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Special Issue "Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 27914

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Teobald Kupka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, University of Opole, 48, Oleska Street, 45-052 Opole, Poland
Interests: NMR; IR/Raman; computational chemistry and molecular modeling; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of science and technology has given us a lot of benefits. Chemistry is a field that has greatly contributed to this development. Applied chemistry covers a variety of chemical fields, considering on various materials, including metal compounds, inorganic and organic compounds, polymers, proteins, etc., focussing on basic researches and their applications.

This Special Issue is designed to gather review papers in applied chemistry. We kindly invite and encourage all research groups covering various applied chemistry areas to make contributions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Teobald Kupka
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

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Article
Reductive Methylation of Homogeneous Primary β-Lauryl/myristyl 7/3 Polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 Ethylamines under Phase-Transfer Catalysis Conditions
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4612; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154612 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Homogeneous tertiary N,N-dimethyl-N-β-lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 ethylamines, LM(EO)nAT, are niche intermediates in the synthesis of homogeneous N-alkyl (C1–C18)-N,N-dimethyl-N-β-lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 [...] Read more.
Homogeneous tertiary N,N-dimethyl-N-β-lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 ethylamines, LM(EO)nAT, are niche intermediates in the synthesis of homogeneous N-alkyl (C1–C18)-N,N-dimethyl-N-β-lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 ethylammonium chlorides (unitary degree of oligomerization of ethylene oxide in the polyoxyethylene chain). This paper synthetically presents the dependence of the reductive methylation yields of homogeneous primary β-lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3–18 ethylamines, LM(EO)nAP, on the reaction time (10–90 min), the temperature (70 °C), the molar ratio formic aldehyde /LM(EO)nAP (1.1/1–2.5/1), the molar ratio HCOOH/LM(EO)nAP (5/1), the degree of oligomerization of ethylene oxide in the homogeneous polyoxyethylene chain in the 3,6,9,12,18 series, and the structure of the phase-transfer catalysts. The steric effects of hydrophobic groups CH3 and C18H37 grafted onto the ammonium function, and the micellar phenomena in the vicinity of their critical micellar concentration, directly proportional to the homogeneous degree of oligomerization, were highlighted. In all cases, a steady increase in reductive methylation yields was observed, with even quantitative values obtained. The high purity of the homologous series LM(EO)nAT will allow their personalization as reference structures for the study of the evolution of basic colloidal characteristics useful in forecasting technological applications. LM(EO)nAP were obtained either by direct amidoethylation (nucleophilic addition under basic catalysis of homogeneous lauryl/myristyl 7/3 polyethoxylated n = 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 alcohols, LM(EO)nOH, to acrylamide monomer) or by cyanoethylation of LM(EO)nOH under basic catalysis at 25–50 °C, in the presence of Fe2+ cations as oligomerization/polymerization inhibitor, followed by partial acid hydrolysis of homogeneous β-alkyl (C12H25/C14H29) 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 propionitriles, LM(EO)nPN, to β-alkyl (C12H25/C14H29) 7/3 polyethyleneoxy n = 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 propionamides, LM(EO)nPD, which led to LM(EO)nAP by Hoffmann degradation. Homogeneous higher tertiary polyetheramines LM(EO)nAT were structurally characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review

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Review
Promising Nanocarriers to Enhance Solubility and Bioavailability of Cannabidiol for a Plethora of Therapeutic Opportunities
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 6070; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27186070 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
In recent years, the interest in cannabidiol (CBD) has increased because of the lack of psychoactive properties. However, CBD has low solubility and bioavailability, variable pharmacokinetics profiles, poor stability, and a pronounced presystemic metabolism. CBD nanoformulations include nanosuspensions, polymeric micelles and nanoparticles, hybrid [...] Read more.
