Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 30332

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Ultra-Precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISE), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU), Hong Kong 999077, China
Interests: ultra-precision machining; polishing/finishing; abrasive machining technology
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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: micro/nano manufacturing; precision machining; surface finishing; atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultra-precision machining is a multi-disciplinary research area that is an important branch of manufacturing technology. It targets achieving ultra-precision form or surface roughness accuracy, forming the backbone and support of today’s innovative technology industries in aerospace, semiconductors, optics, telecommunications, energy, etc. The increasing demand for components with ultra-precision accuracy has stimulated the development of ultra-precision machining technology in recent decades. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks reviews and regular research papers on the frontiers of ultra-precision machining and will serve as a platform for the communication of the latest developments and innovations in ultra-precision machining technologies.

Prof. Dr. Jiang Guo
Dr. Chunjin Wang
Dr. Chengwei Kang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polishing
  • grinding
  • diamond turning
  • micro-milling
  • abrasive jet machining
  • electrical discharge machining
  • ion beam machining
  • magnetic field-assisted machining
  • ultrasonic field-assisted machining
  • laser machining

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Study of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Temperature Based on Silicon Carbide Etching
by Shaozhen Xu, Julong Yuan, Jianxing Zhou, Kun Cheng and Hezhong Gan
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050992 - 02 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
In order to further understand the excitation process of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and improve the etching efficiency of silicon carbide (SiC), the effect of temperature and atmospheric pressure on plasma etching of silicon carbide was investigated. Based on the infrared temperature measurement [...] Read more.
In order to further understand the excitation process of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and improve the etching efficiency of silicon carbide (SiC), the effect of temperature and atmospheric pressure on plasma etching of silicon carbide was investigated. Based on the infrared temperature measurement method, the temperature of the plasma reaction region was measured. The single factor method was used to study the effect of the working gas flow rate and the RF power on the plasma region temperature. Fixed-point processing of SiC wafers analyzes the effect of plasma region temperature on the etching rate. The experimental results showed that the plasma temperature increased with increasing Ar gas until it reached the maximum value at 15 slm and decreased with increasing flow rate; the plasma temperature increased with a CF4 flow rate from 0 to 45 sccm until the temperature stabilized when the flow rate reached 45 sccm. The higher the RF power, the higher the plasma region’s temperature. The higher the plasma region temperature, the faster the etching rate and the more pronounced the effect on the non-linear effect of the removal function. Therefore, it can be determined that for ICP processing-based chemical reactions, the increase in plasma reaction region temperature leads to a faster SiC etching rate. By processing the dwell time in sections, the nonlinear effect caused by the heat accumulation on the component surface is effectively improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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15 pages, 8428 KiB  
Article
An Exploration of the Influence of Abrasive Water Jet Pressure on the Friction Signal Characteristics of Fixed Abrasive Lapping Quartz Glass Based on HHT
by Yanling Zheng, Zhao Zhang, Zhankui Wang, Minghua Pang, Lijie Ma and Jianxiu Su
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040891 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Abrasive water jetting is an effective dressing method for a fixed abrasive pad (FAP) and can improve FAP machining efficiency and the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) pressure on the dressing effect; moreover, the machining state of FAP after dressing has not [...] Read more.
Abrasive water jetting is an effective dressing method for a fixed abrasive pad (FAP) and can improve FAP machining efficiency and the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) pressure on the dressing effect; moreover, the machining state of FAP after dressing has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, in this study, the FAP was dressed by using AWJ under four pressures, and the dressed FAP was subjected to lapping experiments and tribological experiments. Through an analysis of the material removal rate, FAP surface topography, friction coefficient, and friction characteristic signal, the influence of AWJ pressure on the friction characteristic signal in FAP processing was studied. The outcomes show that the impact of the dressing on FAP rises and then falls as the AWJ pressure increases. The best dressing effect was observed when the AWJ pressure was 4 MPa. In addition, the maximum value of the marginal spectrum initially rises and then falls as the AWJ pressure increases. When the AWJ pressure was 4 MPa, the peak value of the marginal spectrum of the FAP that was dressed during processing was the largest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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16 pages, 19656 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Experimental Study of Laser Processing NdFeB Microarray Structure
by Yong Zhao, Shuo Wang, Wenhui Yu, Pengyu Long, Jinlong Zhang, Wentao Tian, Fei Gao, Zhuji Jin, Hongyu Zheng, Chunjin Wang and Jiang Guo
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040808 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
NdFeB materials are widely used in the manufacturing of micro-linear motor sliders due to their excellent permanent magnetic properties. However, there are many challenges in processing the slider with micro-structures on the surface, such as complicated steps and low efficiency. Laser processing is [...] Read more.
NdFeB materials are widely used in the manufacturing of micro-linear motor sliders due to their excellent permanent magnetic properties. However, there are many challenges in processing the slider with micro-structures on the surface, such as complicated steps and low efficiency. Laser processing is expected to solve these problems, but few studies have been reported. Therefore, simulation and experiment studies in this area are of great significance. In this study, a two-dimensional simulation model of laser-processed NdFeB material was established. Based on the overall effects of surface tension, recoil pressure, and gravity, the temperature field distribution and morphological characteristics with laser processing were analyzed. The flow evolution in the melt pool was discussed, and the mechanism of microstructure formation was revealed. In addition, the effect of laser scanning speed and average power on machining morphology was investigated. The results show that at an average power of 8 W and a scanning speed of 100 mm/s, the simulated ablation depth is 43 μm, which is consistent with the experimental results. During the machining process, the molten material accumulated on the inner wall and the outlet of the crater after sputtering and refluxing, forming a V-shaped pit. The ablation depth decreases with the increment of the scanning speed, while the depth and length of the melt pool, along with the height of the recast layer, increase with the average power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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16 pages, 5092 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Compensation of Positioning Error in Micromanipulation
by Miao Hao, Bin Yang, Changhai Ru, Chunfeng Yue, Zongjie Huang, Rongan Zhai, Yu Sun, Yong Wang and Changsheng Dai
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040779 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
In order to improve the positioning accuracy of the micromanipulation system, a comprehensive error model is first established to take into account the microscope nonlinear imaging distortion, camera installation error, and the mechanical displacement error of the motorized stage. A novel error compensation [...] Read more.
In order to improve the positioning accuracy of the micromanipulation system, a comprehensive error model is first established to take into account the microscope nonlinear imaging distortion, camera installation error, and the mechanical displacement error of the motorized stage. A novel error compensation method is then proposed with distortion compensation coefficients obtained by the Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm combined with the deduced nonlinear imaging model. The compensation coefficients for camera installation error and mechanical displacement error are derived from the rigid-body translation technique and image stitching algorithm. To validate the error compensation model, single shot and cumulative error tests were designed. The experimental results show that after the error compensation, the displacement errors were controlled within 0.25 μm when moving in a single direction and within 0.02 μm per 1000 μm when moving in multiple directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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19 pages, 17182 KiB  
Article
Process Chain for Ultra-Precision and High-Efficiency Manufacturing of Large-Aperture Silicon Carbide Aspheric Mirrors
by Bo Zhong, Wei Wu, Jian Wang, Lian Zhou, Jing Hou, Baojian Ji, Wenhui Deng, Qiancai Wei, Chunjin Wang and Qiao Xu
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040737 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
A large-aperture silicon carbide (SiC) aspheric mirror has the advantages of being light weight and having a high specific stiffness, which is the key component of a space optical system. However, SiC has the characteristics of high hardness and multi-component, which makes it [...] Read more.
A large-aperture silicon carbide (SiC) aspheric mirror has the advantages of being light weight and having a high specific stiffness, which is the key component of a space optical system. However, SiC has the characteristics of high hardness and multi-component, which makes it difficult to realize efficient, high-precision, and low-defect processing. To solve this problem, a novel process chain combining ultra-precision shaping based on parallel grinding, rapid polishing with central fluid supply, and magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is proposed in this paper. The key technologies include the passivation and life prediction of the wheel in SiC ultra-precision grinding (UPG), the generation and suppression mechanism of pit defects on the SiC surface, deterministic and ultra-smooth polishing by MRF, and compensation interference detection of the high-order aspheric surface by a computer-generated hologram (CGH). The verification experiment was conducted on a Ø460 mm SiC aspheric mirror, whose initial surface shape error was 4.15 μm in peak-to-valley (PV) and a root-mean-square roughness (Rq) of 44.56 nm. After conducting the proposed process chain, a surface error of RMS 7.42 nm and a Rq of 0.33 nm were successfully obtained. Moreover, the whole processing cycle is only about 216 h, which sheds light on the mass production of large-aperture silicon carbide aspheric mirrors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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20 pages, 3427 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study on the Influence of the Abrasive Flow Process on the Cutting of Iron-Carbon Alloys (α-Fe)
by Junye Li, Zhenguo Zhao, Junwei Li, Fujun Xiao, Rongxian Qiu, Hongcai Xie and Wenqing Meng
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030703 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
The plastic deformation behavior and microstructural changes in workpieces during ultra-precision machining have piqued the interest of many researchers. In this study, a molecular dynamics simulation of nano-cutting iron-carbon alloy (α-Fe) is established to investigate the effects of the fluid medium and cutting [...] Read more.
