Special Issue "Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Gabriel Centeno Báez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain
Interests: sheet metal forming; tube forming; incremental sheet forming; manufacturing of medical devices
Assoc. Prof. Maria Beatriz Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: formability; sheet metal forming; tube forming; incremental sheet forming
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, the manufacturing industry is focused on the production of lighter weight components with better mechanical properties and always fulfilling all the environmental requirements. These challenges have caused a need for developing manufacturing processes in general, including obviously those devoted in particular to the development of thin-walled metallic shapes, as is the case with tubular and sheet metal parts and devices.

This Special Issue is thus devoted to research work in the field of sheet metal forming, tube forming, and their applications, including both experimental and numerical approaches and using a variety of scientific and technological tools, such as forming limit diagrams (FLDs), analysis on formability and failure, strain analysis based on circle grids or digital image correlation (DIC), and finite element analysis (FEA), among others.

In this context, we are pleased to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue dealing with recent studies in the field of tube and sheet metal forming processes and their main applications within different high-tech industries, such as the aerospace, the automotive or the medical sectors, among others.

Assoc. Prof. Gabriel Centeno Báez
Assoc. Prof. Maria Beatriz Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sheet metal forming
  • Tube forming
  • Incremental sheet forming
  • Formability
  • Failure
  • Strain analysis
  • Experimentation
  • Finite element analysis

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Tube Expansion by Single Point Incremental Forming: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091481 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
In this paper, we revisit the formability of tube expansion by single point incremental forming to account for the material strain hardening and the non-proportional loading paths that were not taken into consideration in a previously published analytical model of the process built [...] Read more.
In this paper, we revisit the formability of tube expansion by single point incremental forming to account for the material strain hardening and the non-proportional loading paths that were not taken into consideration in a previously published analytical model of the process built upon a rigid perfectly plastic material. The objective is to provide a new insight on the reason why the critical strains at failure of tube expansion by single point incremental forming are far superior to those of conventional tube expansion by rigid tapered conical punches. For this purpose, we replaced the stress triaxiality ratio that is responsible for the accumulation of damage and cracking by tension in monotonic, proportional loading paths, by integral forms of the stress triaxiality ratio that are more adequate for the non-proportional paths resulting from the loading and unloading cycles of incremental tube expansion. Experimental and numerical simulation results plotted in the effective strain vs. stress triaxiality space confirm the validity of the new damage accumulation approach for handling the non-proportional loading paths that oscillate cyclically from shearing to biaxial stretching, as the single point hemispherical tool approaches, contacts and moves away from a specific location of the incrementally expanded tube surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
A New and Direct R-Value Measurement Method of Sheet Metal Based on Multi-Camera DIC System
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091401 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
More and more attention has been given in the field of mechanical engineering to a material’s R-value, a parameter that characterizes the ability of sheet metal to resist thickness strain. Conventional methods used to determine R-value are based on experiments and an assumption [...] Read more.
More and more attention has been given in the field of mechanical engineering to a material’s R-value, a parameter that characterizes the ability of sheet metal to resist thickness strain. Conventional methods used to determine R-value are based on experiments and an assumption of constant volume. Because the thickness strain cannot be directly measured, the R-value is currently determined using experimentally measured strains in the width, and loading directions in combination with the constant volume assumption, to determine the thickness strain indirectly. This paper provides an alternative method for determining the R-value without any assumptions. This method is based on the use of a multi-camera DIC system to measure strains in three directions simultaneously. Two sets of stereo-vision DIC measurement systems, each comprised of two GigE cameras, are placed on the front and back sides of the sample. Use of the double-sided calibration strategy unifies the world coordinate system of the front and back DIC measurement systems to one coordinate system, allowing for the measurement of thickness strain and direct calculation of R-value. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is used to eliminate noise in the thickness strain data, resulting in a more accurate R-value measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
A Novel Machine-Learning-Based Procedure to Determine the Surface Finish Quality of Titanium Alloy Parts Obtained by Heat Assisted Single Point Incremental Forming
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081287 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a cheap and flexible sheet metal forming process for rapid manufacturing of complex geometries. Additionally, it is important for engineers to measure the surface finish of work pieces to assess their quality and performance. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a cheap and flexible sheet metal forming process for rapid manufacturing of complex geometries. Additionally, it is important for engineers to measure the surface finish of work pieces to assess their quality and performance. In this paper, a predictive model based on machine learning and computer vision was developed to estimate arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra) and maximum peak to valley height (Rz) of Ti6Al4V parts obtained by SPIF. An image database was prepared to train different classification algorithms in accordance with a supervised learning approach. A speeded up robust feature (SURF) detector was used to obtain visual vocabulary so that the classifiers are able to group the photographs into classes. The experimental results indicated that the proposed predictive method shows great potential to determine the surface quality, as classifiers based on a support vector machine with a polynomial kernel are suitable for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
The Performance of 3D Printed Polymer Tools in Sheet Metal Forming
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081256 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Additively manufactured polymer tools are evaluated for use in metal forming as prototype tools and in the attempt to make sheet metal more attractive to small production volumes. Printing materials, strategies and accuracies are presented before the tools and tested in V-bending and [...] Read more.