In recent years, the interest in cannabidiol (CBD) has increased because of the lack of psychoactive properties. However, CBD has low solubility and bioavailability, variable pharmacokinetics profiles, poor stability, and a pronounced presystemic metabolism. CBD nanoformulations include nanosuspensions, polymeric micelles and nanoparticles, hybrid nanoparticles jelled in cross-linked chitosan, and numerous nanosized lipid formulations, including nanostructured lipid carriers, vesicles, SNEEDS, nanoemulsions, and microemulsions. Nanoformulations have resulted in high CBD solubility, encapsulation efficiency, and stability, and sustained CBD release. Some studies assessed the increased Cmax and AUC and decreased Tmax. A rational evaluation of the studies reported in this review evidences how some of them are very preliminary and should be completed before performing clinical trials. Almost all the developed nanoparticles have simple architectures, are well-known and safe nanocarriers, or are even simple nanosuspensions. In addition, the conventional routes of administration are generally investigated. As a consequence, many of these studies are almost ready for forthcoming clinical translations. Some of the developed nanosystems are very promising for a plethora of therapeutic opportunities because of the versatility in terms of the release, the crossing of physiological barriers, and the number of possible routes of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
The Static Magnetic Field Regulates the Structure, Biochemical Activity, and Gene Expression of Plants
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 5823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27185823 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 326
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific results and summarise the emerging topic of the effects of statistic magnetic field on the structure, biochemical activity, and gene expression of plants. The literature on the subject reports a wide range of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific results and summarise the emerging topic of the effects of statistic magnetic field on the structure, biochemical activity, and gene expression of plants. The literature on the subject reports a wide range of possibilities regarding the use of the magnetic field to modify the properties of plant cells. MFs have a significant impact on the photosynthesis efficiency of the biomass and vigour accumulation indexes. Treating plants with SMFs accelerates the formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. At the same time, the influence of MFs causes the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, which reduces oxidative stress. SMFs have a strong influence on the shape of the cell and the structure of the cell membrane, thus increasing their permeability and influencing the various activities of the metabolic pathways. The use of magnetic treatments on plants causes a higher content of proteins, carbohydrates, soluble and reducing sugars, and in some cases, lipids and fatty acid composition and influences the uptake of macro- and microelements and different levels of gene expression. In this study, the effect of MFs was considered as a combination of MF intensity and time exposure, for different varieties and plant species. The following article shows the wide-ranging possibilities of applying magnetic fields to the dynamics of changes in the life processes and structures of plants. Thus far, the magnetic field is not widely used in agricultural practice. The current knowledge about the influence of MFs on plant cells is still insufficient. It is, therefore, necessary to carry out detailed research for a more in-depth understanding of the possibilities of modifying the properties of plant cells and achieving the desired effects by means of a magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
The Chemistry and Applications of Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Industrial Enzyme Immobilization Systems
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4529; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144529 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Enzymatic biocatalysis is a sustainable technology. Enzymes are versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, and have been widely employed due to their biodegradable nature. However, because the three-dimensional structure of these enzymes is predominantly maintained by weaker non-covalent interactions, external conditions, such as temperature [...] Read more.
Enzymatic biocatalysis is a sustainable technology. Enzymes are versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, and have been widely employed due to their biodegradable nature. However, because the three-dimensional structure of these enzymes is predominantly maintained by weaker non-covalent interactions, external conditions, such as temperature and pH variations, as well as the presence of chemical compounds, can modify or even neutralize their biological activity. The enablement of this category of processes is the result of the several advances in the areas of molecular biology and biotechnology achieved over the past two decades. In this scenario, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are highlighted as efficient supports for enzyme immobilization. They can be used to ‘house’ a specific enzyme, providing it with protection from environmental influences. This review discusses MOFs as structures; emphasizes their synthesis strategies, properties, and applications; explores the existing methods of using immobilization processes of various enzymes; and lists their possible chemical modifications and combinations with other compounds to formulate the ideal supports for a given application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
The Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Sensing, Imaging, Drug Delivery and Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers: An Overview
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4465; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144465 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Gynecologic cancers are one of the main health concerns of women throughout the world, and the early diagnosis and effective therapy of gynecologic cancers will be particularly important for the survival of female patients. As a current hotspot, carbon nanomaterials have attracted tremendous [...] Read more.