The plastic deformation behavior and microstructural changes in workpieces during ultra-precision machining have piqued the interest of many researchers. In this study, a molecular dynamics simulation of nano-cutting iron-carbon alloy (α-Fe) is established to investigate the effects of the fluid medium and cutting angle on workpiece temperature, friction coefficient, workpiece surface morphology, and dislocation evolution by constructing a molecular model of C12H26 as a fluid medium in the liquid phase using an innovative combined atomic approach. It is demonstrated that the presence of the fluid phase reduces the machining temperature and the friction coefficient. The cutting angle has a significant impact on the formation of the workpiece’s surface profile and the manner in which the workpiece’s atoms are displaced. When the cutting angle is 0°, 5°, or 10°, the workpiece’s surface morphology flows to both sides in a 45° direction, and the height of atomic accumulation on the workpiece surface gradually decreases while the area of displacement changes increases. The depth of cut increases as the cutting angle increases, causing greater material damage, and the presence of a fluid medium reduces this behavior. A dislocation reaction network is formed by the presence of more single and double-branched structures within the workpiece during the cutting process. The presence of a fluid medium during large-angle cutting reduces the number of dislocations and the total dislocation length. The total length of dislocations inside the workpiece is shorter for small angles of cutting, but the effect of the fluid medium is not very pronounced. Therefore, small cutting angles and the presence of fluid media reduce the formation of defective structures within the workpiece and ensure the machining quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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16 pages, 7334 KiB  
Article
In Situ Measurement of Spindle Radial Error for Ultra-Precision Machining Based on Three-Point Method
by Hanwei Xu, Zizhou Sun, Yifan Dai, Chaoliang Guan, Hao Hu and Yu Wang
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030653 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The radial error is an important parameter to evaluate the performance of ultra-precision spindles. The three-point method has not yet been well applied in nanometer-scale measurement due to its disadvantages of harmonic suppression and the complicated error separation process. In order to verify [...] Read more.
The radial error is an important parameter to evaluate the performance of ultra-precision spindles. The three-point method has not yet been well applied in nanometer-scale measurement due to its disadvantages of harmonic suppression and the complicated error separation process. In order to verify that the three-point method can realize the nanometer-scale measurement of the radial error in the machining environment, an in situ measurement and evaluation system is established. Experiments are performed using the system, and a comparative experiment is conducted to verify the accuracy of the system. The average value and standard deviation of the measurement results are 23.096 nm and 0.556 nm, respectively. The in situ measurement result was in good agreement with the Donaldson reversal method using a commercially available spindle analyzer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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16 pages, 12825 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanism of Burr Formation by Simulation and Experiment in Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Micromilling
by Yuanbin Zhang, Zhonghang Yuan, Bin Fang, Liying Gao, Zhiyuan Chen and Guosheng Su
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030625 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Due to the strong plasticity of Inconel 718 and the significant size effect of micromachining, a large number of burrs will be produced in traditional processing. The addition of ultrasonic vibration during machining can reduce the burr problem. The mechanism of burr generation [...] Read more.
Due to the strong plasticity of Inconel 718 and the significant size effect of micromachining, a large number of burrs will be produced in traditional processing. The addition of ultrasonic vibration during machining can reduce the burr problem. The mechanism of burr generation in traditional micromilling (TMM) and ultrasonic vibration-assisted micromilling (UVAMM) was analyzed by simulation, and verified by corresponding experiments. It is found that applying high-frequency ultrasonic vibration in the milling feed direction can reduce cutting temperature and cutting force, improve chip breaking ability, and reduce burr formation. When the cutting thickness will reach the minimum cutting thickness hmin, the chip will start to form. When A/ƒz > 1/2, the tracks of the two tool heads start to cut, and the chips are not continuous. Some of the best burr suppression effects were achieved under conditions of low cutting speed (Vc), feed per tooth (ƒz), and large amplitude (A). When A is 6 μm, the size and quantity of burr is the smallest. When ƒz reaches 6 μm, large continuous burrs appear at the top of the groove. The experimental results further confirm the accuracy of the simulation results and provide parameter reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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19 pages, 4279 KiB  
Article
Femtosecond Laser Cutting of 110–550 µm Thickness Borosilicate Glass in Ambient Air and Water
by Edgaras Markauskas, Laimis Zubauskas, Gediminas Račiukaitis and Paulius Gečys
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010176 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
The cutting quality and strength of strips cut with femtosecond-duration pulses were investigated for different thicknesses of borosilicate glass plates. The laser pulse duration was 350 fs, and cutting was performed in two environments: ambient air and water. When cutting in water, a [...] Read more.
