the present study, four derivatives of CS with trans-aconitic acid (t-Acon), succinic anhydride (Succ), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and acrylic acid (AA) were prepared, and their successful grafting was confirmed by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Neat chitosan and its grafted derivatives were fabricated for the encapsulation of fluticasone propionate (FLU) and salmeterol xinafoate (SX) drugs, used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), via the ionotropic gelation technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs demonstrated that round-shaped microparticles (MPs) were effectively prepared with average sizes ranging between 0.4 and 2.2 μm, as were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), while zeta potential verified in all cases their positive charged surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed that some interactions take place between the drugs and the polymeric matrices, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited that both drugs were encapsulated in MPs’ interior with a lower degree of crystallinity than the neat drugs. In vitro release studies of FLU and SX exposed a great amelioration in the drugs’ dissolution profile from all modified CS’s MPs, in comparison to those of neat drugs. The latter fact is attributed to the reduction in crystallinity of the active substances in the MPs’ interior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Article
Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Chitin from Cicada orni Sloughs of the South-Eastern French Mediterranean Basin
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112543 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Chitin is a structural polysaccharide of the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans. In this study, chitin was extracted, for the first time in our knowledge, from the Cicada orni sloughs of the south-eastern French Mediterranean basin by treatment [...] Read more.
Chitin is a structural polysaccharide of the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans. In this study, chitin was extracted, for the first time in our knowledge, from the Cicada orni sloughs of the south-eastern French Mediterranean basin by treatment with 1 M HCl for demineralization, 1 M NaOH for deproteinization, and 1% NaClO for decolorization. The different steps of extraction were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results demonstrated that the extraction process was efficiently performed and that Cicada orni sloughs of the south-eastern French Mediterranean basin have a high content of chitin (42.8%) in the α-form with a high degree of acetylation of 96% ± 3.4%. These results make Cicada orni of the south-eastern French Mediterranean basin a new and promising source of chitin. Furthermore, we showed that each step of the extraction present specific characteristics (for example FTIR and XRD spectra and, consequently, distinct absorbance peaks and values of crystallinity as well as defined values of maximum degradation temperatures identifiable by TGA analysis) that could be used to verify the effectiveness of the treatments, and could be favorably compared with other natural chitin sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Review

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Review
Versatile Use of Chitosan and Hyaluronan in Medicine
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041195 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Chitosan is industrially acquired by the alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin belongs to the β-N-acetyl-glucosamine polymers, providing structure, contrary to α-polymers, which provide food and energy. Another β-polymer providing structure is hyaluronan. A lot of studies have been performed on [...] Read more.
Chitosan is industrially acquired by the alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin belongs to the β-N-acetyl-glucosamine polymers, providing structure, contrary to α-polymers, which provide food and energy. Another β-polymer providing structure is hyaluronan. A lot of studies have been performed on chitosan to explore its industrial use. Since chitosan is biodegradable, non-toxic, bacteriostatic, and fungistatic, it has numerous applications in medicine. Hyaluronan, one of the major structural components of the extracellular matrix in vertebrate tissues, is broadly exploited in medicine as well. This review summarizes the main areas where these two biopolymers have an impact. The reviewed areas mostly cover most medical applications, along with non-medical applications, such as cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
Review
Chemical Proprieties of Biopolymers (Chitin/Chitosan) and Their Synergic Effects with Endophytic Bacillus Species: Unlimited Applications in Agriculture
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041117 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Over the past decade, reckless usage of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture has made the environment and human health progressively vulnerable. This setting leads to the pursuit of other environmentally friendly interventions. Amongst the suggested solutions, the use of chitin and chitosan [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, reckless usage of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture has made the environment and human health progressively vulnerable. This setting leads to the pursuit of other environmentally friendly interventions. Amongst the suggested solutions, the use of chitin and chitosan came about, whether alone or in combination with endophytic bacterial strains. In the framework of this research, we reported an assortment of studies on the physico-chemical properties and potential applications in the agricultural field of two biopolymers extracted from shrimp shells (chitin and chitosan), in addition to their uses as biofertilizers and biostimulators in combination with bacterial strains of the genus Bacillus sp. (having biochemical and enzymatic properties). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Review
Preparation, Bioactivities and Applications in Food Industry of Chitosan-Based Maillard Products: A Review
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010166 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Chitosan, a biopolymer possessing numerous interesting bioactivities and excellent technological properties, has received great attention from scientists in different fields including the food industry, pharmacy, medicine, and environmental fields. A series of recent studies have reported exciting results about improvement of the properties [...] Read more.