Gynecologic cancers are one of the main health concerns of women throughout the world, and the early diagnosis and effective therapy of gynecologic cancers will be particularly important for the survival of female patients. As a current hotspot, carbon nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest in tumor theranostics, and their application in gynecologic cancers has also been developed rapidly with great achievements in recent years. This Overview Article summarizes the latest progress in the application of diverse carbon nanomaterials (e.g., graphenes, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon, carbon dots, etc.) and their derivatives in the sensing, imaging, drug delivery, and therapy of different gynecologic cancers. Important research contributions are highlighted in terms of the relationships among the fabrication strategies, architectural features, and action mechanisms for the diagnosis and therapy of gynecologic cancers. The current challenges and future strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of the real clinical application of carbon-based nanomedicines in gynecologic cancers. It is anticipated that this review will attract more attention toward the development and application of carbon nanomaterials for the theranostics of gynecologic cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Biotransformation of Phytosterols into Androstenedione—A Technological Prospecting Study
Molecules 2022, 27(10), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103164 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Androstenedione (AD) is a key intermediate in the body’s steroid metabolism, used as a precursor for several steroid substances, such as testosterone, estradiol, ethinyl estradiol, testolactone, progesterone, cortisone, cortisol, prednisone, and prednisolone. The world market for AD and ADD (androstadienedione) exceeds 1000 tons [...] Read more.
Androstenedione (AD) is a key intermediate in the body’s steroid metabolism, used as a precursor for several steroid substances, such as testosterone, estradiol, ethinyl estradiol, testolactone, progesterone, cortisone, cortisol, prednisone, and prednisolone. The world market for AD and ADD (androstadienedione) exceeds 1000 tons per year, which stimulates the pharmaceutical industry’s search for newer and cheaper raw materials to produce steroidal compounds. In light of this interest, we aimed to investigate the progress of AD biosynthesis from phytosterols by prospecting scientific articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases) and patents (USPTO database). A wide variety of articles and patents involving AD and phytosterol were found in the last few decades, resulting in 108 relevant articles (from January 2000 to December 2021) and 23 patents of interest (from January 1976 to December 2021). The separation of these documents into macro, meso, and micro categories revealed that most studies (articles) are performed in China (54.8%) and in universities (76%), while patents are mostly granted to United States companies. It also highlights the fact that AD production studies are focused on “process improvement” techniques and on possible modifications of the “microorganism” involved in biosynthesis (64 and 62 documents, respectively). The most-reported “process improvement” technique is “chemical addition” (40%), which means that the addition of solvents, surfactants, cofactors, inducers, ionic liquids, etc., can significantly increase AD production. Microbial genetic modifications stand out in the “microorganism” category because this strategy improves AD yield considerably. These documents also revealed the main aspects of AD and ADD biosynthesis: Mycolicibacterium sp. (basonym: Mycobacterium sp.) (40%) and Mycolicibacterium neoaurum (known previously as Mycobacterium neoaurum) (32%) are the most recurrent species studied. Microbial incubation temperatures can vary from 29 °C to 37 °C; incubation can last from 72 h to 14 days; the mixture is agitated at 140 to 220 rpm; vegetable oils, mainly soybean, can be used as the source of a mixture of phytosterols. In general, the results obtained in the present technological prospecting study are fundamental to mapping the possibilities of AD biosynthesis process optimization, as well as to identifying emerging technologies and methodologies in this scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Analytical and Structural Tools of Lipid Hydroperoxides: Present State and Future Perspectives
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072139 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Mono- and polyunsaturated lipids are particularly susceptible to peroxidation, which results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) as primary nonradical-reaction products. LOOHs may undergo degradation to various products that have been implicated in vital biological reactions, and thus in the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
Mono- and polyunsaturated lipids are particularly susceptible to peroxidation, which results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) as primary nonradical-reaction products. LOOHs may undergo degradation to various products that have been implicated in vital biological reactions, and thus in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The structure elucidation and qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipid hydroperoxides are therefore of great importance. The objectives of the present review are to provide a critical analysis of various methods that have been widely applied, and more specifically on volumetric methods, applications of UV-visible, infrared, Raman/surface-enhanced Raman, fluorescence and chemiluminescence spectroscopies, chromatographic methods, hyphenated MS techniques, NMR and chromatographic methods, NMR spectroscopy in mixture analysis, structural investigations based on quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters, applications in living cells, and metabolomics. Emphasis will be given to analytical and structural methods that can contribute significantly to the molecular basis of the chemical process involved in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides without the need for the isolation of the individual components. Furthermore, future developments in the field will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Modern Carbon–Based Materials for Adsorptive Removal of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6628; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216628 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Currently, a serious threat for living organisms and human life in particular, is water contamination with persistent organic and inorganic pollutants. To date, several techniques have been adopted to remove/treat organics and toxic contaminants. Adsorption is one of the most effective and economical [...] Read more.
Currently, a serious threat for living organisms and human life in particular, is water contamination with persistent organic and inorganic pollutants. To date, several techniques have been adopted to remove/treat organics and toxic contaminants. Adsorption is one of the most effective and economical methods for this purpose. Generally, porous materials are considered as appropriate adsorbents for water purification. Conventional adsorbents such as activated carbons have a limited possibility of surface modification (texture and functionality), and their adsorption capacity is difficult to control. Therefore, despite the significant progress achieved in the development of the systems for water remediation, there is still a need for novel adsorptive materials with tunable functional characteristics. This review addresses the new trends in the development of new adsorbent materials. Herein, modern carbon-based materials, such as graphene, oxidized carbon, carbon nanotubes, biomass-derived carbonaceous matrices—biochars as well as their composites with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-derived highly-ordered carbons are considered as advanced adsorbents for removal of hazardous organics from drinking water, process water, and leachate. The review is focused on the preparation and modification of these next-generation carbon-based adsorbents and analysis of their adsorption performance including possible adsorption mechanisms. Simultaneously, some weak points of modern carbon-based adsorbents are analyzed as well as the routes to conquer them. For instance, for removal of large quantities of pollutants, the combination of adsorption and other methods, like sedimentation may be recommended. A number of efficient strategies for further enhancing the adsorption performance of the carbon-based adsorbents, in particular, integrating approaches and further rational functionalization, including composing these adsorbents (of two or even three types) can be recommended. The cost reduction and efficient regeneration must also be in the focus of future research endeavors. The targeted optimization of the discussed carbon-based adsorbents associated with detailed studies of the adsorption process, especially, for multicomponent adsorbate solution, will pave a bright avenue for efficient water remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Novel Synthetic Approach to Heteroatom Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Optimizing the Bottom-Up Approach to Atomically Precise Doped Nanographenes
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6306; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206306 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The success of the rational bottom-up approach to nanostructured carbon materials and the discovery of the importance of their doping with heteroatoms puts under the spotlight all synthetic organic approaches to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The construction of atomically precise heteroatom doped nanographenes has [...] Read more.
The success of the rational bottom-up approach to nanostructured carbon materials and the discovery of the importance of their doping with heteroatoms puts under the spotlight all synthetic organic approaches to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The construction of atomically precise heteroatom doped nanographenes has evidenced the importance of controlling its geometry and the position of the doping heteroatoms, since these parameters influence their chemical–physical properties and their applications. The growing interest towards this research topic is testified by the large number of works published in this area, which have transformed a once “fundamental research” into applied research at the cutting edge of technology. This review analyzes the most recent synthetic approaches to this class of compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Carbon Nanostructures Doped with Transition Metals for Pollutant Gas Adsorption Systems
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5346; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175346 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
The adsorption of molecules usually increases capacity and/or strength with the doping of surfaces with transition metals; furthermore, carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphdiyne, etc., have a large specific area for gas adsorption. This review focuses on the reports (experimental or [...] Read more.
The adsorption of molecules usually increases capacity and/or strength with the doping of surfaces with transition metals; furthermore, carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphdiyne, etc., have a large specific area for gas adsorption. This review focuses on the reports (experimental or theoretical) of systems using these structures decorated with transition metals for mainly pollutant molecules’ adsorption. Furthermore, we aim to present the expanding application of nanomaterials on environmental problems, mainly over the last 10 years. We found a wide range of pollutant molecules investigated for adsorption in carbon nanostructures, including greenhouse gases, anticancer drugs, and chemical warfare agents, among many more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Classification of So-Called Non-Covalent Interactions Based on VSEPR Model
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4939; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164939 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The variety of interactions have been analyzed in numerous studies. They are often compared with the hydrogen bond that is crucial in numerous chemical and biological processes. One can mention such interactions as the halogen bond, pnicogen bond, and others that may be [...] Read more.