The cutting quality and strength of strips cut with femtosecond-duration pulses were investigated for different thicknesses of borosilicate glass plates. The laser pulse duration was 350 fs, and cutting was performed in two environments: ambient air and water. When cutting in water, a thin flowing layer of water was formed at the front surface of the glass plate by spraying water mist next to a laser ablation zone. The energy of pulses greatly exceeded the critical self-focusing threshold in water, creating conditions favorable for laser beam filament formation. Laser cutting parameters were individually optimized for different glass thicknesses (110–550 µm). The results revealed that laser cutting of borosilicate glass in water is favorable for thicker glass (300–550 µm) thanks to higher cutting quality, higher effective cutting speed, and characteristic strength. On the other hand, cutting ultrathin glass plates (110 µm thickness) demonstrated almost identical performance and cutting quality results in both environments. In this paper, we studied cut-edge defect widths, cut-sidewall roughness, cutting throughput, characteristic strength, and band-like damage formed at the back surface of laser-cut glass strips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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20 pages, 15527 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Material Removal Distributions and Surface Morphology Evolution in Non-Contact Ultrasonic Abrasive Machining (NUAM) of BK7 Optical Glasses
by Zongfu Guo, Xichun Luo, Xiaoping Hu and Tan Jin
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122188 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
A non-contact ultrasonic abrasive machining approach provides a potential solution to overcome the challenges of machining efficiency in the high-precision polishing of optical components. Accurately modeling the material removal distribution (removal function (RF)) and surface morphology is very important in establishing this new [...] Read more.
A non-contact ultrasonic abrasive machining approach provides a potential solution to overcome the challenges of machining efficiency in the high-precision polishing of optical components. Accurately modeling the material removal distribution (removal function (RF)) and surface morphology is very important in establishing this new computer-controlled deterministic polishing technique. However, it is a challenging task due to the absence of an in-depth understanding of the evolution mechanism of the material removal distribution and the knowledge of the evolution law of the microscopic surface morphology under the complex action of ultrasonic polishing while submerged in liquid. In this study, the formation of the RF and the surface morphology were modeled by investigating the cavitation density distribution and conducting experiments. The research results showed that the material removal caused by cavitation bubble explosions was uniformly distributed across the entire working surface and had a 0.25 mm edge influence range. The flow scour removal was mainly concentrated in the high-velocity flow zone around the machining area. The roughness of the machined surface increased linearly with an increase in the amplitude and gap. Increasing the particle concentration significantly improved the material removal rate, and the generated surface exhibited better removal uniformity and lower surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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17 pages, 4636 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Grinding Time on High-Speed Grinding of Rails by a Passive Grinding Test Machine
by Pengzhan Liu, Wenjun Zou, Jin Peng and Furen Xiao
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122118 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
High-speed rail grinding is a unique passive grinding maintenance strategy that differs from conventional grinding techniques. Its grinding behavior is dependent on the relative motion between the grinding wheel and rail; hence, it possesses great speed and efficiency. In this study, the effects [...] Read more.