Chitosan, a biopolymer possessing numerous interesting bioactivities and excellent technological properties, has received great attention from scientists in different fields including the food industry, pharmacy, medicine, and environmental fields. A series of recent studies have reported exciting results about improvement of the properties of chitosan using the Maillard reaction. However, there is a lack of a systemic review about the preparation, bioactivities and applications in food industry of chitosan-based Maillard reaction products (CMRPs). The presence of free amino groups in chitosan allows it to acquire some stronger or new functional properties via the Maillard reaction. The present review aims to focus on the current research status of synthesis, optimization and structural identification of CMRPs. The applications of CMRPs in the food industry are also discussed according to their biological and technological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and inducing conformational changes of allergens in food. Some promising directions for future research are proposed in this review, aiming to provide theoretical guidance for the further development of chitosan and its derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Review
Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives as Biomaterial Resources for Biological and Biomedical Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5961; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245961 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine, which is regularly found in the exoskeleton of arthropods including insects, shellfish and the cell wall of fungi. It has been known that chitin can be used for biological and biomedical applications, especially as a [...] Read more.
Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine, which is regularly found in the exoskeleton of arthropods including insects, shellfish and the cell wall of fungi. It has been known that chitin can be used for biological and biomedical applications, especially as a biomaterial for tissue repairing, encapsulating drug for drug delivery. However, chitin has been postulated as an inducer of proinflammatory cytokines and certain diseases including asthma. Likewise, chitosan, a long-chain polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine derived from chitin deacetylation, and chitosan oligosaccharide, a short chain polymer, have been known for their potential therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, and anti-Alzheimer effects. This review summarizes potential utilization and limitation of chitin, chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in a variety of diseases. Furthermore, future direction of research and development of chitin, chitosan, and chitosan oligosaccharide for biomedical applications is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Review
Intestinal Population in Host with Metabolic Syndrome during Administration of Chitosan and Its Derivatives
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245857 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Chitosan and its derivatives can alleviate metabolic syndrome by different regulation mechanisms, phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated kinase) and Akt (also known as protein kinase B), suppression of PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element–binding proteins), and translocation of GLUT4 (glucose transporter-4), [...] Read more.
Chitosan and its derivatives can alleviate metabolic syndrome by different regulation mechanisms, phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated kinase) and Akt (also known as protein kinase B), suppression of PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element–binding proteins), and translocation of GLUT4 (glucose transporter-4), and also the downregulation of fatty-acid-transport proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins, fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase), and HMG-CoA reductase (hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The improved microbial profiles in the gastrointestinal tract were positively correlated with the improved glucose and lipid profiles in hosts with metabolic syndrome. Hence, this review will summarize the current literature illustrating positive correlations between the alleviated conditions in metabolic syndrome hosts and the normalized gut microbiota in hosts with metabolic syndrome after treatment with chitosan and its derivatives, implying that the possibility of chitosan and its derivatives to serve as therapeutic application will be consolidated. Chitosan has been shown to modulate cardiometabolic symptoms (e.g., lipid and glycemic levels, blood pressure) as well as gut microbiota. However, the literature that summarizes the relationship between such metabolic modulation of chitosan and prebiotic-like effects is limited. This review will discuss the connection among their structures, biological properties, and prebiotic effects for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Our hope is that future researchers will consider the prebiotic effects as significant contributors to the mitigation of metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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Review
Chitosan-Based Biomimetically Mineralized Composite Materials in Human Hard Tissue Repair
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4785; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204785 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Chitosan is a natural, biodegradable cationic polysaccharide, which has a similar chemical structure and similar biological behaviors to the components of the extracellular matrix in the biomineralization process of teeth or bone. Its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and polyelectrolyte action make it a suitable [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a natural, biodegradable cationic polysaccharide, which has a similar chemical structure and similar biological behaviors to the components of the extracellular matrix in the biomineralization process of teeth or bone. Its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and polyelectrolyte action make it a suitable organic template, which, combined with biomimetic mineralization technology, can be used to develop organic-inorganic composite materials for hard tissue repair. In recent years, various chitosan-based biomimetic organic-inorganic composite materials have been applied in the field of bone tissue engineering and enamel or dentin biomimetic repair in different forms (hydrogels, fibers, porous scaffolds, microspheres, etc.), and the inorganic components of the composites are usually biogenic minerals, such as hydroxyapatite, other calcium phosphate phases, or silica. These composites have good mechanical properties, biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteogenic potential, and other biological properties and are thus considered as promising novel materials for repairing the defects of hard tissue. This review is mainly focused on the properties and preparations of biomimetically mineralized composite materials using chitosan as an organic template, and the current application of various chitosan-based biomimetically mineralized composite materials in bone tissue engineering and dental hard tissue repair is summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Derivatives and Applications)
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