The variety of interactions have been analyzed in numerous studies. They are often compared with the hydrogen bond that is crucial in numerous chemical and biological processes. One can mention such interactions as the halogen bond, pnicogen bond, and others that may be classified as σ-hole bonds. However, not only σ-holes may act as Lewis acid centers. Numerous species are characterized by the occurrence of π-holes, which also may play a role of the electron acceptor. The situation is complicated since numerous interactions, such as the pnicogen bond or the chalcogen bond, for example, may be classified as a σ-hole bond or π-hole bond; it ultimately depends on the configuration at the Lewis acid centre. The disadvantage of classifications of interactions is also connected with their names, derived from the names of groups such as halogen and tetrel bonds or from single elements such as hydrogen and carbon bonds. The chaos is aggravated by the properties of elements. For example, a hydrogen atom can act as the Lewis acid or as the Lewis base site if it is positively or negatively charged, respectively. Hence names of the corresponding interactions occur in literature, namely hydrogen bonds and hydride bonds. There are other numerous disadvantages connected with classifications and names of interactions; these are discussed in this study. Several studies show that the majority of interactions are ruled by the same mechanisms related to the electron charge shifts, and that the occurrence of numerous interactions leads to specific changes in geometries of interacting species. These changes follow the rules of the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion model (VSEPR). That is why the simple classification of interactions based on VSEPR is proposed here. This classification is still open since numerous processes and interactions not discussed in this study may be included within it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Protein and Polysaccharide-Based Electroactive and Conductive Materials for Biomedical Applications
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154499 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Electrically responsive biomaterials are an important and emerging technology in the fields of biomedical and material sciences. A great deal of research explores the integral role of electrical conduction in normal and diseased cell biology, and material scientists are focusing an even greater [...] Read more.
Electrically responsive biomaterials are an important and emerging technology in the fields of biomedical and material sciences. A great deal of research explores the integral role of electrical conduction in normal and diseased cell biology, and material scientists are focusing an even greater amount of attention on natural and hybrid materials as sources of biomaterials which can mimic the properties of cells. This review establishes a summary of those efforts for the latter group, detailing the current materials, theories, methods, and applications of electrically conductive biomaterials fabricated from protein polymers and polysaccharides. These materials can be used to improve human life through novel drug delivery, tissue regeneration, and biosensing technologies. The immediate goal of this review is to establish fabrication methods for protein and polysaccharide-based materials that are biocompatible and feature modular electrical properties. Ideally, these materials will be inexpensive to make with salable production strategies, in addition to being both renewable and biocompatible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Oxazolidinone Antibiotics: Chemical, Biological and Analytical Aspects
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144280 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
This review covers the main aspects concerning the chemistry, the biological activity and the analytical determination of oxazolidinones, the only new class of synthetic antibiotics advanced in clinical use over the past 50 years. They are characterized by a chemical structure including the [...] Read more.
This review covers the main aspects concerning the chemistry, the biological activity and the analytical determination of oxazolidinones, the only new class of synthetic antibiotics advanced in clinical use over the past 50 years. They are characterized by a chemical structure including the oxazolidone ring with the S configuration of substituent at C5, the acylaminomethyl group linked to C5 and the N-aryl substituent. The synthesis of oxazolidinones has gained increasing interest due to their unique mechanism of action that assures high antibiotic efficiency and low susceptibility to resistance mechanisms. Here, the main features of oxazolidinone antibiotics licensed or under development, such as Linezolid, Sutezolid, Eperezolid, Radezolid, Contezolid, Posizolid, Tedizolid, Delpazolid and TBI-223, are discussed. As they are protein synthesis inhibitors active against a wide spectrum of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, their biological activity is carefully analyzed, together with the drug delivery systems recently developed to overcome the poor oxazolidinone water solubility. Finally, the most employed analytical techniques for oxazolidinone determination in different matrices, such as biological fluids, tissues, drugs and natural waters, are reviewed. Most are based on HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) coupled with UV-Vis or mass spectrometer detectors, but, to a lesser extent are also based on spectrofluorimetry or voltammetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
NMR of Natural Products as Potential Drugs
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3763; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123763 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
This review outlines methods to investigate the structure of natural products with emphasis on intramolecular hydrogen bonding, tautomerism and ionic structures using NMR techniques. The focus is on 1H chemical shifts, isotope effects on chemical shifts and diffusion ordered spectroscopy. In addition, density [...] Read more.