High-speed rail grinding is a unique passive grinding maintenance strategy that differs from conventional grinding techniques. Its grinding behavior is dependent on the relative motion between the grinding wheel and rail; hence, it possesses great speed and efficiency. In this study, the effects of the duration of grinding time and the increase in the number of grinding passes on the grinding of high-speed rails were investigated using passive grinding tests with a single grinding time of 10 s and 30 s and grinding passes of once, twice, and three times, respectively. The results show that when the total grinding time was the same, the rail removal, grinding ratio of grinding wheels, rail grinding effect, grinding force, and grinding temperature were better in three passes of 10 s grinding than in one pass of 30 s grinding, indicating that the short-time and multi-pass grinding scheme is not only conducive to improving the grinding efficiency and grinding quality in the high-speed rail grinding but can also extend the service life of the grinding wheels. Moreover, when the single grinding times were 10 s and 30 s, respectively, the grinding removal, grinding efficiency, grinding marks depth, and surface roughness of rail increased with the number of grinding passes, implying that the desired rail grinding objective can be achieved by extending the grinding time via the multi-pass grinding strategy. The results and theoretical analysis of this study will contribute to re-conceptualizing the practical operation of high-speed rail grinding and provide references for the development of the grinding process and grinding technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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17 pages, 24574 KiB  
Article
Study on the CBN Wheel Wear Mechanism of Longitudinal-Torsional Ultrasonic-Assisted Grinding Applied to TC4 Titanium Alloy
by Junli Liu, Zhongpeng Liu, Yanyan Yan and Xiaoxu Wang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091480 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
In this study, the CBN (cubic boron nitride) wheel wear model of TC4 titanium alloy in longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic-assisted grinding (LTUAG) was established to explore the grinding wheel wear pattern of TC4 titanium alloy in LTUAG and to improve the grinding efficiency of TC4 [...] Read more.
In this study, the CBN (cubic boron nitride) wheel wear model of TC4 titanium alloy in longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic-assisted grinding (LTUAG) was established to explore the grinding wheel wear pattern of TC4 titanium alloy in LTUAG and to improve the grinding efficiency of TC4 titanium alloy and the grinding wheel life. The establishment of the model is based on the grinding force model, the abrasive surface temperature model, the abrasive wear model, and the adhesion wear model of TC4 titanium alloy in LTUAG. The accuracy of the built model is verified by the wheel wear test of TC4 titanium alloy in LTUAG. Research has shown that the grinding force and grinding temperature in LTUAG increase with the increase of the grinding depth and workpiece feed rate and decrease with the increase of the longitudinal ultrasonic amplitude. It also shows that the grinding force gradually decreases with the increase of the grinding wheel speed, while the grinding temperature gradually increases with the increase of the grinding wheel speed. In addition, the use of LTUAG can significantly reduce the wear rate of the grinding wheel by 25.2%. It can also effectively reduce the grinding force and grinding temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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20 pages, 9132 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Investigation on Cutting Force and Residual Stress in 3D Elliptical Vibration Cutting Ti6Al4V
by Shiyu Li, Jinguo Han, Haiqiang Yu, Jinhui Wang, Mingming Lu, Yebing Tian and Jieqiong Lin
Micromachines 2022, 13(8), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13081278 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Titanium alloy is a typical difficult-to-machine material with features of superhigh strength and hardness, and low elastic modulus. It is difficult to guarantee the processing quality and efficiency due to the high cutting force and tool wear in conventional cutting. Elliptical vibration cutting [...] Read more.
Titanium alloy is a typical difficult-to-machine material with features of superhigh strength and hardness, and low elastic modulus. It is difficult to guarantee the processing quality and efficiency due to the high cutting force and tool wear in conventional cutting. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as an effective method can improve the machinability of titanium alloys. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) was adopted to study the cutting force and residual stress of 3D EVC in machining of Ti6Al4V. The Johnson-Cook constitutive model was utilized to illustrate the plastic behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy. The kinematics of the 3D EVC was described, and then the influence of various cutting speeds, vibration amplitudes, vibration frequencies and depths of cut on cutting force and residual stress were carried out and analyzed. The simulation results show that the cutting speed, vibration amplitude a, vibration frequency and depth of cut have larger effect on principal force. In addition, the compressive stress layer can be easily obtained near the machined surface by using 3D EVC, which is helpful to improve the working performance of workpiece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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17 pages, 24143 KiB  
Article
An Investigation into the Densification-Affected Deformation and Fracture in Fused Silica under Contact Sliding
by Changsheng Li, Yushan Ma, Lin Sun, Liangchi Zhang, Chuhan Wu, Jianjun Ding, Duanzhi Duan, Xuepeng Wang and Zhandong Chang
Micromachines 2022, 13(7), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13071106 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Subsurface damage of fused silica optics is one of the major factors restricting the performance of optical systems. The densification-affected deformation and fracture in fused silica under a sliding contact are investigated in this study, via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). The finite [...] Read more.
