Special Issue "New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Luis Norberto López De Lacalle
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering (High Performance Manufacturing Group), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Parque Tecnológico de Zamudio 202, 48170 Bilbao, Spain
Interests: manufacturing process; aeronautics; machine tools; Industry 4.0; machining
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ainhoa Celaya
Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Aeronautics CFAA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country; EIB, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao, Spain
Interests: machining of superalloys; machining modeling; vibration assisted processes, coatings; machining; manufacturing of aeroengine components; forging, casting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced materials are crucial for the development of many industrial sectors such as aerospace, automotive, energy, etc. These materials show superior mechanical characteristics of strength, hardness, toughness, and durability in relation to conventional materials. However, these materials are also characterized by their complicated casting or forge and low machinability. In addition, the development of new advanced materials requires the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and rigid machine tools. New processes, new cooling systems, tools, and coatings must be investigated to enable the machining of these advanced materials. Machines that apply the processes can be also improved by introducing new components, control approaches, and monitoring and recording systems.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight recent advancements related to new processes and machine tools for machining advanced alloys. Machines, processes, assisted processes, and new tools are now in a rapid evolution.

Prof. Dr. Luis Norberto López de Lacalle
Prof. Dr. Ainhoa Celaya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Machining of advanced alloys
  • Primary process: forging, casting, and others
  • Assisted manufacturing processes
  • New emerging alloys
  • Surface integrity
  • Modeling of machining processes
  • Cutting tools for advanced alloys
  • New improvements in machine tools
  • New advances in auxiliary systems for manufacturing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys
Metals 2020, 10(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020225 - 06 Feb 2020
Abstract
Advanced materials are crucial for the development of many industrial sectors such as aerospace, automotive, energy, among others [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Laser Tracker-Based Volumetric Error Mapping Strategies for Large Machine Tools
Metals 2019, 9(7), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070757 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The measurement and compensation of volumetric error in milling machines of medium and large size is a key aspect to meeting the precision requirements of the most demanding applications. There are several solutions for volumetric error measurement—usually based on laser or in calibrated [...] Read more.
The measurement and compensation of volumetric error in milling machines of medium and large size is a key aspect to meeting the precision requirements of the most demanding applications. There are several solutions for volumetric error measurement—usually based on laser or in calibrated artifacts—that offer different specifications and lead to a variety of levels of precision, complexity of implementation and automation, cost of equipment, and measurement time, amongst others. Therefore, it is essential to have tools that allow, in each case, analysis as to which is the optimal calibration strategy, providing the criteria for evaluating different measurement equipment and strategies. To respond to this need, several tools have been developed which are able to simulate the entire calibration and compensation process (machine, measurement, model adjustment, etc.) and apply optimization methods to find the best measurement strategy for each application. For a given machine architecture and expected error ranges, the compensation error for each strategy is obtained by propagating measurement uncertainties and expected machine errors through the measurement and compensation model fitting process by Monte Carlo simulations. The use of this tool will be demonstrated through the analysis of the influence of the main design parameters of a measurement strategy for the calibration of a 3-axis machine tool, based on the measurement of tool position with a laser tracker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy and Surface Quality Improvements in the Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Parts Using Hot Single Point Incremental Forming
Metals 2019, 9(6), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9060697 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The present work focuses on the manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V parts using hot single point incremental forming (SPIF), a non-conventional forming technology mainly oriented toward the fabrication of prototypes, spare parts, or very low volume series. In the used procedure, the entire sheet is [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on the manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V parts using hot single point incremental forming (SPIF), a non-conventional forming technology mainly oriented toward the fabrication of prototypes, spare parts, or very low volume series. In the used procedure, the entire sheet is heated and kept at uniform temperature while the tool incrementally forms the part, with the limited accuracy of the obtained parts being the major drawback of the process. Thus, this work proposes two approaches to improve the geometric accuracy of Ti-6Al-4V SPIF parts: (i) correct the tool path by applying an intelligent process model (IPM) that counteracts deviations associated with the springback, and (ii) skip overforming deviations associated with the deflection of the sheet along the perimeter of the part based on a design improvement. For this purpose, a generic asymmetric design that incorporates features of a typical aerospace Ti-6Al-4V part is used. The results point out the potential of both solutions to significantly improve the accuracy of the parts. The application of the IPM model leads to an accuracy improvement up to 49%, whereas a 25.4% improvement can be attributed to the addendum introduction. The geometric accuracy study includes the two finishing operations needed to obtain the part, namely decontamination and trimming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Wear and MnS Layer Adhesion in Uncoated Cutting Tools When Dry and Wet Turning Free-Cutting Steels
Metals 2019, 9(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050556 - 12 May 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Free-cutting steels are developed to produce large quantities of parts with low mechanical behavior, mainly for automotive sector. These alloys contain phosphorous, lead, sulfur, and manganese that help to improve the machinability and surface roughness. However, due to the toxicity of lead, steel [...] Read more.
