Special Issue "Modeling, Design and Optimization of Multiphase Systems in Minerals Processing"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Processing and Metallurgy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis A. Cisternas

Department of Chemical Engineering and Mineral Process, Universidad of Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
Website | E-Mail
Interests: modeling; design; optimization; uncertainty; flotation; heap leaching; tailing; seawater

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mineral processing deals with complex particle systems with two-, three- and more phases. The modeling and understanding of these systems are a challenge for research groups and a need for the industrial sector. This Special Issue aims to present new advances, methodologies, applications, and case studies of computer-aided analysis applied to multiphase systems in mineral processing. This includes aspects such as modeling, design, operation, optimization, uncertainty analysis, among other topics. The articles can be general about multiphasic systems or specific phenomena such as flotation, leaching, solvent extraction, thickening, multiphase flow, among others that include the simultaneous presence of several phases. Articles that may be of interest to a general audience are preferred over more specific or reduced audience, and therefore, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and cross-disciplinary studies are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Luis A. Cisternas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Modeling
  • Design
  • Optimization
  • Operation
  • Flotation
  • Leaching
  • Solvent extraction
  • Thickening
  • Multiphase flow

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Design of Flotation Circuits Using Tabu-Search Algorithms: Multispecies, Equipment Design, and Profitability Parameters
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030181
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
The design of a flotation circuit based on optimization techniques requires a superstructure for representing a set of alternatives, a mathematical model for modeling the alternatives, and an optimization technique for solving the problem. The optimization techniques are classified into exact and approximate [...] Read more.
The design of a flotation circuit based on optimization techniques requires a superstructure for representing a set of alternatives, a mathematical model for modeling the alternatives, and an optimization technique for solving the problem. The optimization techniques are classified into exact and approximate methods. The first has been widely used. However, the probability of finding an optimal solution decreases when the problem size increases. Genetic algorithms have been the approximate method used for designing flotation circuits when the studied problems were small. The Tabu-search algorithm (TSA) is an approximate method used for solving combinatorial optimization problems. This algorithm is an adaptive procedure that has the ability to employ many other methods. The TSA uses short-term memory to prevent the algorithm from being trapped in cycles. The TSA has many practical advantages but has not been used for designing flotation circuits. We propose using the TSA for solving the flotation circuit design problem. The TSA implemented in this work applies diversification and intensification strategies: diversification is used for exploring new regions, and intensification for exploring regions close to a good solution. Four cases were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm: different objective function, different mathematical models, and a benchmarking between TSA and Baron solver. The results indicate that the developed algorithm presents the ability to converge to a solution optimal or near optimal for a complex combination of requirements and constraints, whereas other methods do not. TSA and the Baron solver provide similar designs, but TSA is faster. We conclude that the developed TSA could be useful in the design of full-scale concentration circuits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of K-Feldspar and Lime Hydrothermal Reaction: Phase and Mechanism with Reaction Temperature and Increasing Ca/Si Ratio
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010046
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
To elucidate the physicochemical properties of the artificial silicate composite material, K-feldspar and lime were reacted in mild hydrothermal conditions (different reaction temperatures and various K-feldspar/lime ratios). Formed phases were investigated using various techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, the Rietveld method, scanning [...] Read more.
To elucidate the physicochemical properties of the artificial silicate composite material, K-feldspar and lime were reacted in mild hydrothermal conditions (different reaction temperatures and various K-feldspar/lime ratios). Formed phases were investigated using various techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, the Rietveld method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The analysis revealed that tobermorite, grossular (hydrogarnet), alpha-dicalcium silicate hydrate (α-C2SH), amorphous calcium silicate hydrate, potassium carbonate, bütschliite, calcite, and calcium hydroxide formed with various conditions. Both the temperature and the Ca/Si molar ratio in the starting material greatly affected the formation of phases, especially the generation of tobermorite and α-C2SH. The substitution of H4O4 ↔ SiO4 proceeded with the increase of the Ca/Si molar ratio rather than the reaction temperature and the reaction time. More hydrogen was incorporated in hydrogarnet through the substitution of H4O4 ↔ SiO4 with the increase of the Ca/Si molar ratio in the starting material. Due to the properties of tobermorite as a cation exchanger and its potential applications in hazardous waste disposal, experimental parameters should be optimized to obtain better performance of the artificial silicate composite material from K-feldspar and lime hydrothermal reaction. The dissolution mechanism of K-feldspar was also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Flotation Circuit Recovery by Effective Stage Arrangements: A Case Study
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100417
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Recovery is one of the most important metallurgical parameters in designing and evaluating flotation circuits. The present study used the recovery arrangement for two and three stage circuits to evaluate the effect of stage recovery on the overall circuit recovery and flotation circuit [...] Read more.