Subsurface damage of fused silica optics is one of the major factors restricting the performance of optical systems. The densification-affected deformation and fracture in fused silica under a sliding contact are investigated in this study, via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). The finite element models of scratching with 70.3° conical and Berkovich indenters are established. A refined elliptical constitutive model is used to consider the influence of densification. The finite element models are experimentally verified by elastic recovery, and theoretically verified by hardness ratio. Results of densification and plastic deformation distributions indicate that the accuracy of existent sliding stress field models may be improved if the spherical/cylindrical yield region is replaced by an ellipsoid/cylindroid, and the embedding of the yield region is considered. The initiation sequence, and the locations and stages of radial, median, and lateral cracks are discussed by analyzing the predicted sliding stress fields. Median and radial cracks along the sliding direction tend to be the first cracks that emerge in the sliding and unloading stages, respectively. They coalesce to form a big median–radial crack that penetrates through the entire yield region. The fracture behavior of fused silica revealed in this study is essential in the low-damage machining of fused silica optics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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19 pages, 10908 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Surface Shape and Orientation in Magnetic Field Assisted Mass Polishing
by Yee-Man Loh, Chi-Fai Cheung, Chunjin Wang and Lai-Ting Ho
Micromachines 2022, 13(7), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13071060 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Magnetic field assisted finishing (MFAF) technology has been widely used in industries such as aerospace, biomedical, and the optical field for both external and internal surface finishing due to its high conformability to complex surfaces and nanometric surface finishing. However, most of the [...] Read more.
Magnetic field assisted finishing (MFAF) technology has been widely used in industries such as aerospace, biomedical, and the optical field for both external and internal surface finishing due to its high conformability to complex surfaces and nanometric surface finishing. However, most of the MFAF methods only allow polishing piece-by-piece, leading to high post-processing costs and long processing times with the increasing demand for high precision products. Hence, a magnetic field-assisted mass polishing (MAMP) method was recently proposed, and an experimental investigation on the effect of surface posture is presented in this paper. Two groups of experiments were conducted with different workpiece shapes, including the square bar and roller bar, to examine the effect of surface orientation and polishing performance on different regions. A simulation of magnetic field distribution and computational fluid dynamics was also performed to support the results. Experimental results show that areas near the chamber wall experience better polishing performance, and the surface parallel or inclined to polishing direction generally allows better shearing and thus higher polishing efficiency. Both types of workpieces show notable polishing performance where an 80% surface roughness improvement was achieved after 20-min of rough polishing and 20-min of fine polishing reaching approximately 20 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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13 pages, 7635 KiB  
Article
Study on Wavelet Packet Energy Characteristics on Friction Signal of Lapping with the Fixed Abrasive Pad
by Zhankui Wang, Zhao Zhang, Shiwei Wang, Minghua Pang, Lijie Ma and Jianxiu Su
Micromachines 2022, 13(7), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13070981 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
The surface condition of the fixed abrasive pad (FAP) has a significant impact on its machining performance, workpiece material removal rate (MRR), and surface roughness. To clarify the wavelet packet energy characteristics of friction signal under different surface conditions of FAP and its [...] Read more.
The surface condition of the fixed abrasive pad (FAP) has a significant impact on its machining performance, workpiece material removal rate (MRR), and surface roughness. To clarify the wavelet packet energy characteristics of friction signal under different surface conditions of FAP and its mapping relationship with MRR and workpiece surface quality, FAP samples in different processing stages were obtained through a consolidated abrasive grinding quartz glass experiment. Then, the friction signals in different stages were received by the friction and wear experiment between the FAP and quartz glass workpiece, and the wavelet packet analysis was carried out. The experimental results show that with the increase of lapping time, the surface wear degree of the FAP increased gradually, and the MRR of the workpiece, the surface roughness of the FAP, and the surface roughness of the workpiece decreased slowly. In the wavelet packet energy of friction signal during machining, the energy proportion of frequency band 7 showed an upward trend with the increase of lapping time. The energy proportion of frequency band 8 showed a downward trend with the increase of lapping time. The change characteristics of the two are significantly correlated with the surface condition of the FAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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22 pages, 8503 KiB  
Article
Efficient Water-Assisted Glass Cutting with 355 nm Picosecond Laser Pulses
by Edgaras Markauskas, Laimis Zubauskas, Bogdan Voisiat and Paulius Gečys
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050785 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
In this study, the cutting of borosilicate glass plates in ambient air and water with a 355 nm wavelength picosecond laser was carried out. Low (2.1–2.75 W) and high (15.5 W) average laser power cutting regimes were studied. Thorough attention was paid to [...] Read more.