Additively manufactured polymer tools are evaluated for use in metal forming as prototype tools and in the attempt to make sheet metal more attractive to small production volumes. Printing materials, strategies and accuracies are presented before the tools and tested in V-bending and groove pressing of 1 mm aluminum sheets. The V-bending shows that the tools change surface topography during forming until a steady state is reached at around five strokes. The geometrical accuracy obtained in V-bending is evaluated by the spring-back angle and the resulting bend radius, while bending to 90° with three different punch nose radii. The spring-back shows additional effects from the elastic deflection of the tools, and the influence from the punch nose radius is found to be influenced by the printing strategy due to the ratio between tool radius and the printed solid shell thickness enclosing the otherwise less dense bulk part of the tool. Groove pressing shows the combined effect of groove heights and angular changes due to spring-back. In all cases, the repeatability is discussed to show the potential of tool corrections for obtaining formed parts closer to nominal values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
Numerical Study about the Influence of Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure on Shear Damage Mechanism in Sheet Metals
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081193 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
It is generally accepted that the superimposed hydrostatic pressure increases fracture strain in sheet metal and mode of fracture changes with applying pressure. Void growth is delayed or completely eliminated under pressure and the shear damage mechanism becomes the dominant mode of fracture. [...] Read more.
It is generally accepted that the superimposed hydrostatic pressure increases fracture strain in sheet metal and mode of fracture changes with applying pressure. Void growth is delayed or completely eliminated under pressure and the shear damage mechanism becomes the dominant mode of fracture. In this study, the effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the ductility of sheet metal under tension is investigated using the finite element (FE) method employing the modified Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model. The shear damage mechanism is considered as an increment in the total void volume fraction and the model is implemented using the VUMAT subroutine in the ABAQUS/Explicit. It is shown that ductility and fracture strain increase significantly by imposing hydrostatic pressure as it suppresses the damage mechanisms of microvoid growth and shear damage. When hydrostatic pressure is applied, it is observed that although the shear damage mechanism is delayed, the shear damage mechanism is dominant over the growth of microvoids. These numerical findings are consistent with those experimental results published in the previous studies about the effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on fracture strain. The numerical results clearly show that the dominant mode of failure changes from microvoid growth to shear damage under pressure. Numerical studies in the literature explain the effect of pressure on fracture strain using the conventional GTN model available in the ABAQUS material behavior library when the mode of fracture does not change. However, in this study, the shear modified GTN model is used to understand the effect of pressure on the shear damage mechanism as one of the individual void volume fraction increments and change in mode of fracture is explained numerically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
Reduction of Warping in Kinematic L-Profile Bending Using Local Heating
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071146 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Kinematic bending of profiles allows to manufacture parts with high flexibility concerning the geometry. Still, the production of profiles with asymmetric cross-sections regarding the force application axis using kinematic bending processes offers challenges regarding springback and warping. These geometric deviations can be reduced [...] Read more.