Free-cutting steels are developed to produce large quantities of parts with low mechanical behavior, mainly for automotive sector. These alloys contain phosphorous, lead, sulfur, and manganese that help to improve the machinability and surface roughness. However, due to the toxicity of lead, steel mills in recent years have been focusing on non-toxic steels to produce minimum environmental pollution and better machinability. The present work investigates the tool wear during dry and wet turning of free-cutting steels (SAE 1212, SAE 12L14, and SAE 1215) by using uncoated hard metal inserts at three cutting speeds. Additionally, a EDS analysis was performed to determine the presence of Mn and S elements at the rake face of the cutting tool that can induce a higher adhesion of manganese sulfide (MnS). The results show that the SAE 12L14 steel has the best performance in terms of tool life at different cutting speeds. This difference is maximum at the lowest cutting speed, which gradually decreases with the increase of the cutting speed. The wear behavior is evaluated in the three steel alloys at each cutting speed and, consequently, the tool wear exhibits a slightly better performance in the dry machining condition for higher cutting speeds (180 and 240 m/min), independent of the steel alloy. Finally, EDS analysis confirms the presence of Mn and S elements at the rake face of the inserts machined in dry condition. Hence, MnS is expected to interpose between the machined surface and cutting tool surface to behave similar to tribofilm by reducing the wear on the cutting edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Induction Skull Melting of Ti-6Al-4V: Process Control and Efficiency Optimization
Metals 2019, 9(5), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050539 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
Titanium investment casting is one of the leading and most efficient near-net-shape manufacturing processes, since complex shape components are possible to obtain with a very low amount of material waste. But melting these reactive alloys implies the usage of specific melting technologies such [...] Read more.
Titanium investment casting is one of the leading and most efficient near-net-shape manufacturing processes, since complex shape components are possible to obtain with a very low amount of material waste. But melting these reactive alloys implies the usage of specific melting technologies such as the Induction Skull Melting (ISM) method. In this work the ISM was extensively studied with the aim of deepening the characteristics of this specific melting method and improving the too low energy efficiency and overall process performance. A 16 segment copper crucible and 3 turns coil was employed for the melting of 1 kg of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Through the calorimetric balance, real-time evolution of the process parameters and power losses arising from the crucible and coil sub-assemblies was displayed. Results revealed the impact of coil working conditions in the overall ISM thermal efficiency and titanium melt properties, revealing the use of these conditions as an effective optimization strategy. This unstudied melting control method allowed more heat into charge and 13% efficiency enhancement; leading to a shorter melting process, less energy consumption and increased melt superheat, which reached 49 °C. The experimental data published in this paper represent a valuable empiric reference for the development and validation of current and future induction heating models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnishing of FSW Aluminum Al–Cu–Li Components
Metals 2019, 9(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020260 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Ball-burnishing is presented herein as a mechanical surface treatment for improving mechanical properties after the friction stir welding process. Ball-burnishing provides good surface finish, high compressive residual stresses, and a hardness increase of the surface layer. These characteristics are key for the fatigue [...] Read more.
Ball-burnishing is presented herein as a mechanical surface treatment for improving mechanical properties after the friction stir welding process. Ball-burnishing provides good surface finish, high compressive residual stresses, and a hardness increase of the surface layer. These characteristics are key for the fatigue life improvement of the component, and for wear resistance due to the higher hardness. This work presents a complete analysis of surface and sub-surface hardness values focusing on the determination of each process parameter influence. Burnishing pressure, radial width, and burnishing direction influence were analyzed. The tested material was 2050 aluminum alloy with two different heat treatments (T3 and T8). The optimum parameters were established, and a complete analysis of the surface hardness was performed. Results show that burnishing is an economical and feasible mechanical treatment for the quality improvement of component surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
A Quick Cycle Time Sensitivity Analysis of Boron Steel Hot Stamping
Metals 2019, 9(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020235 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Several vehicle platforms involving the hot stamping of manufactured parts are launched every year. Mass production represents a key step in the manufacturing process of an actual hot stamping part. In this step, the cycle time (consisting of cooling time (t1 [...] Read more.
Several vehicle platforms involving the hot stamping of manufactured parts are launched every year. Mass production represents a key step in the manufacturing process of an actual hot stamping part. In this step, the cycle time (consisting of cooling time (t1) and handling time (t2) components) must be optimized. During t1, the stamping tool (punch and die) is closed, for cooling of the part. The t2 components (i.e., inlet transfer time, press forming time (closing and opening), and outlet transfer time) define the production output that ensures process performance. However, cost is the main driver in automotive applications. Here, a cycle-time calculation based on the design of experiments (DOE) is proposed for formulating cost-effective formulas. An iterative one-dimensional heat transfer model for each DOE step is set up to simulate 10 hot stamping cycles; the part temperature after quenching in cycle number 10 (where steady conditions are achieved) was selected as the process output variable to be controlled in the DOE. Several DOE variables were considered. The DOE results were employed for the proposal of a simplified formula, which helps in assessing the cycle time with its excellent trade-off between calculation cost and reliability. The formula was validated by laboratory tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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