In this study, the cutting of borosilicate glass plates in ambient air and water with a 355 nm wavelength picosecond laser was carried out. Low (2.1–2.75 W) and high (15.5 W) average laser power cutting regimes were studied. Thorough attention was paid to the effect of the hatch distance on the cutting quality and characteristic strength of glass strips cut in both environments. At optimal cutting parameters, ablation efficiency and cutting rates were the highest but cut sidewalls were covered with periodically recurring ridges. Transition to smaller hatch values improved the cut sidewall quality by suppressing the ridge formation, but negatively affected the ablation efficiency and overall strength of glass strips. Glass strips cut in water in the low-laser-power regime had the highest characteristic strength of 117.6 and 107.3 MPa for the front and back sides, respectively. Cutting in a high-laser-power regime was only carried out in water. At 15.5 W, the ablation efficiency and effective cutting speed per incident laser power increased by 16% and 22%, respectively, compared with cutting in water in a low-laser-power regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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15 pages, 5399 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Texture Coupling Mechanism and Antifriction Performance of Piston Rod Seal Pair
by Jie Tang, Jie Zeng and Xin Lu
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050722 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
The effect of the coupling texture on the friction and wear of a piston rod-rubber seal pair under lubricating conditions is studied in this paper. Crescentiform textures with different area densities were fabricated on high carbon chromium bearing steel (GCr15) and ethylene propylene [...] Read more.
The effect of the coupling texture on the friction and wear of a piston rod-rubber seal pair under lubricating conditions is studied in this paper. Crescentiform textures with different area densities were fabricated on high carbon chromium bearing steel (GCr15) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) materials by using a laser marking machine. We compare and analyze the effects of untextured, single-textured, and coupling-textured surfaces on the friction characteristics of the piston rod-rubber seal pair by conducting tests on the reciprocating module of the UMT-2 friction and wear testing machine. The results showed that the coupling-textured surface had the lowest coefficient of friction and wear compared to the untextured and single-textured surfaces. When the normal load was 10 N under the optimal coupling texture area density (6.4%), the friction and wear of the sealing pair decreased the most. Compared with the untextured surface, the friction coefficient was reduced by 27.9% and the wear amount was reduced by 30.0%; compared with the single-textured surface, the friction coefficient was reduced by 18.9%, and the wear amount was reduced by 23.8%. The coupling effect generated by the coupling texture effectively enhanced the formation and stabilization of the oil lubricant film and effectively captured wear debris, preventing it from continuously scratching the surface and reducing wear and roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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22 pages, 6581 KiB  
Article
Deformation Analysis of Continuous Milling of Inconel718 Nickel-Based Superalloy
by Xueguang Li, Yahui Wang, Liqin Miao and Wang Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050683 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
As a difficult-to-process material, Inconel718 nickel-based superalloy is more and more widely used in aerospace, ocean navigation, and large-scale machinery manufacturing. Based on ABAQUS simulation software, this paper takes the milling force and temperature in the milling process of the nickel-based superalloy as [...] Read more.
As a difficult-to-process material, Inconel718 nickel-based superalloy is more and more widely used in aerospace, ocean navigation, and large-scale machinery manufacturing. Based on ABAQUS simulation software, this paper takes the milling force and temperature in the milling process of the nickel-based superalloy as the research object, and establishes the empirical formula for the prediction model of cutting force and cutting temperature based on the method of multiple linear regression. The significance of the prediction model was verified by the residual analysis method. Through data analysis, it is obtained: within a certain experimental range, the influence degrees of each milling parameter on the cutting force and cutting temperature are fz>ap>n and fz>apn, respectively. The actual orthogonal cutting test was carried out on the machine tool, and the reliability and accuracy of the prediction model of cutting force, cutting temperature and tool wear amount were verified. The model formulas of the shear velocity field, shear strain field and shear strain rate field of the main shear deformation zone are constructed by using mathematical analysis methods. The influence law of cutting speed and tool rake angle on the variables of main shear zone is calculated and analyzed. Through the combination of theory and experiment, the relationship between cutting force, chip shape and machined surface quality in milling process was analyzed. Finally, with the increase in the cutting force, the serration of the chip becomes more and more serious, and the roughness of the machined surface becomes greater and greater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Ultra-Precision Machining, Volume II)
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