Kinematic bending of profiles allows to manufacture parts with high flexibility concerning the geometry. Still, the production of profiles with asymmetric cross-sections regarding the force application axis using kinematic bending processes offers challenges regarding springback and warping. These geometric deviations can be reduced by partial, cross-sectional heating during the process as it lowers the flow stress locally. In this work, the influence of partial, cross-sectional heating during a three-roll push-bending process on the warping and springback of L-profiles is investigated. Numerical and experimental methods reveal the influence of temperature on warping and springback. A newly developed analytical model predicts the warping and bending moment in the design phase and assists to understand the effect of warping reduction through partial heating during plastic bending. With increasing temperature of the heated profile area, the warping is reduced up to 76% and the springback of the bend profiles is decreased up to 44%. The warping reduction is attributed to a shift in stress free fiber due to the temperature gradient between heated and room temperature areas. The shift of stress-free fiber leads to an adapted shear center position, resulting in an approximated “quasi-symmetric” bending case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
Towards Manufacturing of Ultrafine-Laminated Structures in Metallic Tubes by Accumulative Extrusion Bonding
Metals 2021, 11(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030389 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
A severe plastic deformation process, termed accumulative extrusion bonding (AEB), is conceived to steady-state bond metals in the form of multilayered tubes. It is shown that AEB can facilitate bonding of metals in their solid-state, like the process of accumulative roll bonding (ARB). [...] Read more.
A severe plastic deformation process, termed accumulative extrusion bonding (AEB), is conceived to steady-state bond metals in the form of multilayered tubes. It is shown that AEB can facilitate bonding of metals in their solid-state, like the process of accumulative roll bonding (ARB). The AEB steps involve iterative extrusion, cutting, expanding, restacking, and annealing. As the process is iterated, the laminated structure layer thicknesses decrease within the tube wall, while the tube wall thickness and outer diameter remain constant. Multilayered bimetallic tubes with approximately 2 mm wall thickness and 25.25 mm outer diameter of copper-aluminum are produced at 52% radial strain per extrusion pass to contain eight layers. Furthermore, tubes of copper-copper are produced at 52% and 68% strain to contain two layers. The amount of bonding at the metal-to-metal interfaces and grain structure are measured using optical microscopy. After detailed examination, only the copper-copper bimetal deformed to 68% strain is found bonded. The yield strength of the copper-copper tube extruded at 68% improves from 83 MPa to 481 MPa; a 480% increase. Surface preparation, as described by the thin film theory, and the amount of deformation imposed per extrusion pass are identified and discussed as key contributors to enact successful metal-to-metal bonding at the interface. Unlike in ARB, bonding in AEB does not occur at ~50% strain revealing the significant role of more complex geometry of tubes relative to sheets in solid-state bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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Article
Deformation Behavior Causing Excessive Thinning of Outer Diameter of Micro Metal Tubes in Hollow Sinking
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101315 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
The deformation behavior of microtubes during hollow sinking was investigated to clarify the mechanism of the excessive thinning of their outer diameters. Stainless-steel, copper, and aluminum alloy tubes were drawn without an inner tool to evaluate the effect of Lankford values on outer [...] Read more.
The deformation behavior of microtubes during hollow sinking was investigated to clarify the mechanism of the excessive thinning of their outer diameters. Stainless-steel, copper, and aluminum alloy tubes were drawn without an inner tool to evaluate the effect of Lankford values on outer diameter reduction. Drawing stress and stress-strain curves were obtained to evaluate the yielding behavior during hollow sinking. The observed yielding behavior indicated that the final outer diameter of the drawn tube was always smaller than the die diameter due to the uniaxial tensile deformation starting from the die approach end even though the drawing stress was in the elastic range. The results of a loading-unloading tensile test demonstrated that the strain remained even after unloading. Therefore, the outer diameter is considered to become smaller than the die diameter during hollow sinking due to microscopic yielding at any Lankford value. Furthermore, the outer diameter becomes smaller than the die diameter as the Lankford value increases, as theorized. As the drawing stress decreases or the apparent elastic modulus of the stress-strain curve increases, the outer diameter seems to approach the die diameter during unloading, which is caused by the elastic recovery outside the microscopic yielding region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tube and Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications)
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