Recovery is one of the most important metallurgical parameters in designing and evaluating flotation circuits. The present study used the recovery arrangement for two and three stage circuits to evaluate the effect of stage recovery on the overall circuit recovery and flotation circuit configuration. The results showed that mainly the highest recovery value should be assigned to the rougher stage in order to achieve the maximum overall circuit recovery. Countercurrent rougher-cleaner and rougher-scavenger circuits, in which recycling streams step back one stage at a time, follow a general rule for the assignment of recovery. Finally, a flotation plant containing six flotation banks was examined as a case study. A program for calculating total circuit recovery, for all possible combinations of recovery was developed in MATLAB software. 720 recovery combinations were evaluated. The results showed that optimal recovery allocation in stages could be effective in achieving overall circuit recovery. It was shown that the use of a large number of stages in some of the flotation circuits leads to the loss of equipment and additional costs. The proposed approach can be employed as an effective tool for designing and optimizing various flotation circuits and their operational parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Magnetic Separation Efficiency on a Cassiterite-Bearing Skarn Ore by Means of Integrative SEM-Based Image and XRF–XRD Data Analysis
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090390
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Image analysis data obtained from scanning electron microscopy provided data for a detailed evaluation of the separation efficiency for various processes involving the beneficiation of particulate materials. A dry magnetic separation by a drum type magnetic separator served as a case study to [...] Read more.
Image analysis data obtained from scanning electron microscopy provided data for a detailed evaluation of the separation efficiency for various processes involving the beneficiation of particulate materials. A dry magnetic separation by a drum type magnetic separator served as a case study to visualize effects of processing of a skarn ore with a high content of cassiterite as ore mineral (~4 wt%). For this material, iron oxides and silicates are the main gangue mineral groups. Based on the obtained data, partition curves were generated with the help of local regression. From the partition curves, the separation efficiency was evaluated and the relevant particle properties deduced. A detailed analysis of the bias of the quantitative mineralogical data is presented. This bias was monitored and further analyzed in detail. Thorough analysis of feed and products of magnetic separation enabled identification of the most important factors that control losses of cassiterite to the magnetic product, namely the association with iron oxides and particle sizes below ~40 µm. The introduced methodology is a general approach applicable for the optimization of different separation processes and is not limited to the presented case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Insights into the Configurations of Lead(II)-Benzohydroxamic Acid Coordination Compounds in Aqueous Solution: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090368
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
Novel collector lead(II)-benzohydroxamic acid (Pb(II)–BHA) complexes in aqueous solution were characterized by using experimental approaches, including Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), as well as first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations with consideration for solvation effects. The Job plot delineated that [...] Read more.
Novel collector lead(II)-benzohydroxamic acid (Pb(II)–BHA) complexes in aqueous solution were characterized by using experimental approaches, including Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), as well as first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations with consideration for solvation effects. The Job plot delineated that a single coordinated Pb(BHA)+ should be formed first, and that the higher coordination number complexes can be formed subsequently. Moreover, the Pb(II)–BHA species can aggregate with each other to form complicated structures, such as Pb(BHA)2 or highly complicated complexes. ESI-MS results validated the existence of Pb-(BHA)n=1,2 under different solution pH values. Further, the first-principles calculations suggested that Pb(BHA)+ should be the most stable structure, and the Pb atom in Pb(BHA)+ will act as an active site to attack nucleophiles. These findings are meaningful to further illustrate the adsorption mechanism of Pb(II)–BHA complexes, and are helpful for developing new reagents in mineral processing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Dissolution Rates of Ag Contained in Metallurgical and Mining Residues in the S2O32−-O2-Cu2+ System: Kinetic Analysis
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070309
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
The materials used to conduct kinetic study on the leaching of silver in the S2O32−-O2-Cu2+ system were mining residues (tailings) from the Dos Carlos site in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, which have an estimated [...] Read more.
The materials used to conduct kinetic study on the leaching of silver in the S2O32−-O2-Cu2+ system were mining residues (tailings) from the Dos Carlos site in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, which have an estimated concentration of Ag = 71 g∙ton−1. The kinetic study presented in this paper assessed the effects of the following variables on Ag dissolution rate: particle diameter (d0), temperature (T), copper concentration [Cu2+], thiosulfate concentration [S2O32−], pH, [OH], stirring rate (RPM), and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). Temperature has a favorable effect on the leaching rate of Ag, obtaining an activation energy (Ea) = 43.5 kJ∙mol−1 in a range between 288 K (15 °C) and 328 K (55 °C), which indicates that the dissolution reaction is controlled by the chemical reaction. With a reaction order of n = 0.4, the addition of [Cu2+] had a catalytic effect on the leaching rate of silver, as opposed to not adding it. The dissolution rate is dependent on [S2O32−] in a range between 0.02 mol·L−1 and 0.06 mol·L−1. Under the studied conditions, variables d0, [OH] and RPM did not have an effect on the overall rate of silver leaching. Full article
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