This review outlines methods to investigate the structure of natural products with emphasis on intramolecular hydrogen bonding, tautomerism and ionic structures using NMR techniques. The focus is on 1H chemical shifts, isotope effects on chemical shifts and diffusion ordered spectroscopy. In addition, density functional theory calculations are performed to support NMR results. The review demonstrates how hydrogen bonding may lead to specific structures and how chemical equilibria, as well as tautomeric equilibria and ionic structures, can be detected. All these features are important for biological activity and a prerequisite for correct docking experiments and future use as drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Artificial Neural Networks for Pyrolysis, Thermal Analysis, and Thermokinetic Studies: The Status Quo
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123727 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a method of machine learning (ML) that is now widely used in physics, chemistry, and material science. ANN can learn from data to identify nonlinear trends and give accurate predictions. ML methods, and ANNs in particular, have already [...] Read more.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a method of machine learning (ML) that is now widely used in physics, chemistry, and material science. ANN can learn from data to identify nonlinear trends and give accurate predictions. ML methods, and ANNs in particular, have already demonstrated their worth in solving various chemical engineering problems, but applications in pyrolysis, thermal analysis, and, especially, thermokinetic studies are still in an initiatory stage. The present article gives a critical overview and summary of the available literature on applying ANNs in the field of pyrolysis, thermal analysis, and thermokinetic studies. More than 100 papers from these research areas are surveyed. Some approaches from the broad field of chemical engineering are discussed as the venues for possible transfer to the field of pyrolysis and thermal analysis studies in general. It is stressed that the current thermokinetic applications of ANNs are yet to evolve significantly to reach the capabilities of the existing isoconversional and model-fitting methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
The Peptide Functionalized Inorganic Nanoparticles for Cancer-Related Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113228 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
In order to improve their bioapplications, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are usually functionalized with specific biomolecules. Peptides with short amino acid sequences have attracted great attention in the NP functionalization since they are easy to be synthesized on a large scale by the automatic [...] Read more.
In order to improve their bioapplications, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are usually functionalized with specific biomolecules. Peptides with short amino acid sequences have attracted great attention in the NP functionalization since they are easy to be synthesized on a large scale by the automatic synthesizer and can integrate various functionalities including specific biorecognition and therapeutic function into one sequence. Conjugation of peptides with NPs can generate novel theranostic/drug delivery nanosystems with active tumor targeting ability and efficient nanosensing platforms for sensitive detection of various analytes, such as heavy metallic ions and biomarkers. Massive studies demonstrate that applications of the peptide–NP bioconjugates can help to achieve the precise diagnosis and therapy of diseases. In particular, the peptide–NP bioconjugates show tremendous potential for development of effective anti-tumor nanomedicines. This review provides an overview of the effects of properties of peptide functionalized NPs on precise diagnostics and therapy of cancers through summarizing the recent publications on the applications of peptide–NP bioconjugates for biomarkers (antigens and enzymes) and carcinogens (e.g., heavy metallic ions) detection, drug delivery, and imaging-guided therapy. The current challenges and future prospects of the subject are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Recent Advances in bis-Chalcone-Based Photoinitiators of Polymerization: From Mechanistic Investigations to Applications
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113192 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Over the past several decades, photopolymerization has become an active research field, and the ongoing efforts to develop new photoinitiating systems are supported by the different applications in which this polymerization technique is involved—including dentistry, 3D and 4D printing, adhesives, and laser writing. [...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, photopolymerization has become an active research field, and the ongoing efforts to develop new photoinitiating systems are supported by the different applications in which this polymerization technique is involved—including dentistry, 3D and 4D printing, adhesives, and laser writing. In the search for new structures, bis-chalcones that combine two chalcones’ moieties within a unique structure were determined as being promising photosensitizers to initiate both the free-radical polymerization of acrylates and the cationic polymerization of epoxides. In this review, an overview of the different bis-chalcones reported to date is provided. Parallel to the mechanistic investigations aiming at elucidating the polymerization mechanisms, bis-chalcones-based photoinitiating systems were used for different applications, which are detailed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Potential Chemicals from Plastic Wastes
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113175 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Plastic is referred to as a “material of every application”. From the packaging and automotive industries to the medical apparatus and computer electronics sectors, plastic materials are fulfilling demands efficiently. These plastics usually end up in landfills and incinerators, creating plastic waste pollution. [...] Read more.
