To elucidate the physicochemical properties of the artificial silicate composite material, K-feldspar and lime were reacted in mild hydrothermal conditions (different reaction temperatures and various K-feldspar/lime ratios). Formed phases were investigated using various techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, the Rietveld method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The analysis revealed that tobermorite, grossular (hydrogarnet), alpha-dicalcium silicate hydrate (α-C2
SH), amorphous calcium silicate hydrate, potassium carbonate, bütschliite, calcite, and calcium hydroxide formed with various conditions. Both the temperature and the Ca/Si molar ratio in the starting material greatly affected the formation of phases, especially the generation of tobermorite and α-C2
SH. The substitution of H4
proceeded with the increase of the Ca/Si molar ratio rather than the reaction temperature and the reaction time. More hydrogen was incorporated in hydrogarnet through the substitution of H4
with the increase of the Ca/Si molar ratio in the starting material. Due to the properties of tobermorite as a cation exchanger and its potential applications in hazardous waste disposal, experimental parameters should be optimized to obtain better performance of the artificial silicate composite material from K-feldspar and lime hydrothermal reaction. The dissolution mechanism of K-feldspar was also discussed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited