Special Issue "Bioelectronics & Wearable Devices: Sensing, Signal Processing and Powering"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology and Biomedicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2022 | Viewed by 1979

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Xiao Xiao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
2. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Nationa University of Singapore, Singapore 117583, Singapore
Interests: bioelectronics; wearable devices; electronic textiles; bioengineering; bionics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advent of bioelectronics and wearable devices is rapidly changing the practice of human healthcare. For instance, bioelectronic sensors can measure vital signs such as the heartbeat and respiration to provide real-time access to life-saving information and analyze metabolites in sweat to assess the level of stress during training. As the world marches into the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G wireless, medical devices that are connected could be used to monitor, track, and record individual vital signs and treatment processes on the human body, and then exchanging these clinical data to provide a personalized healthcare schema. Furthermore, the stability of bioelectronics’ power source to maintain its operation is critical; therefore, the expansion of the field of bioelectronics is still limited by the lack of stable and biocompatible power sources with aesthetic designs. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel bioelectronics and wearable device developments in collecting physiological signals that can be leveraged to assess health status and diagnose diseases and assess energy harvesting and storage technologies for powering such devices during physical activity and harsh environmental conditions.

We look forward to receiving your submissions. 

Dr. Xiao Xiao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioelectronics
  • wearable sensors
  • health monitoring
  • energy harvesting
  • energy storage
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
A Novel Fluidic Platform for Semi-Automated Cell Culture into Multiwell-like Bioreactors
Micromachines 2022, 13(7), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13070994 - 24 Jun 2022
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Abstract
In this work, we developed and characterized a novel fluidic platform that enables long-term in vitro cell culture in a semi-automated fashion. The system is constituted by a control unit provided with a piezoelectric pump, miniaturized valves, and a microfluidic network for management [...] Read more.
In this work, we developed and characterized a novel fluidic platform that enables long-term in vitro cell culture in a semi-automated fashion. The system is constituted by a control unit provided with a piezoelectric pump, miniaturized valves, and a microfluidic network for management and fine control of reagents’ flow, connected to a disposable polymeric culture unit resembling the traditional multiwell-like design. As a proof of principle, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) were seeded and cultured into the cell culture unit. The proliferation rate of HUVEC and the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC were assessed and compared to standard culture in Petri dishes. The results obtained demonstrated that our approach is suitable to perform semi-automated cell culture protocols, minimizing the contribution of human operators and allowing the standardization and reproducibility of the procedures. We believe that the proposed system constitutes a promising solution for the realization of user-friendly automated control systems that will favor the standardization of cell culture processes for cell factories, drug testing, and biomedical research. Full article
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Article
Screw Analysis, Modeling and Experiment on the Mechanics of Tibia Orthopedic with the Ilizarov External Fixator
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060932 - 11 Jun 2022
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Abstract
The Ilizarov external fixator plays an important role in the correction of complex malformed limbs. Our purpose in this work was to reveal the transmission of adjustable forces between the external fixator and the broken bone, and express the stress distribution at the [...] Read more.
The Ilizarov external fixator plays an important role in the correction of complex malformed limbs. Our purpose in this work was to reveal the transmission of adjustable forces between the external fixator and the broken bone, and express the stress distribution at the end of the broken bone during the orthopedic treatment. Firstly, the screw model of the fixator was established and the theoretical relationship between the adjustable force and the stress was obtained. A sheep tibia was taken as a representative research object and its ediTable 3D entity was obtained by CT scanning. Then the mechanical model of the fixator and tibia was built using the ABAQUS software. Correction experiments were performed on the sheep tibia to measure the adjustable/support forces and tensions of the tibia. The measured results were imported to the screw and mechanical model, and the theoretical and simulation values were calculated. The theoretical tensions calculated by the screw model had a similar shape and doubled the value compared with that of the measured results. The transfer efficiency between the two results was improved and kept at about 50% after the initial 2~3 periods. The maximum stress occurring at the surface of the broken bone end was near the Kirschner wire pinhole. The simulation results for the tensions from the mechanical model showed a similar change trend, and the value was slightly higher. A biomechanical model of the Ilizarov external fixator was derived and verified through calculations, simulations and experiments. The change law of the adjustable forces and the tensions existing in the broken sheep tibias is presented herein, and offers a helpful contribution to orthopedic treatment. Full article
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Article
Ergonomic Design and Performance Evaluation of H-Suit for Human Walking
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060825 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
A soft exoskeleton for the hip flexion, named H-Suit, is developed to improve the walking endurance of lower limbs, delay muscle fatigue and reduce the activation level of hip flexors. Based on the kinematics and biomechanics of the hip joints, the ergonomic design [...] Read more.
A soft exoskeleton for the hip flexion, named H-Suit, is developed to improve the walking endurance of lower limbs, delay muscle fatigue and reduce the activation level of hip flexors. Based on the kinematics and biomechanics of the hip joints, the ergonomic design of the H-Suit system is clearly presented and the prototype was developed. The profile of the auxiliary forces is planned in the auxiliary range where the forces start at the minimum hip angle, reach the maximum (120 N) and end at 90% of each gait cycle. The desired displacements of the traction unit which consist of the natural and elastic displacements of the steel cables are obtained by the experimental method. An assistance strategy is proposed to track the profile of the auxiliary forces by dynamically adjusting the compensation displacement Lc and the hold time Δt. The influences of the variables Lc and Δt on the natural gaits and auxiliary forces have been revealed and analyzed. The real profile of the auxiliary forces can be obtained and is consistent with the theoretical one by the proposed assistance strategy. The H-Suit without the drive unit has little effect on the EMG signal of the lower limbs. In the powered condition, the H-Suit can delay the muscle fatigue of the lower limbs. The average rectified value (ARV) slope decreases and the median frequency (MNF) slope increases significantly. Wearing the H-Suit resulted in a significant reduction of the vastus lateralis effort, averaged over subjects and walking speeds, of 13.3 ± 2.1% (p = 2 × 10−5). Full article
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Article
Accurate and Automatic Extraction of Cell Self-Rotation Speed in an ODEP Field Using an Area Change Algorithm
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060818 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Cells are complex biological units that can sense physicochemical stimuli from their surroundings and respond positively to them through characterization of the cell behavior. Thus, understanding the motions of cells is important for investigating their intrinsic properties and reflecting their various states. Computer-vision-based [...] Read more.
Cells are complex biological units that can sense physicochemical stimuli from their surroundings and respond positively to them through characterization of the cell behavior. Thus, understanding the motions of cells is important for investigating their intrinsic properties and reflecting their various states. Computer-vision-based methods for elucidating cell behavior offer a novel approach to accurately extract cell motions. Here, we propose an algorithm based on area change to automatically extract the self-rotation of cells in an optically induced dielectrophoresis field. To obtain a clear and complete outline of the cell structure, dark corner removal and contrast stretching techniques are used in the pre-processing stage. The self-rotation speed is calculated by determining the frequency of the cell area changes in all of the captured images. The algorithm is suitable for calculating in-plane and out-of-plane rotations, while addressing the problem of identical images at different rotation angles when dealing with rotations of spherical and flat cells. In addition, the algorithm can be used to determine the motion trajectory of cells. The experimental results show that the algorithm can efficiently and accurately calculate cell rotation speeds of up to ~155 rpm. Potential applications of the proposed algorithm include cell morphology extraction, cell classification, and characterization of the cell mechanical properties. The algorithm can be very helpful for those who are interested in using computer vision and artificial-intelligence-based ideology in single-cell studies, drug treatment, and other bio-related fields. Full article
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