Plastic is referred to as a “material of every application”. From the packaging and automotive industries to the medical apparatus and computer electronics sectors, plastic materials are fulfilling demands efficiently. These plastics usually end up in landfills and incinerators, creating plastic waste pollution. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in 2015, 9.1% of the plastic materials generated in the U.S. municipal solid waste stream was recycled, 15.5% was combusted for energy, and 75.4% was sent to landfills. If we can produce high-value chemicals from plastic wastes, a range of various product portfolios can be created. This will help to transform chemical industries, especially the petrochemical and plastic sectors. In turn, we can manage plastic waste pollution, reduce the consumption of virgin petroleum, and protect human health and the environment. This review provides a description of chemicals that can be produced from different plastic wastes and the research challenges involved in plastic waste to chemical production. This review also provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art processes to help future system designers in the plastic waste to chemicals area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Computational NMR of Carbohydrates: Theoretical Background, Applications, and Perspectives
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092450 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
This review is written amid a marked progress in the calculation of NMR parameters of carbohydrates substantiated by a vast amount of experimental data coming from several laboratories worldwide. By no means are we trying to cover in the present compilation a huge [...] Read more.
This review is written amid a marked progress in the calculation of NMR parameters of carbohydrates substantiated by a vast amount of experimental data coming from several laboratories worldwide. By no means are we trying to cover in the present compilation a huge amount of all available data. The main idea of the present review was only to outline general trends and perspectives in this dynamically developing area on the background of a marked progress in theoretical and computational NMR. Presented material is arranged in three basic sections: (1)—a brief theoretical introduction; (2)—applications and perspectives in computational NMR of monosaccharides; and (3)—calculation of NMR chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants of di- and polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Noncovalent Bonds through Sigma and Pi-Hole Located on the Same Molecule. Guiding Principles and Comparisons
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061740 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Over the last years, scientific interest in noncovalent interactions based on the presence of electron-depleted regions called σ-holes or π-holes has markedly accelerated. Their high directionality and strength, comparable to hydrogen bonds, has been documented in many fields of modern chemistry. The current [...] Read more.
Over the last years, scientific interest in noncovalent interactions based on the presence of electron-depleted regions called σ-holes or π-holes has markedly accelerated. Their high directionality and strength, comparable to hydrogen bonds, has been documented in many fields of modern chemistry. The current review gathers and digests recent results concerning these bonds, with a focus on those systems where both σ and π-holes are present on the same molecule. The underlying principles guiding the bonding in both sorts of interactions are discussed, and the trends that emerge from recent work offer a guide as to how one might design systems that allow multiple noncovalent bonds to occur simultaneously, or that prefer one bond type over another. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Selective Styrene Oxidation to Benzaldehyde over Recently Developed Heterogeneous Catalysts
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061680 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
The selective oxidation of styrene under heterogeneous catalyzed conditions delivers environmentally friendly paths for the production of benzaldehyde, an important intermediate for the synthesis of several products. The present review explores heterogeneous catalysts for styrene oxidation using a variety of metal catalysts over [...] Read more.
The selective oxidation of styrene under heterogeneous catalyzed conditions delivers environmentally friendly paths for the production of benzaldehyde, an important intermediate for the synthesis of several products. The present review explores heterogeneous catalysts for styrene oxidation using a variety of metal catalysts over the last decade. The use of several classes of supports is discussed, including metal–organic frameworks, zeolites, carbon materials and silicas, among others. The studied catalytic systems propose as most used oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and hydrogen peroxide and mild reaction conditions. The reaction mechanism proceeds through the generation of an intermediate reactive metal–oxygen species by catalyst-oxidant interactions. Overall, most of the studies highlight the synergetic effects among the metal and support for the activity and selectivity enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Review
Gum Tragacanth (GT): A Versatile Biocompatible Material beyond Borders
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061510 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
The use of naturally occurring materials in biomedicine has been increasingly attracting the researchers’ interest and, in this regard, gum tragacanth (GT) is recently showing great promise as a therapeutic substance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a polysaccharide, GT can be [...] Read more.
The use of naturally occurring materials in biomedicine has been increasingly attracting the researchers’ interest and, in this regard, gum tragacanth (GT) is recently showing great promise as a therapeutic substance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a polysaccharide, GT can be easily extracted from the stems and branches of various species of Astragalus. This anionic polymer is known to be a biodegradable, non-allergenic, non-toxic, and non-carcinogenic material. The stability against microbial, heat and acid degradation has made GT an attractive material not only in industrial settings (e.g., food packaging) but also in biomedical approaches (e.g., drug delivery). Over time, GT has been shown to be a useful reagent in the formation and stabilization of metal nanoparticles in the context of green chemistry. With the advent of tissue engineering, GT has also been utilized for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds applied for both hard and soft tissue healing strategies. However, more research is needed for defining GT applicability in the future of biomedical engineering. On this object, the present review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of GT in biomedicine and tries to open new horizons in the field based on its inherent characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews in Applied Chemistry)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Computational NMR of carbohydrates: theoretical background, applications, and perspectives
Author: Leonid B. Krivdin 1,2

Affiliation1 A. E. Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Favorsky St. 1, 664033 Irkutsk, Russia

2 Angarsk State Technical University, Tchaikovsky St. 60, 665835, Angarsk, Irkutsk Region, Russia

Correspondence: [email protected]


Abstract: This review is written amid a marked progress in the calculation of NMR chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants of carbohydrates substantiated by a vast amount of experimental data coming from several laboratories. By no means are we trying to cover in the present compilation a huge amount of all available data. The main idea of the present review is to outline the general trends and perspectives in this dynamically developing area on the background of a marked progress in theoretical and computational NMR. The material is arranged in three basic sections: a short theoretical introduction, applications and perspectives in computational NMR of monosaccharides, and computational NMR of di- and polysaccharides.

Keywords: computational NMR; chemical shift; spin-spin coupling constant; carbohydrates

Title: Modern carbon-based materials for adsorptive removal of organic pollutants from water
Authors: Vera I. Isaeva 1,2*; Marina D. Vedenyapina 1*; Alexandra Yu. Kurmysheva 1; Dirk Weichgrebe 4; Rahul Ramesh Nair 4; and Leonid M. Kustov 1*
Affiliation: 1 N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 47, Moscow 119991, Russia; 2 National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119991, Russia; 3 Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, bldg. 3, Moscow 119992, Russia; 4 Institute for Sanitary Engineering and Waste Management, Leibniz University Hannover, Appelstr. 9a, D-30167 Hannover, Germany
Abstract: Currently, a serious threat for living organisms and, in particular, human life is presented by water contamination with organic pollutants, such as dyes, phenols, pesticides, organic aromatic compounds and pharmaceuticals. To date, several techniques have been adopted to remove/treat organics and toxic contaminants, such as advanced oxidation processes, adsorption, biological oxidation, chemical treatment, and incineration. Adsorption is one of the most effective and economic methods for this purpose. Generally, porous materials are considered as appropriate adsorbents for water purification. Conventional adsorbents such as activated carbons have a limited possibility of the surface modification (texture and functionality) and their adsorption capacity is difficult to control. Therefore, despite the significant progress achieved in the development of the systems for water remediation, there is still a need in the novel adsorptive materials with tunable functional characteristics. Herein, modern carbon-based materials, such as graphene, carbon oxide, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and MWCNTs), biomass-derived carbonaceous matrices – biochars as well their composites with novel hybrid solids – metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOFs-derived highly-ordered carbons are considered as advanced adsorbents for removal of hazardous organic molecules from drinking and leachate water. This review is focused also on the preparation and modification of these carbon-based systems of the next generation and analysis of their adsorption performance including possible adsorption mechanisms.

Title: NMR of Natural Products as Drugs
Authors: Poul Erik Hansen
Affiliation: Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark
Abstract: This review is dealing with NMR of natural products as drugs or as building blocks for new drugs. Special emphasis is given to compounds with intramolecular hydrogen bonds or compounds that show tautomerism, but also absolute configuration determination is included. The review is concentrating on experimental findings and only in special cases is it dealing with theoretical calculations. The focus among NMR techniques are isotope effects, coupling constants and diffusions measurements.

Title: Carbon Nanostructures-Transition Metals for Gas Adsorption Systems
Authors: M. Canales; J.M. Ramírez de Arellano; L. F. Magaña
Affiliation: M. Canales: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo Xalpa No.180, Colonia Reynosa Tamaulipas, Delegación Azcapotzalco, CDMX, Mexico; J.M. Ramírez-de-Arellano: Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., 64849, México; L.F. Magaña: Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 CDMX, Mexico
Abstract: The adsorption of molecules increases with the doping of surfaces with transition metals; furthermore, carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphdiyne, etc., have a large specific area for gas adsorption. This review focuses on the reports (experimental or theoretical) of systems using these structures decorated with transition metals for mainly pollutant molecules' adsorption. Furthermore, we aim to present the trends of the expanding application of nanomaterials on environmental problems, mainly over the last ten years.

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